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Topic: Atomic orbital

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In the News (Wed 19 Jun 19)

  Atomic Orbitals
Electron orbitals are the probability distribution of an electron in a atom or molecule.
Lots of atomic orbitals, arrange by quantum number and shape.
The electron orbitals presented here represent a volume of space within which an electron would have a certain probability of being based on particular energy states and atoms.
www.orbitals.com /orb/index.html   (422 words)

  Atomic orbital - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Specificaly, atomic orbitals are the quantum states of the individual electrons in the electron cloud around a single atom.
In this case the atomic orbitals are the eigenstates of the hydrogen Hamiltonian.
The shapes of atomic orbitals in one-electron atom are related to 3-dimensional spherical harmonics.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Atomic_orbital   (2058 words)

 SparkNotes: Organic Atomic Structure: Atoms and Atomic Orbitals
Atomic orbitals are classified according to a set of four quantum numbers which describe the energy, shape, and orientation of the orbital.
In a given atom, all the atomic orbitals with the same n are collectively known as a shell.
Orbitals with identical energies are said to be degenerate (not in the moral sense!).
www.sparknotes.com /chemistry/organic1/atomicstructure/section1.html   (1032 words)

 Molecular Orbital Theory
The goal of molecular orbital theory is to describe molecules in a similar way to how we describe atoms, that is, in terms of orbitals, orbital diagrams, and electron configurations.
Where the atomic orbitals overlap, the in-phase interaction leads to an increase in the intensity of the negative charge in the region where they overlap.
Because electrons in the molecular orbital are lower potential energy than in separate atomic orbitals, energy would be required to shift the electrons back into the 1s orbitals of separate atoms.
www.mpcfaculty.net /mark_bishop/molecular_orbital_theory.htm   (1632 words)

 Molecular Orbital Diagrams   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The interactions of the atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals is represented by an energy diagram called a molecular orbital diagram.
The dotted lines are used to connect molecular orbitals with the atomic orbitals that "mixed" to form the molecular orbital.
Whenever two atomic orbitals mix, the result is two molecular orbitals of which one has bonding character and the other has anti-bonding character.
www.chm.davidson.edu /ChemistryApplets/MolecularOrbitals/MO.html   (507 words)

 Atomic orbital model - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the atomic orbital model, the atom consists of a nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons.
These electrons exist in atomic orbitals, which are a set of quantum states of the negatively charged electrons trapped in the electrical field generated by the positively charged nucleus.
However, the atomic orbital model can only be described by quantum mechanics, in which case the electrons are more accurately described as standing waves surrounding the nucleus.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Atomic_orbital_model   (1960 words)

 Visualization of Atomic Orbitals: Hybrid Orbitals   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Good orbital overlap requires that the atomic orbitals on each atom (those orbitals overlapping to form the bond) be oriented directly toward the other atom.
Basic atomic orbitals not employed in constructing the hybrid orbitals are unaffected by the hybridization process.
The axial orbitals, which are oriented along the z axis, are different from the equitorial orbitals, which lie in the xy plane.
www.chm.davidson.edu /ChemistryApplets/AtomicOrbitals/hybrid.html   (751 words)

 Atomic & Molecular Orbitals
The boundries of an atomic orbital are commonly drawn to the region of 90% probability; there is a 90% probability that at any given time, the electron will be within the specified boundry.
Atomic orbitals with s-character have spherical symmetry and a representation of the surface of the carbon 1s orbital is shown below.
As the two 1s atomic orbitals approach each other and begin to overlap, there is a decrease in the net energy of the system because the electrons in each atom tend to become attracted to the positive nucleus of the other atom, as well as its own nucleus.
www.chem.uic.edu /web1/ocol/SB/1-2.htm   (501 words)

 Introduction to the Atomic Explorer
The Atomic Explorer (AE) is designed to display the atomic orbitals and densities of elements 1 through 54 (hydrogen through xenon).
With the Atomic Explorer the user can explore trends in the Periodic Table and become familiar with the shapes of the atomic orbitals in preparation for understanding molecular bonding.
The Atomic Explorer also serves as a supporting tool for understanding the diatomic and polyatomic molecules that can be studied with the Diatomic and Polyatomic Explorers, and as a direct link to the activities of the soon-to-be-available Spectrum Explorer.
www.bu.edu /smec/qsad/applets/quantum/atomicexplorer.html   (2027 words)

 Chemistry 101A, Atomic and Molecular Oribtals Page
The orbitals are not all shown on the same scale (except for the 1s and 2s orbitals, which are on the same scale).
In this orbital most of the electron "density" is in the two outer lobes of the orbital, but there is some electron density in the two small inner lobes.
The 2p-sigma orbital is a bonding orbital which can be approximated by two 2p orbitals with their electron density lobes pointing toward each other.
www.chem.arizona.edu /~salzmanr/orbitals.html   (1640 words)

 Many-Electron Atoms - The Atomic Orbital Concept
More important, the concept of atomic orbitals, the one-electron wave functions for the hydrogen atom, may be employed in the many-electron case.
Increasing Z contracts the orbital, but the symmetry of the problem is left unchanged, i.e., the attraction of the electron by the nucleus is still determined only by the distance between them and does not depend on the direction.
The atomic orbital approximation may be tested by applying it to the helium atom.
www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca /esam/Chapter_4/section_1.html   (2764 words)

 AS unit foundation atomic structure page
N.B.: As the atomic number increases the number of protons in the nucleus increase, which increases the attraction of the electrons to the nucleus; however, this increase in positive charge is overridden by the increased distance of the negative electrons from the nucleus.
At beryllium (atomic number 4) the 2s orbital is full and therefore the energy needed to remove an electron is higher than that for lithium (atomic number 3).
As the 2p orbitals are gradually filled the ionisation energy increases because of the increased stability.
www.rjclarkson.demon.co.uk /found/found2.htm   (832 words)

 Ch109_Lec_AO Supplement   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Atomic structure is characterized/determined by the Atomic number, Z, which tells us how many electrons and protons the free atom has.
The orbital and atomic images included are rigorously calculated using the Schrödinger equation (they are all based on hydrogen, so only two particles are involved, the proton and one electron - we assume other atoms are similar).
Orbitals in the rest of the Periodic Table are also related to the hydrogenic orbitals.
www.humboldt.edu /~chem_dpt/resources/C109_AOSup.htm   (885 words)

 Organic Chemistry at Penn State: Quantum Primer III   (Site not responding. Last check: )
All atoms in the molecule provide their atomic orbitals for construction of MO, but not all atomic orbitals must participate in all MO. The number of MO is equal to the number of atomic orbitals used to generate them.
We have to use each atomic orbital completely, we have to generate normalized molecular orbitals (MOs), and the number of MOs must be equal to the number of atomic orbitals that we have started with.
The usual energy order of MO is as follows: σ-type orbitals (the lowest energy), π-type orbitals, n-type orbitals (nonbonding, such as lone pairs), π*-type orbitals and σ*-type orbitals (the highest in energy).
courses.chem.psu.edu /chem38/quantum/quantum3.html   (1337 words)

 Atomic Orbitals
Atomic orbitals are (energy) states or wave forms of electrons in the atom.
The representation of atomic orbitals and their visualization has fascinated young and old scientists for ages.
When the orbital is plotted the radial density is plotted versus r in the right lower corner of the screen.
www.science.uwaterloo.ca /~cchieh/cact/c120/orbital.html   (1037 words)

 Orbital Shapes   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The two colors represent the signs of the various lobes of the orbital wavefunctions - red is positive and blue negative.
Orbital regions of like-sign on two or more atoms interact (or overlap) with constructive intereference, and produce bonding interactions, whereas regions of opposite sign interact with destructive interference and produce antibonding interactions.
orbital, the lobe in the +z direction is positive (red) and in the -z direction is negative (blue).
www.wellesley.edu /Chemistry/chem341/orbitalshapes.html   (226 words)

 Atomic orbital   (Site not responding. Last check: )
An atomic orbital is the description of the behavior of an electron in an atom according to quantum mechanics.
(It is customary in Atomic physics that θ represents the polar angle (colatitude) and φ the azimuthal angle, contrary to the convention in some other disciplines.) This modification is computationally valuable.
Any discussion of the shapes of electron orbitals is necessarily imprecise, because a given electron, regardless of which orbital it occupies, can at any moment be found at any distance from the nucleus and in any direction.
atomic-orbital.iqnaut.net   (1692 words)

 Wikinfo | Atomic orbital   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The term "atomic orbital" is used in at least two senses in quantum chemistry.
In the quantum-chemical treatment of atoms, the one-electron wavefunctions arising from the solution of the Schrödinger equation are referred to as atomic orbitals.
These functions are referred to as atomic orbitals even though they may not actually be solutions of the Schrödinger equation for those atoms taken in isolution.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Atomic_orbital   (248 words)

 Atomic Orbital Theory
The sp hybrid orbitals are oriented in a linear fashion with the hybrid orbitals 180 degrees separated.
For the sp hybrid orbitals the percentage of s character is 50% (1/2 of the orbitals used in the hybridization process are s).
orbitals that form a single bond between two carbons have the lowest percentage of s character you would expect their orbitals to be the most extended.
members.aol.com /profchm/vb.html   (2003 words)

 electronic structure and atomic orbitals
The "1" represents the fact that the orbital is in the energy level closest to the nucleus.
This is similar to a 1s orbital except that the region where there is the greatest chance of finding the electron is further from the nucleus - this is an orbital at the second energy level.
This is because the p orbitals all have the same energy and the electrons prefer to be on their own if that's the case.
www.chemguide.co.uk /basicorg/bonding/orbitals.html   (1469 words)

 Chemistry - Atomic orbital   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Atomic orbitals cannot be determined analytically except for the case of an atom with a single electron (i.e.
Thus, the orbitals of the hydrogen atom are used to describe the electron distribution of all other atoms (those with many electrons).
In atoms with a single electron (essentially hydrogen), the energy of an orbital (and, consequently, of any electrons in the orbital) is determined exclusively by n.
www.chemistrydaily.com /chemistry/Atomic_orbital   (1337 words)

 Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry
We have already labelled these orbital as p orbitals and so given that we have three values for ml for this (set of) orbital(s), there must be three p orbitals each orientated differently in space.
Okay, now we have defined orbitals in terms of their distance form the nucleus, their shape and their orientation in space and we have seen that for allowable values of n, we can have s, p and d (and f and g) orbitals.
Protons and neutrons reside in the atomic nucleus whereas electrons are outside the nucleus.
www.newi.ac.uk /buckleyc/atomic.htm   (4219 words)

 atomic orbitals
This page explains what atomic orbitals are in a way that makes them understandable for introductory courses such as UK A level and its equivalents.
orbitals); on the third floor there are 9 rooms (one 3s orbital, three 3p orbitals and five 3d orbitals); and so on.
Notice that the s orbital always has a slightly lower energy than the p orbitals at the same energy level, so the s orbital always fills with electrons before the corresponding p orbitals.
www.chemguide.co.uk /atoms/properties/atomorbs.html   (1761 words)

 The Orbitron: a gallery of atomic orbitals and molecular orbitals
The Orbitron: a gallery of atomic orbitals and molecular orbitals
You are at: University of Sheffield » Chemistry »; Mark Winter » Orbitron (atomic orbitals and molecular orbitals)
an atom has many orbitals, each of which has a fixed size and shape and can hold up to two electrons.
www.winter.group.shef.ac.uk /orbitron   (152 words)

 Approximate order of atomic orbital energy levels
determine the order in which atomic orbitals are filled as the atomic number is increased.
This provides enough orbitals to fill the ground states of all the atoms in the extended periodic table.
For orbitals designated as comparable in energy, e.g., 4s ~ 3d, the actual order depends which other orbitals are occupied.
www.apsidium.com /theory/levels.htm   (319 words)

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