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Topic: Audit trail

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In the News (Wed 17 Jul 19)

 [No title]
Audit trails may be used as either a support for regular system operations or a kind of insurance policy or as both of these.
An analysis of the audit trails may be able to verify that the system operated normally (i.e., that an error may have resulted from operator error, as opposed to a system-originated error).
Audit trails may be reviewed periodically, as needed (often triggered by occurrence of a security event), automatically in real-time, or in some combination of these.
csrc.nist.gov /publications/nistbul/itl97-03.txt   (3007 words)

 Audit Trail
The audit trail concept is a very important one in trying to trace the history of a dataset and can be especially useful when one is faced with an unknown dataset.
Such a family tree is passed down from dataset to dataset, generation to generation, by extracting it from component datasets, joining it together somehow, and putting the result into a new dataset.
Therefore, the df audit trail is made up of nodes, one per ancestor dataset, which are composed of four long integers: a site ID, a task ID, a date stamp, and a pointer to another audit node.
hyperion.gsfc.nasa.gov /Data_services/doc/df/node29.html   (402 words)

 Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) or Voter Verified Paper Ballot (VVPB) is a method of guarding against fraud and malfunction in cases of electronic voting, by providing a means by which a manual vote count can be conducted if an audit of the electronic system is necessary.
Voter Verified Audit Trail (VVAT) is a more general term, that doesn't prescribe paper as the medium in which the audit record is kept.
Groups such as the Verified Voting Foundation support VVPAT in the short term as paper seems to be the only medium that addresses all these issues, but they see requiring paper in the long term as not being technology neutral and not adequately allowing for innovation in VVAT technology.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/VVAT   (387 words)

 Auditing Database Use
After auditing is enabled for some time, the security administrator may want to delete records from the database audit trail both to free audit trail space and to facilitate audit trail management.
Audit records generated as a result of object audit options set for the SYS.AUD$ table can only be deleted from the audit trail by someone connected with administrator privileges, which itself has protection against unauthorized use.
Auditing features enabled using the standard Oracle features are easier to declare and maintain and less prone to errors than are auditing functions defined through triggers.
www.csee.umbc.edu /help/oracle8/server.815/a67772/audit.htm   (4704 words)

 Define audit trail - a Whatis.com definition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In accounting, an audit trail is the sequence of paperwork that validates or invalidates accounting entries.
Audit trails are used to record customer activity in e-commerce.
A company might also use an audit trail to provide a basis for account reconciliation, to provide a historical report to plan and support budgets, and to provide a record of sales in case of a tax audit.
whatis.techtarget.com /definition/0,289893,sid9_gci541384,00.html   (317 words)

 Configuring Software for Compliance with 21 CFR Part 11 Audit Trail Requirements - Pharm Tech Europe
It is possible to audit all records, although this incurs high storage and processing overheads, and useful information may be difficult to retrieve from redundant data.
Audit strategies There are two fundamentally differing strategies to achieving a compliant audit trail, version control and audit trail control.
With audit trail control, historical records may be reconstructed by 'rolling back' the audit changes and restoring the 'before change' values up to the point of interest.
www.ptemag.com /pharmtecheurope/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=75139   (748 words)

 Audit Trail
The complete audit trail consists of a sequence of audit records that potentially extends from the first audit event recorded on an offline audit file to the last audit event recorded on the current audit file.
Audit history records are always recorded if auditing is enabled; you cannot use preselection (advance specification of the events, users, and files to be audited) to avoid recording audit history records.
The description of a particular server having a container audit trail assumes that the container exists in an NDS partition that is replicated on that server.
www.novell.com /documentation/nw42/auditenu/data/ht4sg50g.html   (873 words)

 SAS Data Files : Audit Trail
The audit trail maintains a historical record of the data that enables you to trace a piece of data from the moment it enters the data file to the time it leaves.
The audit trail is also the only place in the SAS System that stores observations from failed appends and observations that were rejected by integrity constraints.
The audit trail is not recommended for SAS data files that are copied, moved, sorted in place, replaced, or transferred to another operating system because those operations do not preserve the audit trail.
www.jmu.edu /docs/sasdoc/sashtml/lrcon/z1224397.htm   (2043 words)

 audit trail   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In computer and network contexts, an audit trail tracks the sequence of activities on a system, such as user logins and logouts.
More expansive audit trail mechanisms would record each user's activity in detail: what commands were issued to the system, what records and files were accessed or modified, etc.
Audit trails are a fundamental part of computer security, used to trace (albeit usually retrospectively) unauthorized users and uses.
www.miami.edu /ethics/privacy/glossary/xd_audit_trail.htm   (131 words)

 The Digital Audit Trail   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The electronic or digital audit trail is somewhat of a broad concept.
In the software industry, an electronic audit trail is a feature of a system that records transactions into a log file.
Audit risk, specifically detection risk, may be increased in auditing electronic data.
accountant.intuit.com /practice_resources/accounting/articles/ss_digitalaudittrail.aspx   (506 words)

 [No title]
In today's security-conscious environments, a reliable audit trail is a valuable forensic tool and often a legal requirement for certain industries.
Assuming that auditing will be performed by a particular application, the security event source would be installed by the administrator at the application's install time, and removed when the application is removed from the system.
I started by noticing that whenever an audit event is generated, the parameters for that event have a fixed structure—their types and relative order remain constant for each event ID. This reflects the basic structure of the core message and its insertion strings, suggesting the design approach that is illustrated in Figure 4.
msdn.microsoft.com /msdnmag/issues/05/10/Auditing/default.aspx   (3511 words)

 CERIAS - Audit Trail Reduction Group
Unfortunately, if an audit trail is to be useful in tracing back an event after the fact, it must at all times record many system events at a fine level of detail.
The audit trails must be processed somehow to provide security administrators with only the information of interest rather than mountains of data.
COAST Audit Trails Format Group, specify a representation for audit data that can consistently express elements common to many platforms or audit sources and also represent elements specific to a certain platform.
www.cerias.purdue.edu /about/history/coast/projects/audit-trails-reduce.html   (798 words)

 Oracle Audit Manager   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Most relational databases are shipped with auditing turned off and are often left that way to avoid the performance hit associated with audit trail collection.
Good security dictates that auditing must be utilized, but better security promotes selective, granular auditing on certain data at certain times of day, thereby negating any performance-associated waivers.
Audit Manager harnesses the power of native Oracle auditing and gives security administrators enhanced user-defined auditing tools for a finely-tuned auditing strategy with more detailed information in the audit reports.
www.synapse.ie /oracle_audit_manager.htm   (398 words)

 Audit Trail
The Audit Trail is a record of everything important that has happened within the company file.
Audit Trail actions include new, changed and deleted records, importing, exporting and use of common process commands such as Write Payroll.
Use the audit trail if you suspect dishonesty, if you want to find the person responsible for an error, or if you just want to see who has entered or changed what when.
www.turtlesoft.com /Goldenseal-Software-Reference/audittrail.htm   (546 words)

 audit trail - Webopedia.com
A record showing who has accessed a computer system and what operations he or she has performed during a given period of time.
Audit trails are useful both for maintaining security and for recovering lost transactions.
In addition, there are separate audit trail software products that enable network administrators to monitor use of network resources.
systems.webopedia.com /TERM/A/audit_trail.html   (84 words)

 Audit Trail
Audit Trail is a utility type application that automatically creates a audit trail of all changes in a database - without any changes to the current application code.
Thus, you can "slide" this application "under" your current application and immediately begin auditing all changes.
Select any or all tables and any column that you want to audit.
www.sisugrp.com /audit.htm   (74 words)

 4.11     AUDIT TRAIL   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Audit by ID screens allow you to access the audit trail for a specific ID. The Audit by Date screen allows you to access the audit trail for multiple IDs for a specified time period.
The Item Audit Trail by ID screen allows you to view item changes for a specified ID. You may choose to view all stat period changes or only those for the current stat period.
The Control Audit Trail by ID screen allows you to view changes made to control information for a specified ID. You may choose to view all stat period changes or only those for the current stat period.
www.census.gov /esmpd/www/steps/usermanual/chap4/um4-11.htm   (1825 words)

 Laserfiche - Products - Audit Trail   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Audit Trail delivers up-to-date details of user activity to demonstrate adherence to established security and retention procedures.
Audit Trail minimizes the cost of compliance and facilitates transparency requirements.
Three editions of Audit Trail are available to monitor the Laserfiche repository according to the needs of diverse organizations.
www.laserfiche.com /products/addons/audittrail.html   (502 words)

 Visual Audit Trail 1.1 Reviewed by WorldSSP.net
Visual Audit Trail allows you to automatically identify changes made to data in your databases.
Visual Audit Trail is also more flexible than other auditing solutions with "when and what" should get audited by using conditional expressions.
Audits can be placed on ANY table in your database.
www.worldssp.net /DetailView.asp?proid=7139   (649 words)

 Verified Voting Foundation : Resolution on Electronic Voting
It is therefore crucial that voting equipment provide a voter-verifiable audit trail, by which we mean a permanent record of each vote that can be checked for accuracy by the voter before the vote is submitted, and is difficult or impossible to alter after it has been checked.
Voting machines should not be purchased or used unless they provide a voter-verifiable audit trail; when such machines are already in use, they should be replaced or modified to provide a voter-verifiable audit trail.
Without a voter-verifiable audit trail, it is not practical to provide reasonable assurance of the integrity of these voting systems by any combination of design review, inspection, testing, logical analysis, or control of the system development process.
www.verifiedvotingfoundation.org /article.php?id=5028   (1409 words)

 Keeping an Audit Trail
There's a similar method in the business world (where there are wolves aplenty), and it comes in mighty handy when you're working on a demanding project, aspects of which are out of your control, and there's the possibility that someone will try to "eat you up" by blaming you when things go wrong.
If your email messages are crafted correctly, no one will have to know that you're actually creating an audit trail as you go, nor will they feel alarmed by what you're writing.
Generally, I use audit trails only when I face a persistent and serious problem or feel a continued association with my client is in jeopardy for a reason beyond my control.
www.1099.com /c/co/dw/ea/eadams005.html   (977 words)

 The Audit Trail System for Detecting Improper Activities on Modernized Systems Is Not Functioning
The Department of the Treasury procedures require that audit trails be sufficient in detail to facilitate the reconstruction of events if unauthorized activity or a malfunction occurs or is suspected.
The SAAS operating procedures (e.g., who will review audit trails, what information is needed, and for what purpose) are fully developed and finalized so that business units can conduct effective and efficient audit trail reviews of modernized applications.
Determined whether audit trails were being monitored to detect improper activities by employees, contractors, and registered/unregistered users.
www.ustreas.gov /tigta/auditreports/2004reports/200420135fr.html   (3527 words)

 Permeo e-Border's True Audit Trail Tracks User Accountability   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Most audit trails today track an IP address instead of an authenticated user's identity -- thereby diminishing the validity and usefulness of the audit trail in diagnosing network incidents.
Therefore, system administrators view an audit trail of IP addresses as vague, and marginally useful.
Our audit trail serves as a vital tool for preventing, detecting, and correcting vulnerable or compromised networks.
download.permeo.com /solutions/sol_audit.htm   (289 words)

 Explanation of Voter-Verified Ballot Systems
It is imperative that the compromise bill refer to a "physical audit capacity'' or even more specifically a "voter verified independent physical audit capacity'' (or audit trail) in order to prevent self-auditing systems from continuing to be accepted and used for elections in the United States.
The voter-verified physical ballots must be those which are used and preserved as the permanent audit trail for the election.
It is also, in principle, impossible for a computational device to provide full fail-safe internal verification, hence any ballot audit produced from self-stored data could reflect errors or manipulation that occurred between the time the voter cast their ballot and the time the ballot was recorded.
www.notablesoftware.com /Papers/VoterVerify.html   (811 words)

 Audit Trail   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Choose Block Model Audit Trail from the DISPLAY submenu to display the AUDIT TRAIL form.
This button allows the export of either the entire model audit or just functions that have been selected with the mouse.
There are a number of options on the export report form, the filename, the format type and the type of report you wish to create.
www.surpac.com /refman/default/blockmod/modelaudit.htm   (334 words)

 Wired News: Paper Trail Urged as E-Voting Fix
The voter-verifiable paper audit trail, or VVPAT, is a printout of the machine's electronic ballot that voters can examine after they make their selections on the machine.
But questions about the paper trails remain, in part because the question of how states implement them is as important as whether they implement them at all.
Therefore paper trails are meaningless if officials don't conduct post-election audits to compare at least 1 percent of paper votes against their electronic counterparts.
www.wired.com /news/politics/0,1283,68954,00.html?tw=wn_tophead_1   (715 words)

 Demand grows for paper audit trail
Increasing numbers of states are leaning toward requiring a voter-verified paper audit trail for their e-voting systems in time for the next presidential election, according to election experts and industry officials.
Nevada was the only state to use the controversial voter-verified paper audit trail in the 2004 presidential election.
Such standards should state the purpose of the paper audit trail and whether the electronic or paper record serves as the official ballot, he said.
www.washingtontechnology.com /news/19_17/cover-stories/24974-2.html   (503 words)

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