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Topic: Auditory

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In the News (Tue 21 May 19)

As with almost all sensory neurons (the exception is in the retina), its cell body lies outside the CNS in a ganglion.
Auditory nerve fibers going to the ventral cochlear nucleus synapse on their target cells with giant, hand-like terminals.
The auditory nucleus of thalamus is the medial geniculate nucleus.
thalamus.wustl.edu /course/audvest.html   (2465 words)

 Hilton: Differences in Visual and Auditory Short-Term Memory
The auditory condition seemed to be more mentally fatiguing for the participants as indicated by the amount of mistakes made in retention and the retrieval of the words.
The same procedure was used for the auditory condition; the auditory condition consisted of reading words from a list to the participants instead of the words being shown.
Figure 1: For each condition (Visual and Auditory), the percent of mean scores of correct responses from participants for the length of words is presented.
www.iusb.edu /~journal/2001/hilton.html   (1960 words)

 What is Auditory-Verbal Therapy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Auditory Verbal Therapy is a process of developing language which gives hearing impaired children the tools to develop speech and auditory skills.
The approach is parent-centred and the auditory-verbal therapist's main tasks are to assess the hearing and language capabilities of the child and to teach the parent/ caregiver to encourage the child's emerging skills in listening, speech and language..
It was found that the auditory students at age 16 were reading at a 13-14 year old level, while the total communication students were only reading at the level of 8-9 year old.
www.voicefordeafkids.com /whatisav.html   (1030 words)

 Central Auditory Processing Disorder
The auditory center of the brain isn't fully developed at age 7, 8, and 9 - the most common ages audiologists see for the central auditory processing test.
Auditory Attention Problems: This is when the child can't maintain focus for listening long enough to complete a task or requirement (such as listening to a lecture in school).
Auditory cohesion skills - drawing inferences from conversations, understanding riddles, or comprehending verbal math problems - require heightened auditory processing and language levels.
kidshealth.org /parent/medical/ears/central_auditory.html   (1290 words)

 Learning Disabilities OnLine: LD In-Depth: Central Auditory Processing Disorder: When is Evaluation Referral Indicated?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The prerequisites for auditory processing are as follows (ASHA, 1996): auditory attention, auditory memory, motivation, maturation and integrity of the auditory pathways, decision processes, and use of linguistic cues such as grammar, meaning in context, and lexical representations.
The purpose of the central auditory processing evaluation is to help define the specific auditory processing difficulties that a child may be experiencing and to recommend appropriate remediation.
Young children diagnosed as having auditory processing disorders should be seen by a speech and language pathologist in order to determine if subtle language deficits are impacting on their ability to process speech.
www.ldonline.org /ld_indepth/process_deficit/adhdreport_capd.html   (2716 words)

 (High Peaks Rehabilitation & Development Center, Inc. - Syracuse , NY) Central Auditory Processing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
A Central Auditory Processing Problem is the inability or decreased ability to attend to, discriminate, recognize, or understand information that is presented auditorally (by listening).
When a child's auditory skills are not good, it will be more challenging, and sometimes too difficult to learn without special assistance.
Because the brain is maturing rapidly in the first few years of life, auditory input needs to be consistent for the brain to develop pathways normally.
www.highpeak.org /centralauditoryprocessing   (448 words)

 Central Auditory Processing Disorders
The prevalence of CAPD in children is estimated to be between 2 and 3% (Chermak and Musiek, 1997), with it being twice as prevalent in males.
If the auditory deficits are not identified early and managed appropriately, many of these children will experience speech and language delays, academic failure and/or underachievement, loss of self-esteem, and social and emotional problems.
This is because the auditory pathways and centers in the brain develop as they are stimulated with sound.
www.tsbvi.edu /Outreach/seehear/spring00/centralauditory.htm   (3464 words)

 Robyn's Nest - The Parenting Network - Auditory Processing Disorder
Auditory processing is the term used to describe what happens when your brain recognizes and interprets the sounds around you.
Auditory trainers are electronic devices that allow a person to focus attention on a speaker and reduce the interference of background noise.
Auditory integration training is sometimes promoted by practitioners as a way to retrain the auditory system and decrease hearing distortion.
www.robynsnest.com /audproc.htm   (1079 words)

 LSUHSC School of Medicine - Otorhinolaryngology - About Deafness
Auditory neuropathy is a term presently used to describe a condition, found in some patients ranging in age from infants to adults, in which the patient displays auditory characteristics consistent with normal outer hair cell function and abnormal neural function at the level of the VIIIth (vestibulo-cochlear) nerve.
Since auditory neuropathy is characterized by normal outer hair cell function and abnormal function in the region of the inner hair cells and/or auditory nerve, the appropriate auditory tests are those sensitive to cochlear and auditory nerve function.
Auditory neuropathy patients demonstrate a lack of suppression of otoacoustic emissions under any circumstances (Berlin et al., 1996), which may reflect efferent pathway dysfunction and/or a compromise of access to the efferent system resulting in a lack of efferent suppression of OAEs.
www.medschool.lsuhsc.edu /Otorhinolaryngology/deafness_article1.asp   (3869 words)

 Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine: Auditory integration training
Auditory integration training, or AIT, is one specific type of music/auditory therapy based upon the work of French otolaryngologists Dr. Alfred Tomatis and Dr. Guy Berard.
The premise upon which most auditory integration programs are based is that distortion in how things are heard contributes to commonly seen behavioral or learning disorders in children.
Auditory integration is one facet of what audiologists call central auditory processing.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_g2603/is_0001/ai_2603000183   (1017 words)

 Auditory Demonstration CDs
Auditory researchers are less fortunate than their colleagues in visual perception (of static, 2-D scenes at least), since until fairly recently auditory stimuli have been cumbersome to distribute.
There is also a videotape of the ASA Auditory Demonstrations CD as represented in the running Licklider duplex representation (cochleogram, correlogram) of Richard Lyon and Malcolm Slaney.
Explore the world of auditory illusions on this unique CD by Professor Diana Deutsch, the "Escher of the world of music." Included on the CD are full instructions for listening to each illusion, and the CD is accompanied by a booklet explaining the science behind each illusion.
www.auditory.org /democds.html   (1495 words)

 Description of Auditory Integration Training   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Auditory integration training is said to address the hearing distortions, hyperacute hearing, and sensory processing anomalies which cause discomfort and confusion in persons suffering from learning disabilities, including autism (Stehli, 1995).
Rimland and Edelson (1995) concluded that the main hypothesis for this research was the premise that hypersensitivity to sound was directly related to aberrant behaviors, cognitive deficits and poor social interaction skills.
Results indicated most parents felt auditory integration training was beneficial to their child (Rimland and Edelson, 1994).
www.asatonline.org /about_autism/autism_info08.html   (791 words)

 OCTH 455 auditory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The cilia of auditory hair cells are stretched as scala media & basilar membrane shift position.
Different auditory hair cell recpetors are sensitive to different frequencies of sound (tone), with higher frequencies sensed by receptors near the oval window & lower frequencies senses by receptors nearer to the apex of the cochlea.
Because auditory information from the same ear ascends in pathways on both sides of the brain, unilateral loss of ascending information does not result in a total loss of hearing (although localization may be impaired).
www.kumc.edu /SAH/OTEd/OCTH455_PTRS850/LectureNotes/auditory.html   (546 words)

This is because individuals with a central auditory processing disorder have normal hearing but parts of the brain which analyze and interpret the sensory information from the ears, do not function appropriately.
Central auditory processing skills and speech perception are foundational skills for the emergence of phonemic awareness and in the broader sense phonological awareness.
This range is meaningless for the acquisition of high frequency sounds required for spoken English in the critical period of auditory development in children.
home.iprimus.com.au /rboon/CAPD.htm   (2711 words)

 Auditory Processing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Auditory Awareness/Attention - the ability to be aware that a sound source is present in the environment, localize to that sound and then attend to the sound source for a period of time is the foundation of auditory development.
Auditory Discrimination - begins with the ability to distinguish the difference between sounds in general, starting with the gross discrimination of environmental sounds and working up to the ability to detect phonemic differences in words.
If a child is raised in an environment where auditory stimulation (music, talking, environmental sounds) is minimal, there is a chance his/her auditory system could be delayed in processing auditory information as the child grows.
www.actg.org /programs/auditory/auditory_auditoryprocessing.htm   (1126 words)

 SchwabLearning.org - Auditory Processing Disorder in Children
The “disorder” part of auditory processing disorder means that something is adversely affecting the processing or interpretation of the information.
In children, auditory processing difficulty may be associated with conditions such as dyslexia, attention deficit disorder, autism, autism spectrum disorder, specific language impairment, pervasive developmental disorder, or developmental delay.
Auditory integration training may be promoted by practitioners as a way to retrain the auditory system and decrease hearing distortion.
www.schwablearning.org /articles.asp?r=373   (1323 words)

 The Neurophysiological Effects of Simulated Auditory Prosthesis Stimulation: National Institute of Neurological ...
To increase the effectiveness of multichannel auditory prostheses, it is important to study and more optimally control the spatio-temporal activation patterns of both target stimulated neurons and more central, synaptically activated auditory system neurons.
It will be coordinated with other research in the NPP including the development of speech processors for auditory prostheses, the feasibility of a central nervous system auditory prosthesis and an investigation into the protective effects of electrical stimulation of the auditory system.
Independently, and not as an agent of the Government, the Contractor shall perform neurophysiological studies on the effects of simulated auditory prosthesis stimulation in deaf animals for the purpose of improving present and future auditory prostheses.
www.ninds.nih.gov /funding/research/npp/sow/NeurophysEffectsSimAudPro98SOW.htm   (684 words)

 Coping With Central Auditory Processing Disorder
Auditory Figure-Ground Problems: This is when the child cannot pay attention when there is noise in the background.
Auditory Attention Problems: This is when the child cannot maintain focus for listening long enough to complete a task or requirement (listening to a lecture in school).
Auditory cohesion skills - drawing inferences from conversations, interpreting abstract information, understanding riddles or comprehending verbal math problems - require heightened auditory processing and language levels.
d93.k12.id.us /%7Esservice/Coping_With_CAPD.html   (1071 words)

 Center for Central Auditory Research
Typically, individuals with a central auditory disorder have normal hearing when taking a traditional pure tone and speech hearing test but are unable to interpret or process speech when in an environment which is less than quiet.
The study of central auditory processing in children is a complex task requiring basic knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the peripheral hearing mechanism, the CANS, developmental milestones, speech and language function, academic requirements, and emotional and behavioral growth.
Perhaps many of their perceived auditory signals are degraded enough so that they need more time to adequately process or integrate incomplete auditory information into a meaningful message.
www.engr.colostate.edu /ece/Research/cad   (2257 words)

 Learning Disabilities OnLine: LD In-Depth: Central Auditory Processing Disorders (CAPDs)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The auditory system must convey the speech sounds (they are not yet identified as words) without distortion up to the cortex of the brain.
The brain must be able to produce proper amounts of chemical neurotransmitters for the nerves to carry their messages (we see such failures in Parkinson's disease, and they are suspected in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and some forms of autism).
The brain seems to operate lawfully and reasonably predictably across disorders, so that hearing acts the same whether the reduced cell count was caused by a stroke or lack of oxygen (allowing for age and recency of the problem in the testing).
www.ldonline.org /ld_indepth/process_deficit/capd_paton.html   (2429 words)

 Auditory Verbal Therapy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
She is responsible for overseeing the provincial therapy program and has developed training and mentoring opportunities for therapists and teachers in the auditory verbal approach throughout Ontario.
For more than 15 years Anita worked with the Montreal Oral School and now, as both an Auditory -Verbal therapist for the Halton Hamilton Niagara Chapter of VOICE and as a lecturer at York University in the deaf and hard of hearing program, she brings a wealth of knowledge and experience.
A minimum of three (3) calendar years of professional experience within the past six (6) years in an auditory based practice without the use of formal visual communication systems such as cued speech, sign language, or formal instruction in speechreading.
www.voicefordeafkids.com /clouds/avTherapy.htm   (1241 words)

 Learning Disabilities OnLine: LD In-Depth: Living and Working with Central Auditory Processing Disorder
Children and adults whose auditory problems have not been recognized and dealt with are forced to invent their own solutions.
These include tests of auditory memory (for sentences, nonsense syllables, or numbers backward), sequencing, tonal pattern recognition or sound blending, and store of general information (which is most often acquired through listening).
You might ask: "How many adults with auditory processing disorders do you work with in a year?" or, "What kind of a report would you write to help me or my employer understand my problem?" Nowadays there are many ways professionals can help you streamline your coping abilities.
www.ldonline.org /ld_indepth/process_deficit/living_working.html   (1655 words)

 Open Directory - Health: Mental Health: Disorders: Child and Adolescent: Learning Disabilities: Central Auditory ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Auditory Processing - A Yahoo E-Group welcoming comments and questions about CAPD and its effect on academic and social aspects of life.
Auditory Processing Disorder in Children - NIDCD fact sheet covering the definition, cause, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and current research in CAPD.
National Coalition on Auditory Processing Disorders - The NCAPD is dedicated to assisting individuals affected by auditory processing disorders through education, public awareness, support, advocacy and by promoting auditory access of information.
dmoz.org /Health/Mental_Health/Disorders/Child_and_Adolescent/Learning_Disabilities/Central_Auditory_Processing_Disorders   (619 words)

 Center for the Study of Autism
Auditory integration training (AIT) was developed by Guy Berard in Annecy, France to help people with auditory processing problems.
The frequencies to which a person is hypersensitive are referred to as 'auditory peaks,' and these peaks take on the appearance of a mountain range in one's audiogram.
In addition, if the trainee has auditory peaks in his/her hearing (as evident from an audiogram), those frequencies are filtered out completely (blocked out) or partially (stressed at only a low level) from the music.
www.autism.org /ait2.html   (1020 words)

In the auditory closure process, if pieces of a word are deleted, the listener will fill in the missing sounds to decode the word.
These demonstrations were taken from the Auditory Perceptual Training Program for Improving Auditory Perceptual Processes of Children in the Elementry Grades, by Belle Ruth Witkin, Ph.D. It was published by the Alameda County School Department, 224 West Winton Ave., Hayward, CA 94544, 1973.
These are excerpts taken from from the Auditory Perceptual Training Program for Improving Auditory Perceptual Processes of Children in the Elementry Grades, by Belle Ruth Witkin, Ph.D. It was published by the Alameda County School Department, 224 West Winton Ave., Hayward, CA 94544, 1973.
www.csun.edu /~vcoao0el/de361/de361s103_folder/closure.html   (539 words)

 Auditory Physiolgy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The action potentials are transmitted along the cochlear branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve, activating auditory pathways in the central nervous system, eventually terminating in the auditory area of the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex.
Afferent nerves from the cochlear (spiral) ganglion terminate in the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem.
Axons from neurons in the cochlear nucleus project to the superior olive, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate nucleus (of the thalamus) and the auditory cortex (Brodman areas 41 and 42).
www.cf.ac.uk /biosi/staff/jacob/teaching/sensory/ear.html   (830 words)

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