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Topic: Auditory system

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  ScienceDaily: Auditory system
The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing.
Auditory system -- The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing.
A sensory system consists of sensory receptors, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in...
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/Auditory_system   (1400 words)

 Auditory System
Nerve impulses are transmitted from the ear to the brain via the auditory nerves, one of the several sensory nerves that exists in the group of nerves known as cranial nerves.
The auditory nerves connect the nerve impulses of the ears to the upper "temporal lobe" of the "cerebral cortex".
Auditory cognition analyzes such issues as attending to auditory events, remembering and recognizing sound sources and events, and perceptions of acoustic sequences.
www.hitl.washington.edu /scivw/EVE/III.A.2.Auditory.html   (1861 words)

The first-order neurons of the auditory system are cells of the spiral ganglion situated within the modiolus or central core of the cochlea.
The primary auditory cortex corresponding to Brodmann areas 41 and 42 lies on the transverse gyrus of Heschl on the dorsal surface of the superior temporal convolution.
The complaint may be an early symptom of a tumor in the internal auditory meatus or in the cerebellopontine angle, a glomus tumor, or a vascular abnormality in the temporal bone or skull.
ivertigo.net /rosenberg/audio1.html   (6770 words)

The auditory and vestibular systems are intimately connected.
The auditory nucleus of thalamus is the medial geniculate nucleus.
The purpose of the vestibular system is to keep tabs on the position and motion of your head in space.
thalamus.wustl.edu /course/audvest.html   (2465 words)

 Auditory system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing.
In the human brain, the primary auditory cortex is located in the temporal lobe.
The Primary Auditory Cortex is the most highly organized processing unit of sound in the brain.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Auditory_system   (778 words)

A chain of three small bones (middle ear) attached to the inner surface of the timpanic membrane transmits the vibrations to another membrane stretched across one of the openings of the inner ear, or cochlea.
The fibres of the auditory nerve arise from bipolar neurons which reside in clusters of cells known as the spiral ganglion.
The distribution of firing eighth nerve fibres is reported to be a duplicate of the sound spectrum, and the characteristic frequencies progress logarithmically from the basal end to the apical end of the membrane.
tomscarff.tripod.com /music/human_auditory_system.htm   (615 words)

 auditory system
The sensitive period for auditory localization in barn owls is limited by age, not by experience.
A developmental shift from GABAergic to glycinergic transmission in the central auditory system.
Auditory projections to the inferior colliculus of the rat are present by birth.
www.arclab.org /node_pages/935.html   (276 words)

 ScienceDaily: Help Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
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Pregnant Women With Lupus Face Higher Risk Of Complications And Death (November 15, 2006) -- Women with systemic lupus who become pregnant are at significantly greater risk for death or other medical complications than are pregnant women without lupus, Duke University Medical Center...
www.sciencedaily.com /articles/mind_brain/perception   (1165 words)

 Auditory Processing Disorders: An Overview. ERIC Digest.
When the ears detect sound, the auditory stimulus travels through the structures of the ears, or the peripheral auditory system, to the central auditory nervous system that extends from the brain stem to the temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex.
The auditory stimulus travels along the neural pathways where it is "processed," allowing the listener to determine the direction from which the sound comes, identify the type of sound, separate the sound from background noise, and interpret the sound.
It is based on the assumption that a child with an intact auditory system can tolerate mild distortions of speech and still understand it, while a child with APD will encounter difficulty when the auditory system is stressed by signal distortion and competing messages (Keith, 1995).
www.ericdigests.org /2003-5/auditory.htm   (1465 words)

 Syllabus Chapter 9
The dorsal (#4480) and ventral (#9752) cochlear nuclei represent the secondary sensory neurons of the auditory system.
Primary auditory cortex is organized in a tonotopic manner, as are the medial geniculate nuclei, inferior colliculus, dorsal cochlear nucleus, and the cochlea.
Primary auditory cortex is adjacent to the posterior third of the superior temporal gyrus, which in the dominant hemisphere is called Wernicke's area (#4213).
www-medlib.med.utah.edu /kw/hyperbrain/syllabus/syllabus9.html   (930 words)

 Central Auditory Processing Disorders   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The prevalence of CAPD in children is estimated to be between 2 and 3% (Chermak and Musiek, 1997), with it being twice as prevalent in males.
If problems are encountered in recognizing the sound system of language, then additional problems are likely to be encountered when the child is asked to begin to match "speech sounds" to their alphabetic representations (a skill that serves as the foundation for the development of subsequent reading and writing skills).
If the auditory deficits are not identified early and managed appropriately, many of these children will experience speech and language delays, academic failure and/or underachievement, loss of self-esteem, and social and emotional problems.
www.tsbvi.edu /Outreach/seehear/spring00/centralauditory.htm   (3464 words)

 Auditory Physiolgy
If large enough, the generator potential causes transmitter release from the hair cells which excites the afferent nerve.Displacement of the stereocilia in the direction of the tallest stereocilia (called the kinocilium in hair cells of the vestibular system and immature auditory system) is excitatory and in the opposite direction is inhibitory.
The action potentials are transmitted along the cochlear branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve, activating auditory pathways in the central nervous system, eventually terminating in the auditory area of the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex.
Axons from neurons in the cochlear nucleus project to the superior olive, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate nucleus (of the thalamus) and the auditory cortex (Brodman areas 41 and 42).
www.cf.ac.uk /biosi/staff/jacob/teaching/sensory/ear.html   (830 words)

This PA, Central Auditory System Plasticity in Adults, is related to the priority area of diabetes and chronic disabling conditions.
Research Goals and Scope Current research related to central auditory plasticity in adults is yielding exciting insights into the nature of this phenomenon, and promises to improve understanding of the auditory system.
Research on adult plasticity of the auditory system is, however, still in its infancy, and many areas need to be explored.
grants.nih.gov /grants/guide/pa-files/PA-96-009.html   (1319 words)

 Auditory System: Anatomic Tour   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The auditory nerve enters the brain stem at the ponto-medullary junction and synapses on the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus.
The auditory nerve is made up of approximately 30,000 nerve fibers with afferent (sensory) portions projecting from cell bodies in the spiral ganglion and efferent axons coming from cells in the olivary complex.
By looking at multiple auditory nerve fibers simultaneously it is possible to see volleys of spikes coming in with a characteristic delay between the volleys.
serous.med.buffalo.edu /hearing/auditory_nerve.html   (934 words)

 Protective Effects of Patterned Electrical Stimulation on the Deafened Auditory System: National Institute of ...
This is especially appealing in the young deaf child and in the deafened adult who receive essentially no benefit from hearing aids, yet have significant portions of their auditory system central to damaged hair cells intact.
Another possibility is that this research will lead to methods for protecting portions of the auditory system in people who still have functional hearing but are losing hair cells due to aging or other causes.
The objective of this research is to develop methods of protecting the remaining portions of the auditory system from degeneration after loss of hair cells.
www.ninds.nih.gov /funding/research/npp/sow/protectiveeffects96sow.htm   (894 words)

 A Brain Map of Auditory Space
Konishi, a zoologist and expert on the nervous system of birds, chose to study this process in owls.
The ability to identify where sounds are coming from based on auditory cues alone is common to all hearing creatures, but owls—especially barn owls—excel at the task.
"But in the auditory system, only the frequency of sound waves is mapped on the receptor layer, and the auditory nerve fibers project this map of frequency to the brain.
www.hhmi.org /senses/c210.html   (500 words)

 The Vestibular System and Auditory-Language Process   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
However, the vestibular system plays a significant role in the development of language, so that children with vestibular dysfunction may also have auditory-language processing problems.
The vestibular system influences motor control and motor planning that are necessary to use those fine muscles to produce intelligible speech.
Because the vestibular system is crucial for effective auditory processing, the child with vestibular dysfunction frequently develops problems with language.
www.parentsinc.org /newsletter/June97/VESTIBU.html   (644 words)

 Evolution of the auditory system ("pc1kb (Kevin L. Baker)" )   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Comparative studies into the auditory physiologies of different animals have been useful in thinking about our own auditory system, and indeed many animals auditory systems are interesting in their own right (dolphins', bats', blind moles', etc).
I was intrigued when I started to think about the evolution of the auditory system within different species.
Does the fact that many auditory systems are delicate in their physiology mean that there is no fossil record, and hence no phylogenic 'story' of auditory awareness?
www.auditory.org /postings/1993/21.html   (286 words)

 cog_shop_second_level_page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The sensors for Cog's auditory system are a pair of electret condenser microphones normally used in hearing aid applications with favorable characteristics (wide, flat frequency response).
The interface to Cog's computational system includes a custom-built stereo pre-amp which amplifies the low-level microphone and connects to the audio analog-to-digital (A/D) converters in the C40 DSP system.
The primary purpose of the auditory system is to perform real-world, robust perceptual sound tasks similar to that performed by human beings.
www.ai.mit.edu /projects/cog/AuditorySystem/auditory_system.html   (137 words)

 THE AUDITORY SYSTEM AND HEARING   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
At the absolute auditory threshold (the minimum sound intensity that can be perceived), there is a change in air pressure of only 0.00002 dynes per square cm - a vanishingly small deviation from the resting air pressure.
So like the visual system, the auditory system is extremely sensitive (although there are other species whose ears are even more sensitive than ours).
The auditory system exhibits response compression such that a large change in intensity produces a much smaller change in perceived loudness.
www.hss.bond.edu.au /psyc12-210/lectures/week8.htm   (3014 words)

 Plastic Changes in the Central Auditory System After Hearing Loss, Restoration of Function, and During Learning -- Syka ...
of the auditory system, as indicated by the occurrence of acoustic
is not responsible for the topographic reorganization of the auditory
B: incidence of surround inhibition in primary auditory cortex (AI) neurons of normal animals (open bars) and in neurons of test animals grouped according to whether the neuron's CF was at a frequency within the range with CAP threshold losses (test neurons, solid bars) or at a frequency outside this range (control neurons, hatched bars).
physrev.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/82/3/601   (11400 words)

Wave III is thought to be generated at the level of the superior olive, and waves IV and V are generated in the rostral pons or in the midbrain near the inferior colliculus.
The complex anatomy of the central auditory pathway (Benjamin and Troost, 1988), with multiple crossing of fibers from the level of the cochlear nuclei to the inferior colliculus, makes interpretation of central disturbances in the evoked responses difficult.
Therapy for auditory disorders is largely the province of the otolaryngologist and the audiologist.
ivertigo.net /rosenberg/audio2.html   (3485 words)

 An Experimental System for Auditory Image Representations
The system was designed to provide auditory image representations within some of the known limitations of the human hearing system, possibly as a step towards the development of a vision substitution device for the blind.
The system implementation involves a pipelined special purpose computer connected to a standard television camera.
Computerized sampling of the system output and subsequent calculation of the approximate inverse (sound-to-image) mapping provided the first convincing experimental evidence for the preservation of visual information in the sound representations of complicated images.
www.seeingwithsound.com /voicebme.html   (313 words)

 Central Auditory Processing Disorder and Auditory Neuropathy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Auditory neuropathy is a type of hearing impairment where the cochlea is working fine (or mostly fine), but the auditory nerve is not.
One of the theories behind hearing loss such as this is that the auditory nerve has not matured for some reason, such as prematurity, low birth weight, etc. Nature and time may effect a cure for this type of hearing loss.
The reason for this is because the damage to their neurological systems which caused the visual impairments may also have caused damage to the auditory system.
www.tsbvi.edu /Outreach/seehear/winter01/capd.htm   (2399 words)

 The Subcortical Auditory System: Psychophysics of Binaural Hearing
Models of the function of the subcortical auditory system take our knowledge of its physiology into account, but are usually oriented primarily towards the modeling of psychoacoustic findings.
The interface between the subcortical auditory model and the evaluation stages on top of it is provided by a running binaural-activity pattern.
Since we think of the subcortical auditory system as a specific front-end to the cortex that extracts and enhances certain attributes from the acoustic waves for further evaluation, signal-processing algorithms as observed in the subcortical auditory system may certainly be applied in technical systems to simulate performance features of binaural hearing.
hwr.nici.kun.nl /~miami/taxonomy/node113.html   (1599 words)

 Stanford researchers show how an auditory 'map' requires a visual guide:01/02
The auditory portion of their brain develops two alternative maps of space, a normal map and a learned map that takes into account the effect of the prisms on the world they see.
Without input from the visual system, the owls' brain forgets which of the two auditory maps, normal or learned, is correct.
The researchers' results also indicate that the signal sent from the visual system to the auditory system has a simple topographic form.
news-service.stanford.edu /news/2002/january30/auditorymap.html   (759 words)

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