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Topic: Australian Conscription

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In the News (Sun 17 Mar 19)

 The Australian Experience   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Nevertheless, on 9 July an Australian court-martial sentenced a soldier to death for falling asleep on sentry to demonstrate the gravity of the offence and ensure a heavy prison sentence was awarded in lieu of a punishment that was bound to be commuted.
Though the campaign split the nation, all Australians opposed the infliction of the death penalty on men who had volunteered to fight in a distant land in a cause not particularly their own.
The collective Australian opinion that the hardened deserter saw a long prison sentence as merely a safer alternative to the trenches was advanced by Field-Marshals Allenby and Plumer when they publicly opposed the abolition of the death penalty in the British Army after the war.
www.shotatdawn.org.uk /page38.html   (2690 words)

 South Australians at War : Conscription
By contrast with the First World War, an overall majority of Australians supported Curtin's proposals; South Australia was one of four states where a majority approved conscription for this broadened 'home defence', which was, of course, conscription for overseas service in the areas where Australian forces were needed.
Conscripts were not part of the Australian forces who served in Korea, Malaya and Borneo.
Many Australians were opposed to involvement in the Vietnam War and even more objected to the use of conscripts there.
www.slsa.sa.gov.au /saatwar/ConscriptMain.htm   (1452 words)

 Military Conscription: Issues for Australia
Universal conscription of, e.g., all 18 year old males is both prohibitively expensive (salary costs alone in that case are about $2.8 billion per annum) and delivers too many personnel-if two years service is required, then such a scheme would increase the Regular Army by almost 100 000 personnel.
The first number required is the number of individuals it is proposed to conscript, the second is the total annual remuneration of an Army private and the third is the rate of pay of an Army trainee.
As these are the core of the Army, and as conscription is usually confined to the Army, the inclusion of women does not appear to be a practical proposition unless, of course, the Direct Combat exclusion is removed.
www.aph.gov.au /library/pubs/cib/1999-2000/2000cib07.htm   (3380 words)

 Australian Draft Resistance and the Vietnam War - statements by Michael Matteson and Geoff Mullen on Conscription
Draft Resistance never posed a threat to the number of conscripts required, but the campaigns did have an increasingly political effect on the Government of the day, and was a factor in the election of the Whitlam Labor Party to power in December 1972, the first federal labor government in 23 years.
Conscription claims that a man's life is only a tool of the government to be used for the purpose of the government.
Conscription in practice must be seen not as a form of home-defence which it is not, but as a necessary part of Australia's participation in the systems of Imperialism that at present controls relations between all countries.
www.takver.com /history/matteson.htm   (5741 words)

 Australians at War
Australian, British Commonwealth and Polish troops were besieged in Tobruk by the Germans and Italians until relieved in December.
Australian aircrew served with the Royal Air Force in the bomber offensive against Germany and in the invasions of Europe.
Australian soldiers fought in a number of bitterly contested actions, including Kapyong and Maryang San, and mounted numerous patrols and raids during the static war which developed from late 1951 to July 1953 while armistice negotiations dragged on.
www.irishaustralia.com /Australian/Defence/ozatwar.htm   (3792 words)

 Australian Conscription   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Conscription was effectively introduced in mid-1942, when all men 18-35, and single men aged 35-45, were required to join the Citizens Military Forces (CMF).
Australian Government Cabinet documents released by Australian National Archives in 2001 show that in 1970 the conservative Government were initially concerned about the growth of conscientious objection and outright opposition to the National Service Act.
Conscription ended as one of the first acts of the newly elected Whitlam Labor Government in December 1972.
australian-conscription.iqnaut.net   (1022 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
In recent years WRI has established itself as a source of information on conscription for immigration lawyers and advice agencies, receiving a growing number of enquiries from as far away as Australia and Canada.
In 1964 the Australian government introduced conscription to provide the cannon fodder -- the “death lottery”: birth dates were balloted to determine who would be called up.
But conscription was an issue in the Australian political arena with Prime Minister William (Billy) Hughes sending Australian voters to two bitterly fought referendums.
www.lycoszone.com /info/conscription--south-australia.html   (432 words)

 Our conservative wartime leaders: the complex truth - theage.com.au
In both conscription referendums Australian soldiers, the bulk of whom were blue-collar workers, voted yes.
His diverting of the convoy of Australian troops towards Burma, when it was obvious the original destination of the Dutch East Indies was untenable, was a case in point.
Churchill is, of course, most reviled for his alleged betrayal of Australian interests in regard to the defence of Singapore.
www.theage.com.au /articles/2002/08/21/1029114133353.html   (1003 words)

 Remembrance Day
In Victoria Street a group of Australian 'boys' accompanied by a band and their girls decorated in red, white and blue, were swinging down towards Whitehall to the huge delight of all spectators...
Australian troops earned a reputation for their gallantry and courage under dreadful conditions, and they were often used by the British command as the first wave of an assault, leading to heavy casualties.
Even on the Western Front he had exercised his vote in the Australian elections and in the referendums as to conscription, and it was largely through his own act in these ballots that the Australian people had rejected conscription and that, to the end, the A.I.F. consisted entirely of volunteers.
www.acn.net.au /articles/remembrance   (1011 words)

 Conscription in Australia
Conscription in Australia cannot alter the result of the war.
Conscription in Australia will make it easy for other races to capture our industries, and the wives and daughters of the absent conscript will be forced to beg bread from an alien race.
When the vote for conscription took place I was in Codford and I voted yes, but dinkum I am like the rest now I have seen it, and wouldn’t compel anyone (barring the few rotters of single chaps that won't come.
www.diggerhistory.info /pages-conflicts-periods/other/conscription.htm   (1701 words)

 Discovering Democracy through Australia's Involvement in the Vietnam War - Essay in Full
The Australian public was afraid of communism and this view may have affected some people’s decision on whether to fight in the war.
Conscription was enforced in the Vietnam War as it was in the Second World War.
Even though most Australians were against communism, more and more people began to join the anti-war movement as it became increasingly obvious that the war was going to be very difficult, if not impossible, to win.
www.tgs.qld.edu.au /louise/louise2.htm   (1767 words)

 Conscription in Australia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The first plebiscite was held on the 28th October 1916 and narrowly rejected conscription with a margin of 49% for and 51% against.
After the failure of the two plebecites, Billy Hughes was expelled from the Australian Labor Party, and promptly crossed the floor with about half of the parliamentary party and became Prime Minister of a conservative Nationalist Government.
Conscription ended as one of the first acts of the newly elected Whitlam Labor Government in late December 1972.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Australian_Conscription   (1437 words)

 Conscription and conscience
Australian divisions fought in North Africa and Greece and Syria in 1940-41.
The Australian Government introduced selective conscription in November 1964: all men had to register at the age of 20 for two years service, then one in ten were chosen by a lottery system based on birth dates.
Conscription of women was discussed during 1942 and in January 1943 Manpower Regulations enabled the authorities to direct both men and women in Australia to necessary jobs, although the Government maintained this was not strictly conscription of women.
www4.gu.edu.au /ext/civics/cv02/mod03/cv02m03t01.htm   (6667 words)

 Vietnam Medals and Badges
The Australian Active Service Medal 1945 - 1975, with Clasps denoting areas of service, is awarded to members of the Australian Defence Force and certain Australian civilians for service in specified areas overseas.
The badge, finished in bronze, is in the form of a (vertically mounted Australian Army SLR) bayonet surrounded by (an oval shaped) laurel wreath.
The Australian Military Forces, Certificate of Discharge, form AAF-A 16, as issued through the late 1960's and early 1970's to Vietnam Era Army Personnel is very much a thing of the past.
www.diggerz.org /~hq1atf/medals.htm   (1611 words)

 Trial not conscription: Nelson | The Nation | The Australian
From 2008, the Australian Defence Force will offer 1000 year-long places in the army, navy or air force to Year 12 school-leavers.
The scheme is designed to boost recruitment levels and includes incentives for recruits to extend their trial year into full military training.
But he ruled out reintroducing conscription because of a shortage of training resources and because it would be "extremely divisive in Australia".
theaustralian.news.com.au /story/0,20867,20587623-2702,00.html   (328 words)

 MILESAGO - Features - Vietnam - Save Our Sons   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The focus of their campiagn was conscription of men under 18 who were not eligible to vote.
The Australian anti-war movement, impressed by the success of an American moratorium on 15 October, held a national conference in Canberra on 25 November to organise a similar event.
They spent 14 days in Fairlea Women's Prison and their successful campaign against a law prohibiting the distribution of leaflets in the streets of Melbourne was a victory for all progressive activists.
www.milesago.com /Features/saveoursons.htm   (1015 words)

 The Homefront
The Australian Imperial Force (AIF) was made up of volunteers who could be called upon to fight anywhere in the world.
Critics asked why US conscripts should be sent far from home to defend Australia, while Australian conscripts could not fight beyond the territory of Australian New Guinea.
In February 1943 the area in which CMF conscripts were permitted to serve was extended to cover Japanese-held islands south of the equator.
john.curtin.edu.au /manofpeace/homefront.html   (756 words)

 Optical Munitions Exhibition - Australian History Timeline
Australian servicemen and women saw action in North Africa and the Middle East.
Australian defence forces were engaged in action around the Mediterranean (primarily in North Africa, Greece, Syria and Crete).
Howard Walter Florey became the first Australian to win the Nobel Prize (for his work on penicillin).
www.asap.unimelb.edu.au /bsparcs/exhib/omp/bgrnd/timeline.htm   (685 words)

 The University of Adelaide Library | Australian History: a general guide to resources,  including South Australia
This is the catalogue of the Mitchell Library and is a valuable source of Australian references to not only books, but also articles, pamphlets and periodicals.
The State Library has acquired the Manning Index of South Australian History website which.indexes many thousands of stories which appeared in a wide range of South Australian newspapers and magazines in the years 1837 to 1937.
It is usually best to establish the date of the event you are researching (perhaps by using a chronology) and then browse papers near that time.
www.adelaide.edu.au /library/guide/hum/history/Aust-general.html   (2585 words)

 PWHCE - A History of Labor Splits (Talk by Robert Murray)
In as far as it can be measured, working class voters were about two to one against conscription, middle class voters the other way around and the bush split fairly evenly.
Ward was later the arch opponent of conscription for war service during the war years - even when the Japanese were at the door.
The australian bishops endorsed it nationally in 1945 and it absorbed other catholic anti-communist groups in Sydney, Newcastle and elsewhere.
www.pwhce.org /textmurr.html   (4421 words)

 Guide to Records Relating to the Peace Movement in Australia - Australian National University Archives Program
Although none of the peace movement organisations have deposited their records with the Archives, records deposited by trade unions, as well as the personal papers of activists, academics and others, include a significant amount of documentary material relating to the peace movement.
For example, most of the Australian Peace Congresses held from the 1940s to the 1960s are documented in the records of the trade unions which sent delegates to the Congresses.
Member of the Australian Journalists Association, committee member of the Victorian Branch of the Australia-China Society from 1953 and Secretary from 1956-1959.
www.archives.anu.edu.au /nbac/html/sg_peacemovements.html   (2100 words)

 Gary Shearston - Australian Broadside Notes 3
So it is quite likely that a lot of nineteen-year-old Australians will be winking at ladies passing by, and thinking of marrying and raising a family rather earlier than they would have done otherwise.
He does not want to be assimilated into white Australian society; he just wants white Australians to stop pushing him around, and leave him and his people to live their own lives in their own way.
He does not wish to be known to a white audience as a poet; he just makes up songs to amuse his fl friends in the hill-billy style which today is common musical idiom of bush workers, white or fl.
www.garyshearston.com /html/broadside_notes3.html   (751 words)

 Just a 'Nasho'.
To counter the perceived threat to Australia from a phantom 'Yellow Peril', National Service (military conscription) was introduced by the Menzies' Liberal/Country Party Government in November 1964.
A close examination of the pre-selection backgrounds of all those conscripts who were killed (see the Australian, October 1992) would indeed confirm that there was an in-built bias against the economically disadvantaged.
Between 1965-1972, of the 804,286 twenty year old Australian males who did register their names, 63,790 were called-up and of these 17,424 served in Vietnam.......all in the army.
www.5rar.asn.au /poems/nasho.htm   (640 words)

 Government Wants 2,600 extra troops - is conscription on the horizon? : Melbourne Indymedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
It is important not to be swayed by the Federal government's assurances that it is not considering the introduction of conscription to overcome the obvious military recruitment problems it is now facing.
Considering the important role conscription has played in the development of the Australian psyche, it is ironic that such little attention is paid to it in this country's history and public celebrations.
Without their sacrifices, another 60,000 young Australians would have been sent to Vietnam, another 500 would have died and many more lives would have been ruined than have already been ruined.
melbourne.indymedia.org /news/2006/08/120339.php   (875 words)

 Vietnam Conscript by Merv J Ryan, conscription (Main Page)
Ryan's novel is a biography of THE Australian Vietnam veteran...
Their plight was worsened when they returned to a community which mainly wanted to bury the war as though it had never happened.
The final scene of fictional character Bob Russell is based on actual events in Queensland and the partner joined counselling sessions in Brisbane with the author and told their story.
www.users.bigpond.com /MervNancy/Main.htm   (414 words)

 HREOC Website: National Human Rights Dialogue
However, during WW2 and the Vietnam War conscription is imposed by way of statutory provisions.
The ICCPR is a reference point for its functions but is not made part of Australian law.
Attorney-General Lionel Bowen introduces an Australian Human Rights Bill but it meets with such hostility that it is withdrawn.
www.hreoc.gov.au /human_rights/human_rights_dialogue/timeline.html   (957 words)

 Nelson rules out conscription. 03/08/2006. ABC News Online
No conscription: Dr Nelson says he does not want recruits who do not want to be in the ADF.
Dr Nelson has responded to a report in which the former chief of the Australian Defence Force, Admiral Chris Barrie, suggests conscription be considered to address its recruitment problems.
Dr Nelson says he does not want people in the Defence Force who do not want to be there or, in some cases, should not be there.
www.abc.net.au /news/newsitems/200608/s1705328.htm   (229 words)

 The Tottenham Tragedy - Roland Kennedy and Frank Franz - two Australian I.W.W. workers executed 1916
Roland Kennedy and Frank Franz, two Australian I.W.W. members were executed at Bathurst Gaol in 1916 for the murder of a Tottenham police officer.
Frank Franz was executed as a consequence of the anti I.W.W. hysteria that accompanied the first Australian conscription referendum in December 1916.
Frank Franz was also a victim of the anti German hysteria that was part of the Australian government’s war policy in 1916.
www.takver.com /history/iww_tottenham.htm   (1565 words)

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