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Topic: Australian constitutional crisis of 1975


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In the News (Mon 22 Apr 19)

  
  Constitutional crisis Summary
A constitutional crisis is distinct from a rebellion, which is defined as when factions outside of a government challenge that government's sovereignty, as in a coup or revolution led by the military or civilian protesters.
The Australian constitutional crisis of 1975 that saw Prime Minister Gough Whitlam dismissed by the nation's normally apolitical Governor General, in response to a prolonged budget deadlock in parliament.
The 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis was a series of events that began with the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) general election in 1987 and ended with the suspension and the eventual removal of Lord President of the Supreme Court of Malaysia Tun Salleh Abas from his seat.
www.bookrags.com /Constitutional_crisis   (0 words)

  
  Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Australian Constitutional Crisis of 1975
The crisis began when the upper house of the Australian Federal Parliament, the Senate, in which the opposition coalition had a majority, blocked a bill that appropriated funds for the payment of government expenditure, with the goal of forcing the Government to call a lower-house election.
While in most constitutional democracies, the power to block supply is reserved for the popularly elected lower house only, Australia's British-drafted constitution, which dates from 1901 and so pre-dates Britain's Parliament Act, 1911, which enshrined this principle of the supremacy of the lower house in the British constitiution, allows both houses to withdraw supply.
In the United Kingdom Constitution the issue of the power of the Upper House to block supply was encountered, and the power removed from the House of Lords, in the course of the constitutional crisis of 1909 - 1911 (see Parliament Act).
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/au/Australian_Constitutional_Crisis_of_1975   (1390 words)

  
  Australian constitutional crisis of 1975 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
On the morning of November 11, 1975, Whitlam was summoned by the Governor-General to Government House at Yarralumla.
Some have seen expressed in the 1975 crisis a fundamental contradiction deriving from the Australian Constitution's melding of the principles of the Westminster system, with a dominant lower house that determines the government, and United States-style federalism, with a "state's chamber" (the Senate) with powers very nearly equal to those of the House of Representatives.
Although the crisis was described as Australia's most dramatic political event since Federation in 1901, it caused no disruption in the services of government; it saw the parties remaining committed to the political and constitutional process by contesting the subsequent election and accepting the result.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Australian_constitutional_crisis_of_1975   (2908 words)

  
 Constitutional history of Australia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the 1890s, two constitutional conventions were called, which ultimately adopted a constitution based on a combination of British, American and other models (monarchy and parliamentary government from Britain, federalism from the United States, the use of the referendum from Switzerland).
In summary, the constitutional position of the Commonwealth as a whole in relation to the United Kingdom was, originally, the same as that of the individual colonies before Federation.
A fundamental change in the constitutional structures of the British Commonwealth (formerly the British Empire, and not to be confused with the Commonwealth of Australia) did occur, however, in the late 1920s.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Australian_Constitutional_History   (1646 words)

  
 Constitutional crisis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A constitutional crisis is distinct from a rebellion, which is defined as when factions outside of a government challenge that government's sovereignty, as in a coup or revolution led by the military or civilian protesters.
The Australian constitutional crisis of 1975 that saw Prime Minister Gough Whitlam dismissed by the nation's normally apolitical Governor General, in response to a prolonged budget deadlock in parliament.
The 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis was a series of events that began with the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) general election in 1987 and ended with the suspension and the eventual removal of Lord President of the Supreme Court of Malaysia Tun Salleh Abas from his seat.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Constitutional_crisis   (1273 words)

  
 Australian constitutional crisis of 1975 - Definition, explanation
The crisis began when the upper house of the Australian Federal Parliament, the Senate, in which the opposition Liberal-National Country Party coalition had a majority, deferred voting on bills that appropriated funds for government expenditure, conditional on the Prime Minister dissolving the House of Representatives and calling an election.
Australian Senators are directly elected, albeit on a rotational basis and in a manner that it is proportionally skewed in favour of states with smaller populations.
On November 11, 1975, stating that there was no prospect of the crisis being resolved otherwise, Kerr dismissed Prime Minister Whitlam and appointed Malcolm Fraser as the caretaker Prime Minister, on the basis that Fraser had promised to pass supply, then immediately advise the Governor-General to dissolve parliament and call a general election.
www.calsky.com /lexikon/en/txt/a/au/australian_constitutional_crisis_of_1975_1.php   (2070 words)

  
 Australian constitutional crisis of 1975 information - Search.com
On November 11, 1975, stating that there was no prospect of the crisis being resolved otherwise, Kerr dismissed Prime Minister Whitlam and appointed Malcolm Fraser as the caretaker Prime Minister, on the basis that Fraser had promised to pass supply, then immediately advised the Governor-General to dissolve parliament and call a general election.
Some have seen expressed in the 1975 crisis a fundamental contradiction deriving from the Australian Constitution's melding of the principles of the Westminster system, with a dominant lower house that determines the government, and United States-style federalism, with a "state's chamber" (the Senate) with powers very nearly equal to those of the House of Representatives.
The crisis did precipitate one constitutional change, passed by referendum in 1977, to require that State Governments fill Senate vacancies with a member of the Party of the original holder of the seat.
www.search.com /reference/Australian_constitutional_crisis_of_1975   (2841 words)

  
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 Australian constitutional crisis of 1975 Summary
The Australian constitutional crisis of 1975 is generally regarded as the most significant domestic political and constitutional crisis in Australia 's history.
John Kerr's action as Governor General to dismiss Gough Whitlam and the Labor Party from Australian government on the 11th of November 1975 is a heavily disputed issue.
Outlines why the Australian Governor-General John Kerr was not justified in his dismissal of the Whitlam Government in 1975.
www.bookrags.com /Australian_constitutional_crisis_of_1975   (187 words)

  
 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: )
A constitutional crisis may occur because one or more parties to the dispute wilfully chooses to violate a provision of a constitution or an unwritten constitutional convention, or it may occur when the disputants disagree over the interpretation of such a provision or convention.
The 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis was a series of events that began with the United Malays National Organization (UMNO) general election in 1987 and ended with the suspension and the eventual removal of Lord President of the Supreme Court of Malaysia Tun Salleh Abas from his seat.
The New Zealand constitutional crisis of 1984 was caused by Prime Minister Sir Robert Muldoon's refusal to devalue the dollar as per the instructions of the Prime Minister-elect, David Lange.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=constitutional_crisis   (1269 words)

  
 Prime Minister of Australia - Wikipedia
In times of constitutional crisis, however, this convention can be broken if neccessary; this has occured once, during the constitutional crisis of the 1970s, when Malcolm Fraser was appointed to replace Gough Whitlam.
The constitutional crisis of 1975 shows that a Prime Minister may be removed from their position if they are seriously opposed in the Senate, even though they may have the support of the majority of the House.
However, since the framers of the Australian constitution from the beginning intended it to largely follow the Westminster system, the office of Prime Minister has existed since the earliest days of the Commonwealth.
nostalgia.wikipedia.org /wiki/Australian_Prime_Ministers   (945 words)

  
 Australasia Continents Facts | 4 Corners Club
The Dutch adjectival form Australische ("Australian," in the sense of "southern") was used by Dutch officials in Batavia to refer to the newly discovered land to the south as early as 1638.
Australian English is a major variety of the language; its grammar and spelling are largely based on those of British English, overlaid with a rich vernacular of unique lexical items and phrases, some of which have found their way into standard English.
Australian rules football is one of the most popular national sports, albeit it, one that is only played in Australia; players gain some international prominence through International Rules which is an annual meeting between the Australian code and Irish Gaelic Football.
www.4cornersclub.com /adventure_trips/australasia/continent_facts   (0 words)

  
 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Also, the Constitution provided that the British monarch be represented in Australia by a Governor-General, who was originally appointed on the advice of the British, not the Australian, government, and was generally a British aristocrat.
Finally, the Constitution provided that any law of the Australian Parliament could be disallowed within a year by the British monarch (acting on the advice of British ministers), though this power was never in fact exercised.
The elections of the Australian Labor Party in 1972 and 1974 under its leader Gough Whitlam forced several constitutional issues to be tested.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Australian_Constitutional_History   (1655 words)

  
 Head of state - WebArticles.com   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Some constitutions or fundamental laws provide for a head of state who is not just in theory but in practice chief executive, operating separately from, and independent from, the legislature.
A prime minister in a presidential system lacks the constitutional and political dominance of a prime minister in a parliamentary system and is often seen as simply a politically junior figure who may run the mechanics of government while allowing the President to set the broad national agenda.
Weimar Germany, for example, in its constitution provided for a popularly elected president with theoretically dominant emergency powers that were only intended to be exercised in emergencies and a cabinet appointed by him from the Reichstag which was expected in normal circumstances to be answerable to the Reichstag.
www.webarticles.com /print.php?id=453   (4000 words)

  
 Australian Republican Movement - News 10-03-01 'ER's irrelevant verdict may help' David Marr SMH
Knowing she sides with Australian constitutional authorities greatly simplifies the crucial step we still have to take before we can become a republic: finding a consensus on the powers of an Australian head of state.
Australians want that president to have the same powers and duties the governor-general has always had - but since 1975 there has been deep confusion over what they are.
Now the Queen's verdict is known it will be easier for Australians to reach a constitutionally sensible, politically effective consensus on the powers of their head of state: first the governor-general and then the president.
www.republic.org.au /ARM-2001/news&events/newsclips/clip10Mar2001.htm   (423 words)

  
 Convention   (Site not responding. Last check: )
A constitutional convention is a special meeting to amend or draft a constitution.
An example of conventions being broken is the Australian Constitutional Crisis of 1975.
The National Convention or Convention, in France, comprised the constitutional and legislative assembly which sat from September 20, 1792 to October 26, 1795.
bopedia.com /en/wikipedia/c/co/convention.html   (400 words)

  
 Australia Information - Australia - Travel Tips and Reviews - itsislandtime.com
The Dutch adjectival form Australische ("Australian," in the sense of "southern") was used by Dutch officials in Batavia to refer to the newly discovered land to the south as early as 1638.
The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional monarchy: Queen Elizabeth II is the Queen of Australia, a role distinct and separate from her position as Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.
The 7,686,850 kmĀ² Australian landmass is on the Indo-Australian Plate and is surrounded by the Indian, Southern and Pacific oceans, and separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas, with total of 25,760 km of coastline.
www.itsislandtime.com /publish/article_00223.shtml   (3895 words)

  
 John Howard's Statement on the Republic Referendum [October 25, 1999]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The only constitutional duty performed by the Queen relates to the appointment of the Governor-General which must be done on the recommendation of the Prime Minister of the day.
In other words, the matter was to be resolved by Australians under the terms of the Australian Constitution which, incidentally, had been assented to by Australians before its adoption in 1901.
The 1988 report of the Hawke Government’s Constitutional Commission, of which Mr Whitlam was a member, found that "Australia had achieved full independence as a sovereign state of the world" sometime between 1926 and the end of World War II and was so recognised by the world community.
www.australianpolitics.com /issues/republic/howard-statement.shtml   (3004 words)

  
 David Flint   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Australian republicanism is a movement within Australia to replace the countrys existing status as a Commonwealth realm under a constitutional monarchy with a republican form of government.This would sever the historical ties with the British monarchy and remove the last lingering political ties between the two countries.
Australian history had also been marked by a few clashes between the parliament and the existing constitutional monarchy, notably during the Australian constitutional crisis of 1975 in which the Queens representative, the Governor General, dismissed Prime Minister Gough Whitlam.
Australians for Constitutional Monarchy (''Pragmatic monarchists'') www.norepublic.com.au Australians for Constitutional Monarchy (Pragmatic monarchists)
www.bookbuyingonline.com /195619_david-flint_1840680024babylonblueanillustratedhistoryofadultcinema19601998reviews.html   (979 words)

  
 HEAD OF STATE : Encyclopedia Entry   (Site not responding. Last check: )
For example, the 1848 constitution of the Kingdom of Italy was sufficiently ambiguous and outdated by the 1920s to give King Victor Emmanuel III leeway to appoint Benito Mussolini to power in controversial circumstances.
Weimar Germany, for example, in its constitution provided for a popularly elected president with theoretically dominant executive powers that were intended to be exercised only in emergencies and a cabinet appointed by him from the Reichstag which was expected in normal circumstances to be answerable to the Reichstag.
The position of a monarch is usually hereditary, but often with constitutional restrictions, or even considerable liberty for the incumbent or some body convening after his demise to chose from eligible members of the ruling house, often limited to legal descendants of the state religion or even parliamentary permission.
bibleocean.com /OmniDefinition/Head_of_state   (7522 words)

  
 Patrick White
Australian novelist, short story writer, and playwright, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1973.
The protagonist, Stan and Amy, in searching for value in life establish a family and farm in the Australian wilderness, have children and grandchildren, but the land is eventually engulfed by suburb.
They chronicle the author's interest in Jewish culture after an early ignorant anti-Semitism, his idyllic wartime period in West Africa, his anti-royalism sparked by the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, and his belief in the validity of homosexual unions.
www.kirjasto.sci.fi /pwhite.htm   (1121 words)

  
 The Australian Federal Constitution: Net Resources (Discussion #5)
Firstly, that the constitution of Australia's identity is mutable, historically contingent--if trac(e)able by the visible deletions in the text of the Constitution.
The Constitution, as one authority put it, 'is remarkably brief when it comes to the structure of the executive government.' Of particular note is section 67 of the Constitution, which empowers the Governor General in Council to appoint and remove officers of the Executive Government of the Commonwealth, subject to Parliament providing otherwise.
Also raises (briefly) a number of other constitutional points related thereto, including: the "efficacy of the entrenchment itself" (is it a "a law...respecting the constitution, powers or procedure of the Parliament"?), and the curious fact that "the usual provisions guarding against diminution of judicial salaries" were not entrenched by the legislation.
www-personal.edfac.usyd.edu.au /staff/souters/constitution/others.html   (11833 words)

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