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Topic: Austrian Empire

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  Austrian Krakow | Hapsburg Empire | Krakow during the Habsburg Empire
But this all came to an end after a Polish Uprising in 1846, and two years later the Austrians were firing cannons on the Old Town from the former Royal Castle of Wawel.
Austrian and Polish families inter-married, and even a branch of the Habsburgs became proud Polish patriots.
The Kosciuszko Mound, west of the Old Town, was hijacked by the Austrians and heavily fortified.
www.cracow-life.com /poland/habsburg-krakow   (1171 words)

  Austria - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Austrian peasantry, especially in Tyrol, had gained some advantages in the Peasants' War of 1524-26; in general, however, the rising, backed by some Protestants but not by Luther, was defeated.
Austrian leadership in Germany was reasserted at the Convention of Olmütz in 1850.
Important developments in Austrian society during this period were the continued irresponsibility of the nobility and the backwardness of the peasantry, the growth of a socialist working class, widespread anti-Semitism stimulated by the large-scale movement to Austria of poor Jews from the eastern provinces, and extraordinary cultural creativity in Vienna.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-austria.html   (3584 words)

 Austria-Hungary - MSN Encarta
The Austrian Empire included the kingdom of Hungary, although the ruling class of Hungary, the Magyars, persistently pressed for more control in the years leading up to the compromise.
This agreement was the basis of the compromise of 1867, which divided the old Austrian Empire into two parts, Austria and the kingdom of Hungary.
In the Austrian part of the new empire, the constitutional monarchy that was established in the old Austrian empire by an agreement called the February Patent of 1861 remained in force.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761579967/Austria-Hungary.html   (1390 words)

 Bukovina Society of the Americas Home Page
Administered as a district of the province of Galicia between 1786-1849, Bukovina was granted the status of an separate crown land and duchy in 1849.
When the Austrian Empire was reorganized into the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, in the Compromise of 1867, Bukovina, like Galicia, remained under Austrian administration, while the neighboring province of Transylvania was placed under Hungarian rule.
To encourage the development of this sparsely-settled land, the Austrian emperors subsidized the immigration of colonists to Bukovina.
www.bukovinasociety.org   (1337 words)

 Austrian Americans
Throughout their rule, the empire acted as a bulwark against eastern invasion by Turks and Magyars, and through both diplomacy and strategic marriages, the Habsburgs established a civilization that would be the envy of the world.
Other ethnic minorities in the polyglot empire pressed for independence, and eventually, with the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914 by a Serbian extremist, the world was plunged into a war that destroyed the Austrian Empire.
Among Austrian American Nobel laureates in medicine were Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943), the discoverer of blood types, and the German Austrian Otto Loewi (1873-1961), a co-winner of the Nobel for his work in the chemical transmission of nerve impulses.
www.everyculture.com /multi/A-Br/Austrian-Americans.html   (7520 words)

 Austrian Cuisine - CookbookWiki
For more than six centuries, the Austrian Empire or the Habsburg Empire, as it was also named, contained parts of modern Switzerland, France, Germany, Italy, former Czechoslovakia, Hungary, former Yugoslavia, Poland, and two regions that today do not exist anymore under this name: Bohemia and Moravia.
The cuisine, as all of the elements of the Austrian culture, was influenced by each of the nations that once lived on the territory of the empire.
The tools used in a typical Austrian cuisine are used all over the Europe and the United States of America: pans for frying, trays for the cookies, tablespoons and teaspoons, knives, forks, a box for the spices, food scoops, pots for depositing the food and juicers, just to name a few.
www.cookbookwiki.com /Austrian_Cuisine   (745 words)

An empire is usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, which may be and often is a territory of small extent.
Thus we say, the Russian empire; the Austrian empire; the sovereigns of which are denominated emperors.
The British dominions are called an empire, and since the union of Ireland, the parliament is denominated the imperial parliament, but the sovereign is called king.
dictionary.crossmap.com /definition/empire.htm   (177 words)

The "First" Generation of the Austrian School was composed of a pair Austrian professors who, although not directly students of Menger, were nonetheless heavily influenced by him: Friedrich von Wieser and Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk.
The Austrian School's traditional duel with the Marxians took on a new dimension when several prominent Paretians rode into the assistance of the Marxians by concurring with the possibility of an efficient socialist organization of economic society, what became known as the "Socialist Calculation" debate.
The Austrian theory of capital was maintained almost singlehandedly since the 1940s by Ludwig Lachmann, but was given an invigorating shot in the arm by the formidable effort of John Hicks (1973).
cepa.newschool.edu /het/schools/austrian.htm   (2417 words)

 Austrian Infantry, 1798-1815
The Austrians are supposed to have been a plodding army, with line infantry that could not cope with the new, more fluid warfare of the era.
The Austrians were in at the kill in 1814.
One of the many Austrian varieties of light infantry were the Grenz Infantry, consisting of men from the border regions of Croatia, Slavonia, Hungary and Transylvania.
www.angelfire.com /id/macp/austrianinfantry.html   (576 words)

 Galicia | Austrian Empire
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria was the north-easternmost province in the Habsburg Empire.
In 1846, a Polish-led uprising was turned on its head when the Austrians encouraged the peasantry to attack their landlords.
It seemed that Austrian rule would be bitter to the end, and yet within a generation, an almost complete about turn had transpired in the political realm.
www.lviv-life.com /lviv/galicia   (663 words)

 Holy Roman Empire
The Austrian Empire was until recently the dominant power of the Roman Empire, but its strength has waned with the German War of Unification, and Austria is now limited to itself and the Balkan states.
Currently, this is Emperor Franz Josef I of the Austrian Empire, a young king of 30 years of age, recently wed to Elizabeth of Bavaria (daughter of Duke Maximilian), and with two young daughters and one son, Rudolf, all under ten years old.
The nations of the Holy Roman Empire are sovereign nations in their own right; the office of Holy Roman Emperor, and the Empire itself, is philosophically the overall government of Catholic Christendom, the secular arm of the Catholic Church.
mywebpages.comcast.net /rumtigger2/Nations/roman.htm   (2490 words)

 Fathom :: The Source for Online Learning
It is the empire of a particular dynasty, as indeed most empires are, and it is not entirely irrelevant to examine the names of these empires: the Habsburgs and the Ottomans were both dynasties.
The final result of the empire's collapse and the great war between Germany and Russia to fill the vacuum it left was the destruction of one of those communities: the Germans, who were expelled almost to a man from the areas they had lived in outside of Austria and Germany proper.
The empire on its Austrian side was very far from being a perfect democracy in 1914, but it did have democratically elected local communal governments, semi-democratically elected provincial assemblies and a parliament in Vienna which was, after 1907, elected by universal suffrage.
www.fathom.com /feature/122075   (2171 words)

 Austria: A Question of National Identity
Austrians were happy for their neighbors, but remained proudly aloof from German unification, making it clear that out of the German-Austrians of 1918 and 1938 had developed a self-confident political nation comfortable in its newly developed identity.
Austrian Communist émigrés in the Soviet Union also impressed this vision of an independent Austria on Stalin and at the Moscow Conference in October, 1943 Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov rejected wording for a final declaration by the Britain and the United States that would have implied acceptance of the legitimacy of the Anschluß.
Polls conducted on the question of when Austrians believed that a national consciousness had begun to develop, showed a gain in the significance of the period from 1945 through the signing of the State Treaty from 40 per cent in 1965, to 58 per cent in 1980 to 61 per cent in 1987.
cla.calpoly.edu:16080 /~mriedlsp/Publications/pasgas1.html   (7168 words)

 Austria-Hungary - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The dual monarchy was the successor to the Austrian Empire (1804–1867) on the same territory, originating in the compromise between the ruling Habsburg dynasty and the Hungarians.
The Austrian army was defeated at the Battle of Lemberg and the mighty fort city of Przemysl was besieged (it would fall in March 1915).
██ Empire of Austria in 1914 ██ Kingdom of Hungary in 1914 ██ Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1914
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Austro-Hungarian_Empire   (4194 words)

 2. The Austrian Empire. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History
Following the suspension of the constitution of 1849, the empire was ruled from Vienna.
The abolition of manorialism (See July 22) required a new central bureaucracy to replace landlords' judicial and police powers.
The Reichsrat (council) was formed, with advisory powers, and consisted of six Austrian and two Hungarian dignitaries.
www.bartleby.com /67/1238.html   (196 words)

 Austrian Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Austrian Empire was founded by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (who became Austrian Emperor Franz I or "Franz") as a state comprising his personal lands within the larger Empire.
The Austrian Empire did not originally include the Kingdom of Hungary, and its extensive dependent territories, which the Habsburgs had ruled since 1541; Hungary was incorporated after the defeat of the revolutionaries during the 1848/49 revolution.
The fall and dissolution of the Empire was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Austrian_Empire   (1353 words)

 Collectors' Society - Colletors' Society eNews
Ferdinand abdicated the Austrian throne and Francis Joseph was crowned the new Emperor.
In 1916 Francis Joseph died and the new emperor, Karl, ascended to the throne.
There were four denominations of Austrian Empire 1892 – 1918 minor coins: 1 Heller, 2 Heller, 10 Heller, and 20 Heller.
www.collectors-society.com /news/enews/cs_news_0512dec.asp   (1173 words)

 Holy Roman Empire
The (second) medieval revival of the Western Roman Empire was referred to as The Holy Roman Empire which lasted from 962 AD to 1806.
Francis II ruled thereafter as Francis I of the Austrian Empire (established in 1804).
The on-going struggle between these families and the intervention of the papacy drastically weakened the empire, culminating in the "Age of the Princes" in Germany and the "Great Interregnum" in the Holy Roman Empire.
www.arcaini.com /ITALY/ItalyHistory/HolyRomanEmpire.htm   (387 words)

 Austrian Room   (Site not responding. Last check: )
During the reign of Charles V in the 16th- century, it's far-reaching borders caused it to be known as an empire on which the sun never set.
In the 18th- century, under the enlighted reign of Empress Maria Theresa and her son Joseph II, the empire experienced a social and cultural renaissance which resulted in far- reaching reforms and produced outstanding composers such as Franz Josef Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
Exhibits tracing the development of the multinational Austrian Empire and the birthplaces of representative Austrian composers born within its borders between the years 1000 and 1918 define the room's historical perspective.
www.pitt.edu /~natrooms/countries/austrian.html   (215 words)

 Austrian boys clothes
Figure 1.--This 1897 Austrian school photograph shows some of the suits as well as collars and ties that Austrian boys were wearing at the turn of the century.
Austrian boys wore the common early 19th century styles of skeleton suits and tunics.
Austrian clothes may have been more stylish as the Austrians were more affected by French clothes style.
histclo.com /country/ost/co-ost.html   (1576 words)

 david johnson's webpage - history lesson six, Austrian Empire History Since 1800
Austrian forces moved in and – with the help of Russian troops (relations between the two would not sour until the 1880's) – put down the revolt and restored Austrian control.
The Emperor became a constitutional monarch, and much of his power was divested to the new Austrian Reichstag which, similar to the one adopted two years before in Switzerland, was divided into two houses, the lower representing the people, the upper the various lands of the Empire.
Along with the constitution, there came about the promotion of what was called "The Austrian Idea." For centuries, the Empire had never had a common sense of "nationalism." Its peoples had always had their loyalties to their own national groups and, almost as an afterthought, to the Emperor.
home.earthlink.net /~trolleyfan/hl06.html   (1937 words)

 Ethnic Cuisine: Austria
Austrian cuisine in general: It is the culinary reflection of an ethnically mixed people who, during the many centuries of the Austrian Habsburg empire's expansion and contraction, have exchanged culinary know-how with Turkish, Swiss, Alsacian, French, Spanish, Dutch, Italian, German, Bohemian-Moravian, Hungarian, Polish, Croatian, Slovenian, Slovakian, Serbian, and Jewish cuisine.
Coffee seems to be a staple nourishment to Austrians, who are very selective about the type of coffee they prepare and about the type of coffee beans they use for their coffees.
Whether Austrian coffees are served simply fl, with or without milk, or fancy -- with sugar sprinkles, with pieces of chocolate, with cherries, or spiked with liqueurs and brandies -- all have their special coffee name in the Austrian classic list of hot beverage.
www.sallys-place.com /food/ethnic_cusine/austria.htm   (3029 words)

 [Regents Prep Global History] Nationalism: Division   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The real issue in the empire was the diverse population of people located in the area known as the Balkans.
Power was controlled by the German-speaking inhabitants of the Austrian Empire, but that group only made up about a quarter of the population.
Germany, the Austrian Empire was redesigned as the Dual Monarchy, also known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
www.regentsprep.org /Regents/global/themes/nationalism/division.cfm   (423 words)

 2d. The Austro-Hungarian Empire [Beyond Books - Modern European History]
Although the revolution was crushed, Hungarian nationalist sentiment remained a persistent problem for the ruling Austrians.
And though in principle the new empire was a constitutional monarchy, the emperor retained considerable powers, especially that of dissolving the parliaments by fiat.
As minority nationalities stepped up their campaigns for independence, the response from Austrian and Hungarian rulers was repression — in particular, the end of press freedoms and trial by jury.
www.beyondbooks.com /eur12/2d.asp   (972 words)

 Mises, Finance and Banking in the Austrian Empire and the Republic of Austria: Essays from the Encyclopedia Britannica: ...
The debt of the Austrian State to the Austro-Hungarian Bank in direct loans made by the bank to the State amounted at the end of 1919 to 25,088 millions of kronen.
On the one hand, the Austrian State, by the peace treaty of St. Germain, was made liable toward foreign countries for an amount not specifically determined.
As these had to be obtained almost exclusively against payment in foreign currency abroad, and it was desired to sell at home at the lowest possible prices, there resulted a considerable discrepancy between the expenses necessitated by this part of the State budget and the income derived.
www.econlib.org /library/Mises/msEnc1.html   (2521 words)

 AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN NAVAL ENSIGNS & FLAGS   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Though the Austrian Empire (known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy after the constitutional reforms of 1867) was never major sea power, it had since the eighteenth century maintained a small but efficient navy.
In 1866, the Austrian battle fleet under the command of Rear-Admiral Tegetthoff won a notable victory over the Italian Navy at Lissa in the Adriatic, but thereafter lack of money stifled the development of Austrian naval power.
In 1786 a new naval ensign was introduced: a banner of the red-white-red Austrian arms charged with the crowned state arms.
tmg110.tripod.com /austria1.htm   (711 words)

 europe historical map, royalty-free old map collection, download stock historic maps
Austria-Hungary originated in 1867 in a compromise between the Hungarian nobility and the Habsburg monarchy in an attempt to maintain the old Austrian Empire of 1804.
Though Hungary's leaders showed on the whole less willingness than their German Austrian counterparts to share power with their subject minorities, they granted (it is argued) a large measure of autonomy to the kingdom of Croatia in 1868, parallelling to some extent their own accommodation within the Empire the previous year.
On one notable occasion, that of the so-called "ordinance of April 5, 1897", the Austrian Prime Minister Kasimir Felix Graf Badeni gave Czech equal standing with German in the internal government of Bohemia, leading to a crisis because of nationalist German agitation throughout the Empire.
www.discusmedia.com   (946 words)

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