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Topic: Austrian Netherlands

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  Southern Netherlands - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Congress first joined the Southern Netherlands to the former Batavian Republic as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands under the House of Orange-Nassau, but with the south-eastern third of Luxembourg Province made into the autonomous Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, because it was claimed by both the Netherlands and Prussia.
However, the Austrians themselves generally had little interest in the region (aside from a short-lived attempt by Emperor Charles VI to compete with British and Dutch trade through the Ostend Company), and the fortresses along the border (the Barrier Fortresses) were, by treaty, garrisoned with Dutch troops.
Austrian imperial power was restored by Joseph's brother and successor, Leopold II by the end of 1790.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Spanish_Netherlands   (1001 words)

 Netherlands. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The archbishop of Utrecht is the Roman Catholic primate of the Netherlands.
The Netherlands reached the peak of political power when, by forming (1668) the Triple Alliance with Sweden and England, it forced Louis XIV of France to halt the War of Devolution against Spain.
At the Congress of Vienna (1814–15) the former United Provinces and the former Austrian Netherlands were united under King William I, son of William V of Orange.
www.bartleby.com /65/ne/Nethrlds.html   (2868 words)

 MSN Encarta - War of the Austrian Succession
Austrian Succession, War of the (1740-1748), conflict caused by the rival claims for the hereditary dominions of the Habsburg family.
The conflict arose on the death in 1740 of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria.
The War of the Austrian Succession was ended in 1748 by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which provided that all conquests made during the war revert to their original possessors, with some exceptions.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761558212/War_of_the_Austrian_Succession.html   (589 words)

During the brief suspension of Austrian rule the popular and the reactionary parties attacked one another; and on the restoration of Leopold's authority in 1791 the democratic leaders, with a large body of their followers, took refuge beyond the frontier, looking forward to the outbreak of war between Austria and France.
It was known that the Austrians were encouraging the Polish Diet to refuse the cession of the provinces occupied by Prussia; and the advisers of King Frederick William in consequence recommended him to quit the Rhine, and to place himself at the head of an army in Poland.
Coburg, the Austrian commander, was dismissed at the peremptory demand of Great Britain; his successor, Clerfayt, after losing a battle on the Ourthe, offered no further resistance to the advance of the Republican army, and the campaign ended in the capture of Cologne by the French, and the disappearance of the Austrians behind the Rhine.
www.globusz.com /ebooks/Europe/00000013.htm   (13054 words)

 United Kingdom of the Netherlands - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This state, officially called "Kingdom of the Netherlands", was made up of the former United Provinces (better: Republic of the Seven United Netherlands) to the north, the former Austrian Netherlands to the south, and the former prince-bishopric of Lüttich.
It lasted until the southern provinces seceded to form Belgium in 1830, though Belgian independence was not formally recognised by the north until 1839, after which the name "Kingdom of the Netherlands" remained to refer to just the northern provinces.
The Grand Duchy of Luxemburg was to be ruled by the House of Orange-Nassau up to 1890, the year William III died.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/United_Kingdom_of_the_Netherlands   (246 words)

 War and 18th Century Europe
Great Britain, the United Netherlands, Austria and Brandenburg-Prussia united against France in what was called the War of Spanish Succession, a war from 1702 to 1713 that ended in exhaustion and a temporary settlement, signed at Utrecht in the United Netherlands.
Charles Emanuel won a battle against the Austrians at Guastalla, near Parma in northern Italy, the Austrians losing 10,000 killed, and France recognized Charles Emanuel as ruler of the Duchy of Milan.
Austrian troops were withdrawn from Italy to meet challenges closer to home, and the Italian wife of Spain's King Philip, Elizabeth Farnese, who was running foreign policy, sought advantage from this and was again hoping to win back territory in Italy.
www.fsmitha.com /h3/h31-gr.htm   (9343 words)

 Netherlands, Austrian and Spanish on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Low Countries passed from the house of Burgundy to that of Hapsburg through the marriage (1477) of Mary of Burgundy to Archduke Maximilian (later Emperor Maximilian I); their son Philip (later Philip I of Castile) inherited Flanders, Brabant, Artois, Hainaut, the duchy of Luxembourg, Limburg, Holland, and Zeeland.
Finally, late in 1789, the States-General of the Austrian Netherlands officially deposed Joseph and proclaimed the republic of the United States of Belgium.
The Austrian recovery of Belgium was short-lived, for by 1794 the French Revolutionary Wars had brought the entire area under French control.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/n/netha1uss1p.asp   (782 words)

 Southern Netherlands - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Spanish Netherlands in broad sense were the Seventeen Provinces, that came under Habsburg rule after 1482, after 1556 the Spanish Habsburg line.
However, the Austrians themselves generally had little interest in the region (aside from a short-lived attempt by Emperor Charles VI to compete with British and Dutch trade through the), and the fortresses along the border (the) were, by treaty, garrisoned with Dutch troops.
The Austrian Netherlands rebelled against Austria in 1788 as a result of Joseph II's centralizing policies, but order was restored by Joseph's brother and successor, Leopold II in 1790.
www.bexley.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Spanish_Netherlands   (630 words)

 Belgium and Luxembourg
Under the terms of the 1814 Peace of Vienna, the former territories of the Austrian Netherlands and the Archbishophric of Liège - save the Philippeville and Marienbourg districts, located within the 1792 borders of France - were united with the Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer state against France.
Though the United Netherlands prospered in the sixteen years following its unification, the Catholics of the former Austrian territories and the Archbishophric were not reconciled to living under a king from the northern Low Countries.
By year's end, the southern Netherlands from Limburg in the east to West Flanders in the west was governed by the secessionist Belgian government.
www.ahtg.net /TpA/belgolux.html   (998 words)

 WHKMLA : History of the Austrian Netherlands : Maria Theresia, 1740-1780
The Austrian Netherlands again were theatre of war in the WAR OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION (1741-1748); in 1745-1748, French troops took large parts of the country.
The allied Austrians, British and Dutch troops were defeated by the French in the BATTLE OF FONTENOY (May 11th 1745) and the BATTLE OF ROCOURT (Oct. 11th 1746).
After the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), the Austrian government encouraged the establishment of manufacturies in many sectors, such as metallurgy and glassmaking, the energy for which was supplied by watermills in the valleys of the Maas and Sambre.
www.zum.de /whkmla/region/lowcountries/austneth2.html   (795 words)

 History of BELGIUM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Nevertheless the Spanish Netherlands remain in a stategically perilous state, with Protestant neighbours to north and west (the United Provinces and England) and Spain's perennial enemy, France, to the south.
The southern Netherlands settle down under Austrian Habsburg rule (conducted in the same arm's-length fashion as under the Spanish branch of the family), until they are once more an issue in a major European war concerning the Habsburg dynasty.
French occupation of the Austrian Netherlands is an established fact after the conclusive battle of Fleurus in June 1794.
www.historyworld.net /wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab53   (904 words)

 Embassies of Other Nations to The Netherlands
Embassy of Bosnia and Herzegovina in The Hague, Netherlands - Embassy of Bosnia and Herzegovina in The Hague, Netherlands -
Embassy of Nigeria in The Hague, Netherlands - Embassy of Nigeria in The Hague, Netherlands -
Embassy of Poland in The Hague, Netherlands - Embassy of Poland in The Hague, Netherlands -
www.embassyworld.com /embassy/netherlands2.htm   (476 words)

 Austria   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The crown on the Austrian eagle's head is a civic crown - it looks like battlements, and stands for the burghers of Austria, as the hammer and sickle in its talons stand for artisans and farmers.
The Austrian flag red-white-red with a white shield in the canton containing the coat of arms was adopted on the 31st of May1929.
The Colonel's Color or *Liebfahne* was white with are presentation of the Virgin Mary on the obverse and the two-headed eagle of the House of Hapsburg on the reverse.
www.netlinkit.dk /FOTW/flags/at.html   (1253 words)

 [No title]
The Austrian Monarchy granted regional privileges for the introduction of the ribbon mill, which explains the narrow regional concentration of this branch, strongly and persistently opposed by the ribbon craft.
The centre of the Austrian ribbon industry was located around Waidhofen/Thaya and Groß-Siegharts in the north-western part of the Waldviertel (Lower Austria). Apart from enhancing selectivity and unevenness, the mechanization of textiles modified the geographic patterns, entailed new forms of labour and changed the organization of the manufacturing process.
Austrian textile industry until the New International Division of Labour (1918-1980) The Republic of Austria was not the result of a strife for national independence.
www.iisg.nl /research/austria.doc   (11824 words)

 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Netherlands   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Shorn of the northern provinces by the secession of Holland as the Commonwealth of the United Provinces (1579), the Spanish Netherlands, on their cession to Austria (1713-14) were reduced to the provinces now embraced in Belgium, subsequently called the Austrian Netherlands.
He bethought him of separating the Catholic Netherlands from Spain, and of giving the sovereignty to his daughter Isabella and her husband the Archduke Albert of Austria; in the event of their being childiess the country was to revert to Spain (1598).
The Austrian régime under which the country was now to exist was that of an absolute monarchy, which by continued encroachments on the traditional privileges of the people, drove them at length to rebellion.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/10759a.htm   (5293 words)

 Austrian Generals, Officers and Privates During the Napoleonic Wars.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Austrian generals conducted a defensive war and were overly concerned with lines of communications (Cattle depots were maintained by every Austrian army.) Archduke Charles wrote that the generals "are a weakness in our army." Majority of the Austrian commanders preferred not to face Napoleon directly.
His youth was spent in Tuscany, at Vienna and in the Austrian Netherlands, where he began his career of military service in the war of the French Revolution.
From 1809 to 1812, as chief of the general staff, he was active in the reorganization of the army and its tactical system, but, unable to carry out the reforms he desired owing to the opposition of the Treasury, he resigned the post.
web2.airmail.net /napoleon/Austrian_generals.htm   (2491 words)

 Austrian Netherlands (1713-1786)
The source of this flag is to be traced to the East India fleet of the Austrian Netherlands, sailing from Ostend in West-Flanders to Calcutta and Canton.
The Oostendse Compagnie was founded by Emperor Charles VI in the Southern Netherlands to promote ecomomic life; by octroy of 19 December 1722, the Compagnie impériale et royale des Indes Orientales, établie dans les Pays-Bas autrichiens got the monopoly for 30 years of trade with East- and West-Indies and Africa.
However Charles VI needed the approval of the Northern Netherlands and England (sic!) for the recognition of his daughter Maria-Theresia as his successor (Pragmatic Sanction), so he suspended the Compagnie on 31 May 1727 (Preliminaries of Paris) and revoked the octroy on 16 March 1731 (Treaty of Vienna).
flagspot.net /flags/be_at.html   (490 words)

 A short history of Luxembourg
Luxembourg remains as part of the southern Netherlands under Spanish rule as the Spanish Netherlands.
In 1713 the Spanish Netherlands are acquired by Austria, the area gets known as the Austrian Netherlands.
After the French defeat in 1815, the Austrian Netherlands are united with the Netherlands and Liege into the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
www.electionworld.org /history/luxembourg.htm   (686 words)

 NIS News Bulletin - Short history of the Netherlands III   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In 1555-56, Philip II of Spain, an ardent Roman Catholic, inherited the Netherlands and the rest of the Spanish Empire from Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. From the beginning, Philip encountered strong anti-Spanish and anti-Catholic opposition, especially from the Dutch nobility and from Calvinists in the Protestant northern provinces.
Meanwhile, the VOC assisted in the establishment of New Netherland and the acquisition of territories in Brazil, Curacao, and Saint Martin.
Reunification of the seven United Provinces with the southern (or Austrian) provinces as the Kingdom of the Netherlands under King William I followed Napoleon's defeat in 1814 and was confirmed by the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
www.nisnews.nl /nl3.htm   (909 words)

 AllRefer.com - Leopold II, Holy Roman emperor, king of Bohemia and Hungary (German History, Biography) - Encyclopedia
To pacify his subjects in the Austrian Netherlands (see Netherlands, Austrian and Spanish), in Hungary, and in Bohemia, he repealed most of Joseph's reforms.
Having reached an agreement (1790) with Frederick William II of Prussia, who wished to prevent Austrian expansion in the east and was about to side with the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) in its war against Russia and Austria, Leopold abandoned his alliance with the Russian czarina, Catherine II.
Although he hoped to avoid war with revolutionary France, Leopold instigated (1791) the Declaration of Pillnitz, by which the emperor and the king of Prussia stated that if all other European powers would join them, they were prepared to restore Louis XVI to his lawful powers by force.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/L/Leopo2HRE.html   (453 words)

 Southern Netherlands -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
It was the continuation of the Spanish Netherlands (in its broad sense), which started with the (An imperial decree that becomes part of the fundamental law of the land) Pragmatic Sanction of 1549, issued by (Click link for more info and facts about Charles V) Charles V.
The Spanish Netherlands in its broad sense (but more incorrect) were all the (Click link for more info and facts about Seventeen Provinces) Seventeen Provinces.
After the (The revolution in France against the Bourbons; 1789-1799) French Revolution, in 1794 the entire region was overrun by France ending the existence of this territory as a Spanish/Austrian Netherlands.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/s/so/southern_netherlands.htm   (231 words)

 WHKMLA : History of the Austrian Netherlands : Joseph II., 1780-1790
Actually, Emperor Joseph now again considered the plan exchanging the (rich) Austrian Netherlands for Bavaria (1784), in order to consolidate their possessions, a plan which never materialized, but indicated the Viennese administration's attitude toward the Austrian Netherlands.
Joseph made, incognito, an inspection tour of the Southern Netherlands (1781); he granted religious toleration to protestants (1781) and declared them qualified for public office, to enjoy civic rights, to attend universities, to construct their 'temples'.
Netherlands in nine circles, thus creating the present provinces of Antwerpen, West and East Flanders.
www.zum.de /whkmla/region/lowcountries/austneth3.html   (1133 words)

 Search Results for Netherlands - Encyclopædia Britannica
The name Holland (from Houtland, or “Wooded Land”) was originally given to one of the medieval cores of what later became the modern state and is still used...
A constitutional monarchy of northwestern Europe, The Netherlands, a Benelux country, is on the North Sea.
In 2004, the year that marked the 40th anniversary of the arrival of the first Turkish migrant workers, The Netherlands continued to struggle with issues of diversity and integration.
www.britannica.com /search?query=Netherlands&ct=   (533 words)

 The Austrian Netherlands (from Belgium, history of) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
More results on "The Austrian Netherlands (from Belgium, history of)" when you join.
The country is bounded on the northwest by the North Sea, on the north and northeast by The Netherlands, on...
Although it is one of the smallest countries in Europe, the kingdom of The Netherlands played an important role in the history of the continent.
www.britannica.com /eb/article?tocId=24967   (813 words)

 Royalty.nu - Grand Dukes and Duchesses of Luxembourg, the House of Nassau
As the Spanish Netherlands, Luxembourg and Belgium remained in Habsburg hands until the 17th century, when the territory was briefly conquered by France.
It soon returned to the control of the Spanish Habsburgs; then, in 1713, it was given to the Austrian Habsburgs and became the Austrian Netherlands.
France conquered the Austrian Netherlands in 1795, and for the next 20 years Luxembourg was France's "Department of Forests." In 1815, after the overthrow of Napoleon I, the Congress of Vienna granted Luxembourg independence as a grand duchy and gave it to King William I of the Netherlands.
www.royalty.nu /Europe/Luxembourg.html   (1058 words)

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