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Topic: Avestan language


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In the News (Wed 17 Apr 19)

  
  Avestan language information - Search.com
Old Avestan or Gathic Avestan: This form of the language was used to compose the Gathas and Yasna Haptanghaiti, probably by Zoroaster himself.
Young Avestan: the language used for composing the major parts of Avesta, including the rest of the Yasnas, the Yashts, and Vidaevdat.
The Artificial Young Avestan however is a corrupt form of the language, a form that was never spoken and was used by the priests (Magi) in later times in order to compose new texts.
www.search.com /reference/Avestan_language   (540 words)

  
 Avestan language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta.
The Indo-Iranian language group is the major eastern branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Avestan language should not be confused with the Avestan alphabet, which is a significantly later invention.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Avestan_language   (735 words)

  
 Ancient Scripts: Avestan
Avestan was an Iranian language in which the earliest Zoroastrian hymns were orally transmitted since 1500 BCE.
Due to lingusitic change, fluency in Avestan as spoken a thousand years earlier was deteorating, and hence the need to write the language became increasingly apparent.
The Avestan alphabet was modelled on the Pahlavi script, which in turn was derived from Aramaic.
www.ancientscripts.com /avestan.html   (266 words)

  
 iranian.com: Farid Parsa, Language
Now whether the Avestan language was an already existing dialect or invented by a group of people in order to record the Zoroaster's revelation is a matter for debate among scholars.
But one thing is for sure that Avestan language was a dead language and something had to be done about it if the faith had to be preserved and spread.
The languages spoken in the east were not mutually intelligible with the languages spoken in southwest and northwest or even within their own group.
www.iranian.com /Parsa/2004/December/Language/index.html   (2422 words)

  
 Language of the armies, Urdu: A Derivative of Persian and Avestan
Language of the armies, Urdu: A Derivative of Persian and Avestan
"The birth of Urdu language was the direct result of the synthesis between the invading armies of Mahmud of Ghazni with the civilian population of the Indian cities.
Urdu was thus self-evidently the language of the soldiers of the armies of Mahmud-e-Ghazni, the only militarist sovereign of the era who maintained a large enough army for a considerable period to provide sufficient time for a new language to develop.
www.iranchamber.com /literature/articles/language_of_armies.php   (1160 words)

  
 Dari - Persian Dari - (CAIS)
The word Dari refers to the language that is popularly known as Persian or known to Iranian speaking as Farsi/Parsi.
It argues that this language was the very respected and chosen language for communications at royal courts of kings.
Old Dari and the Avestan language represents the old stage of development and were spoken in ancient Bactria.
www.cais-soas.com /CAIS/Languages/dari.htm   (1223 words)

  
 Avestan language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
Avestan was also called Zend language; it is not dead, just extinct from popular communication, but still in use in sacral purposes in Zoroastrian communities in India and Iran.
The language is known by the only basic resource: the ancient Iranian epic poem "Avesta", which became known in Europe in the 18th century.
Avestan was one of the so-called "satem" language, which turned the Proto-Indo-European k in s.
indoeuro.bizland.com /tree/iran/avestan.html   (204 words)

  
 Avestan alphabet and language
The Avestan alphabet was created in the 3rd century AD for writing the hymns of Zarathustra (a.k.a Zoroaster).
Many of the letters are derived from the old Pahlavi alphabet of Persia, which itself was derived from the Aramaic alphabet.
The Avestan alphabet was replaced by the Arabic alphabet after Persia converted to Islam during the 7th century AD.
www.omniglot.com /writing/avestan.htm   (119 words)

  
 Welcome to the Faculty of Oriental Studies at Oxford University
Avestan and Old Persian are the two languages which have been preserved from the oldest recorded period in the development of the Iranian language family.
It was the native language of the Achaemenian Kings of Iran (6th- 4th centuries BC), who employed it in their monumental trilingual inscriptions, written in a simple cuneiform script.
Avestan is the language of the earliest sacred texts belonging to the Zoroastrian religion.
www.orinst.ox.ac.uk /sa/oldiranian_info.shtml   (1522 words)

  
 AVESTA: The Scriptures of Zoroastrianism
The texts come from times that may be as early as 1700 BC and as late as 400 A.D. Until recently, the Avesta was known in the West as the "Zend-Avesta." This is a misnomer and was caused by the misinterpretation of the word "Zend." This means "commentary" in middle Persian (Pazand).
The next major Younger Avestan text is a series of praise- hymns called the "Yashts," or "Worships." These are adapted from pre-Zarathushtrian hymns to the various Indo-Iranian deities, just as the deities themselves were re-adapted as yazatas under the new, monotheistic faith.
Although the mythic language is very ancient, the re- editing went on much later, and some scholars have suggested that the Yashts were composed during the Achaemenid period, from 600-330 BC.
www.accessnewage.com /articles/mystic/avest.htm   (2632 words)

  
 Avesta Summary
It should be remembered that their language (which, being impossible to locate geographically within the Iranian world beyond a general characterization as eastern Iranian, is simply called Avestan) was no longer understood.
Several Avesta manuscripts were collected by Rasmus Rask on a visit to Bombay (now Mumbai) in 1820, and it was Rask's examination of the Avestan language that first established that the texts must indeed be the remnants of a much larger literature of sacred texts of ancient Persia and Bactria (Ta-Hsia).
The texts are preserved in two languages: the more ancient in the Avestan language, the oldest attested Indo-Iranian language still very closely related to Sanskrit and the younger texts in Middle Persian with Pahlavi script.
www.bookrags.com /Avesta   (2987 words)

  
 Iranian Language Family
Avestan belongs to the Eastern branch of Iranian languages.
Middle Persian was initially the language of the province of Pars (Persia), and a development of the Old Persian of the Achaemenid royal inscriptions or one of its close dialects.
It was also taken as the language of artistic expression and science by the population of Central Asia and Muslim inhabitants of China, as well as the aristocratic classes of Ottoman Turkey.
www.iranologie.com /history/ilf.html   (2828 words)

  
 Indo-Iranian Languages
This language is primarily spoken in the region of Gujarat in northwestern India, near the Pakistani border.
This is the language spoken by the inhabitants of the well-known region of Punjab, in northwest India.
This language is similar to Persian (Farsi), and it is derived from the ancient language of Avestan.
members.tripod.com /misterhaynes/indoir.htm   (2187 words)

  
 [No title]
Many accomplished language researchers, admit that the language Dari or Farsi itself was born in Khorasan, a mountainous land where people live in numerous valleys (Dara).
Dari/Farsi is a branch of the Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan) languages, a subfamily of the Indo-European languages.
Old Dari/Farsi and the Avestan language represents the old stage of development and were spoken in ancient Bactria.
members.tripod.com /~khorasan/Miscellaneous/Dari.htm   (1168 words)

  
 Old Iranian Online
The earliest complete Avestan manuscripts date from the 13th to 14th centuries A.D. They are written in a script based on the Pahlavi, or Middle Persian alphabet, invented to record an earlier version of the texts during the Sassanid dynasty (ca.
Avestan orthography does not indicate accentuation, but scholars have traced four phonetic patterns that must be ascribed to stress.
As in Sanskrit, the subjunctive is found much more frequently in the older language (Vedic, Old Avestan) than in the younger (Classical Sanskrit, Younger Avestan); its functions are gradually replaced, with respect to the degree of probability to be communicated, by the optative mood and the future tense.
www.utexas.edu /cola/centers/lrc/eieol/aveol-1-R.html   (2141 words)

  
 Persian Literature, an English article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
The Old Persian of the Achaemenian Empire, preserved in a number of cuneiform inscriptions, was an Indo-European tongue with close affinities with Sanskrit and Avestan (the language of the Zoroastrian sacred texts).
In India, Persian language and poetry became the vogue with the ruling classes, and at the court of the Moghul emperor Akbar Persian was adopted as the official language; spreading thence and fusing later with Hindi, it gave rise to the Urdu tongue.
To the west of Iran, Persian heavily influenced the language and literature of Turkey; Turkish verse was based on Persian models as regards form and style, and borrowed an extensive vocabulary.
www.iranonline.com /literature/Articles/Persian-literature/index.html   (2563 words)

  
 Maps of Indo-European Languages-Avestan (Parsi)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
Avestan comes from the Iranian sub-branch of the Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European languages.
Avestan is sometimes called Zend, though technically Zend is only the language of certain late commentaries on the Avesta.
At one time, the Avestan language was much more widespread, and in many ways it occupied in the near-eastern portion of Eurasia a similar position to that of Latin in western Europe; i.e., it was a widespread scholastic and religious language used by an educated class of teachers and priests.
web.cn.edu /kwheeler/IE_Satem_Avestan.html   (274 words)

  
 Avesta
Avestan is a very ancient language and is similar to Sanskrit, the language of the Rigveda, one of the religious books of the Hindus.
Old Avestan is a language closely akin to the oldest Indic language found in the oldest part of the Rigveda, and on archeological and linguistic grounds could be dated to the first half of the 2nd millennium BCE.
Of the 72 haitis of the Yasna prayer, Haitis 1 to 27 are in Younger Avestan language.
www3.sympatico.ca /zoroastrian/Avesta.htm   (3463 words)

  
 Indo-European Table 1, Etruscan Vocabulary, Etruscan Phrases, with Indo-European cognates
It should be noted that the foundation of the Etruscan vocabulary is based upon the isolation of individual words and phrases – without at first regard for meaning – and the establishment of grammatical patterns, where shifts in the affix of words could be discerned.
While Etruscan is a dead language and there is no Rosetta Stone available, so far, to assist in the translation, we do know that a fair translation is possible with confirmation of consistent shifts from the related languages to Etruscan.
The early Hindu language, Sanskrit, Avestan (early Persian), Serbo-Croatian and Belarussian (old Slavic languages), Sudovian (believed to be an old Baltic language), Greek, Albanian (also believed to be an old branch of the Indo-Europeans), Latin; and Scottish Gaelic, Breton Gaelic, French and Italian form another group for comparison.
www.maravot.com /Indo-European_Table.html   (1579 words)

  
 Iranian Scripts: Avestan Alphabet
he Avestan alphabet was created in the 3rd century CE for writing the hymns of Zarathustra (a.k.a Zoroaster).
Avestan is an extinct Indo-Iranian language related to Old Persian and Sanskrit.
The Avestan alphabet was replaced by the Arabic alphabet after Persia converted to Islam during the 7th century CE.
www.iranchamber.com /scripts/avestan_alphabet.php   (102 words)

  
 Persian language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
Middle Persian was a contemporary of Parthian, and during the Arsacid period, Persian was strongly influenced by Parthian.
Middle Persian was the language used in the Sassanian Empire, and was called Pahlavi.
Modern Persian, the language of Iran today, was developed as early as in the 9th century.
lexicorient.com /e.o/persian_l.htm   (376 words)

  
 KryssTal : Borrowed Words in English: Avestan
It is the language of the Zoroaster religion.
A short history of the world's most widespread language from its Anglo Saxon origins via Norman and Latin influences to Modern English.
The most widely studied family of languages and the family with the largest number of speakers.
www.krysstal.com /borrow_avestan.html   (46 words)

  
 zend   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
The greater part of the Avesta is written in a more recent form of the language and shows gradual simplification and variation in grammatical forms.
When the canon of the Avesta was being fixed (4th to 6th century AD), Avestan was a dead language known only to priests.
Avestan was written in a script evolved from late Pahlavi writing, which, in turn, derived from Aramaic.
www.gaiaguys.net /zend.htm   (139 words)

  
 Gathas and Translation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-28)
The reason: The archaic language of the Gathas, distances of time and differences of culture between Zarathushtra and the translators, diverse backgrounds of translators, their individual motives, their relations with Zarathushtra, and their limitations.
Though the Gathas are in a dead language, the Pahlavi and Sanskrit renderings of the past, and modern studies of philology have paved the way for a still better understanding of their message.
Although the Quran is in a living language, the Islamic world is awaiting an authorized or even an approved rendition in a non-Arabic language.
www.zoroastrian.org /GathaSongs/Gathas_and_Translation.htm   (4833 words)

  
 The Zend-Avesta
Avestan language, also called (incorrectly) Zend language, eastern Iranian language of the Avesta, the sacred book of Zoroastrianism.
Avestan falls into two strata, the older being that of the Gathas, which reflects a linguistic stage (dating from c.
From their language, also called Aryan, the Indo-European languages of South Asia are descended.
freemasonry.bcy.ca /biography/pike_a/avesta.html   (2597 words)

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