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Topic: Aymara language

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  Backs to the Future
New analysis of the language and gesture of South America's indigenous Aymara people indicates they have a concept of time opposite to all the world's studied cultures -- so that the past is ahead of them and the future behind.
The Aymara case is the first documented to depart from the standard model," said Nunez.
The language of the Aymara, who live in the Andes highlands of Bolivia, Peru and Chile, has been noticed by Westerners since the earliest days of the Spanish conquest.
www.physorg.com /news69338070.html   (1201 words)

  Aymara language - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Aymara is the language of the Aymara people of the Andes.
The Aymara spoken in La Paz, Bolivia is considered the purest form of the language.
The language has attracted interest because it is based on a three value logic system, and thus supposedly has better expressiveness than many other languages based on binary logic.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Aymara_language   (563 words)

  Aymara language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes.
Aymara is one of three extant languages of the Jaqi language family along with Jaqaru and Kawki.
The Aymara spoken in La Paz, Bolivia is considered the purest form of the language.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Aymara_language   (788 words)

 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes.
It is often assumed that the Aymara language descends from the language spoken in Tiwanaku, on the grounds that it is the native language of that area today.
Aymara placenames are found all the way north into central Peru, and indeed (Altiplano) Aymara is actually but one of the two extant languages of a wider language family, the other surviving representative being Jaqaru/Kawki.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Aymara_language   (1310 words)

 Aymara - Crystalinks
The Aymara language does have one surviving relative, spoken by a small, isolated group of about 1000 people far to the north in the mountains inland from Lima in Central Peru (in and around the village of Tupe, Yauyos province, Lima department).
This language, known as Jaqaru/Kawki, is of the same family as Aymara, indeed some linguists refer to it as 'Central Aymara', alongside the main 'Southern Aymara' branch of the family spoken in the Titicaca region.
The native language of the Aymara is also named Aymara; in addition, many Aymara speak Spanish, which is the dominant language of the countries in which they live, as a second language.
www.crystalinks.com /aymara.html   (777 words)

 Aymara: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The Aymara were established in the region for centuries before becoming a subject people of the Inca Inca Empire quick summary:
The inca empire (called tawantinsuyu in modern spelling aymara and quechua, or tahuantinsuyu in old spelling quechua), was an empire located in...
Tanacross is an endangered athabaskan language spoken near tanana crossing in alaska....
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/a/ay/aymara.htm   (914 words)

 ipedia.com: Aymara language Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
It is one of only a handful of Native American languages with over 1 million speakers, and is one of the official languages of Bolivia.
Aymara is cited by the author Umberto Eco in The Search for the Perfect Language as a language of immense flexibility and capable of accommodating many neologisms.
Aymara is based on a three value logic system giving a capability of expressing modal subtleties which many other languages can only express clumsily.
www.ipedia.com /aymara_language.html   (282 words)

 Aymara (Aymar Uta)
Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the indigenous Aymara people of the Andes in South America.
Aymara Central with 1,785,000 speakers is the official language of Bolivia where efforts are made to promote native literacy (Ethnologue).
Aymara is an agglutinative language that adds suffixes to roots to build words and express grammatical relations.
www.nvtc.gov /lotw/months/december2005/aymara.html   (715 words)

 INDIGENOUS SPIRITUALITY -- Aymara spirituality: a challenge for Christian spirituality
Aymara spirituality is not manifested exclusively in the sacred (the religious), but also in the profane (the ordinary), the whole of life.
Language is essential in any culture, for it is through language that the spirit and essence of cultures are expressed.
The Aymara have preserved their language, which is rich in content and capable of describing both objects and actions in a very specific way.
www.wcc-coe.org /wcc/what/jpc/echoes-16-08.html   (2150 words)

 Linguist List - Book Information
Aymara, a member of the Jaqi family of languages (Jaqaru, Kawki, Aymara), is a language of the high Andean plain between the highest peaks of the Andes mountains and of the shores of the world's highest navigable lake.
Aymara is the first language of approximately one-third of the population of Bolivia, the dominant language of the southern area of Perú throughout Puno and down towards the coast in Moquegua, Tacna, with branches into Arequipa, and is the indigenous language of northern Chile.
She began the study of Aymara in the sixties and has since been continually involved with one or another of the Jaqi languages for which she has written grammars, teaching materials and cultural studies.
www.linguistlist.org /pubs/books/get-book.cfm?BookID=18057&RequestTimeout=500   (367 words)

 [No title]
The Uru-Chipaya are linguistically distinct from the Aymara and belong to a separate subfamily of the Andean-Equatorial family (Steward and Faron 1959: 22-23; Voegelin and Voegelin 1965: 77-81).
Aymara social organization is highly variable and has been adapted to local and temporal economic and political forces.
Aymara supernatural beliefs and practices are a blend of aboriginal (Aymara and Quechuan) traits with elements derived from Christian missionaries.
lucy.ukc.ac.uk /EthnoAtlas/Hmar/Cult_dir/Culture.7828   (1614 words)

 Understanding Aymara Perspectives - FWJ 2006, Amy Eisenburg, Ph.D
The Chilean Aymara comprise a small, geographically isolated minority of Tarapaca, the northern border region, who are struggling to maintain their sustainable and traditional systems of irrigation waters distribution, agriculture and pastoralism in one of the most arid regions of the world, the Atacama Desert.
Aymara land and water rights should be legally defined and Aymara rights to a degree of internal control and protection of their territory should be set down in Chilean law.
The Aymara are highly knowledgeable about their traditional resources, and because of their proximity and intimacy with the resources, specialized knowledge and daily experiences, they are acutely aware of factors that have adverse or positive impacts on their conservation.
www.cwis.org /fwj/71/Understanding%20Aymara%20Perspectives.htm   (4264 words)

 Linguist List - Reviews Available for the Book
The author is a long-time expert on Aymara, and on the Jaqi family in general, having conducted over four decades of both theoretical and practical investigation of these languages.
This is a key publication on a highly important regional language, spoken as a mother tongue by a numerically significant minority of the populations of both Bolivia and Peru, as well as in northernmost Chile.
Aymara is likely to be the only Jaqi language that survives into the next century, since the family's other two extant members -- Jaquaru and Kawki -- are already endangered.
www.linguistlist.org /pubs/reviews/get-review.cfm?SubID=61500&RequestTimeout=500   (990 words)

 Time flies – ahead of the Aymara | The San Diego Union-Tribune
Aymara is spoken in the Andean highlands of western Bolivia, southeastern Peru and northern Chile.
Aymara speakers use the word nayra – which means “eye,” “front” or “sight” – to refer to the past.
The study shows that understanding the complexities and subtleties of language – and how gestures enrich and reveal meaning – is vital for people trying to relate to other cultures, he and other scientists said.
www.signonsandiego.com /uniontrib/20060622/news_7m22aymara.html   (694 words)

 Aymara language, culture, and people   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The so-called 'Aymara altiplanico', or simply Aymara, is an Andean language spoken by one million and six hundred thousand people round the area that surrounds Lake Titicaca.
Hardman was able to show that the Aymara spoken on the Titicaca plateau, Jaqaru, and Kawki, belong to the same family of languages, to which she gave the name Jaqi.
This in turn makes us think, that within one or two generations Jaqaru, daughter language in the Aymara family, will also come to be one of the extinct languages of the world.
www.aymara.org /index_eng.php   (667 words)

 Umberto Eco   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
In each language " taken as a whole, there is a self-identical thing that is meant, a thing which, nevertheless, is accessible to none of these languages taken individually, but only to that totality of all of their intentions taken as reciprocal and complementary, a totality that we call Pure Language (reine Sprache)" (Benjamin 1923).
Thus, because of its perfection, Aymara can render every thought expressed in other mutually untranslatable languages, but the price to pay for it is that (once the perfect language has resolved these thoughts into its own terms), they cannot be translated back into our natural native idioms.
The confusion did not depend on the accidental invention of new languages, but on the fragmentation of a unique tongue that existed ab initio and in which all the other were already contained.
pabloinsua.tripod.com /aymara.htm   (1012 words)

 Aymara language articles on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Aymara AYMARA [Aymara], Native South Americans inhabiting the Lake Titicaca basin in Peru and Bolivia.
Native American languages NATIVE AMERICAN LANGUAGES [Native American languages] languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants.
A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Aymara+language   (296 words)

 Aymara language resources
Aymara language (see the Fuente Magna) More credibility is given to inclusion of Sumerian in proposed super-families like Nostratic or Dene-Sino-Caucasian, but the mere identifiability of these super...
Aymara speakers who already know the language Its publication in Aymara is a challenge to Aymara is a challenge to Aymara writers, in view of the fact that in writing on a theme in Aymara, Aymara...
Aymara Aymara is an andean language which is endangered with disappearance and it is still spoken around the Titicaca lake.
mongabay.com /indigenous_ethnicities/languages/languages/Aymara.html   (1426 words)

 Aymara   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Aymara is an andean language which is endangered with disappearance and it is still spoken around the Titicaca lake.
That is, in less than thirty years the Aymara speakers have a decrease of 35%.
But is usual to refer to the Tiahuanaco civilization, 2000 BC approximately, as being the first Aymara state.
www.flw.com /languages/aymara.htm   (108 words)

 Aymara language - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Spanish, spoken by some 70 percent of the people, was the sole official language of Peru until 1975, when Quechua, one of the principal languages of...
Aymaran is another large language family of the Andes region.
The dominant language in the family, Aymara, has about 2.2 million speakers in Bolivia,...
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/search.aspx?q=Aymara+language   (153 words)

 Aymara language, alphabet and pronunciation
Aymara is an Amerind language with about 2.2 million speakers in Bolivia, Peru, Argentina and Chile, particular around Lake Titicaca on the high plateaus of the Andes.
The symbols were originally written on animal skins using plant or mineral pigments but paper was substituted after the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century.
Under the influence of the Spanish, the Latin alphabet was adopted to write Aymara.
www.omniglot.com /writing/aymara.htm   (205 words)

 (6/13/2006) For Andes Tribe, It's Back To The Future
Appearing in the current issue of the journal Cognitive Science, the study is coauthored, with Berkeley linguistics professor Eve Sweetser, by Rafael Nunez, associate professor of cognitive science and director of the Embodied Cognition Laboratory at the University of California, San Diego.
The language of the Aymara, who live in the Andes highlands of Bolivia, Peru and Chile, has been noticed by Westerners since the earliest days of the Spanish conquest.
Now, while the future of the Aymara language itself is not in jeopardy -- it numbers some two to three million contemporary speakers -- its particular way of thinking about time seems, at least in Northern Chile, to be on the way out.
www.albionmonitor.com /0606a/aymara.html   (841 words)

 Aymara   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Prior to their conquest by the Inca, the Aymara are thought to have been organized into a series of independent states.
The Aymara are classified with Quechua as a separate group within the Andean subfamily of the Andean-Equatorial language family.
Aymara supernatural beliefs and practices are a blend of aboriginal traits and concepts learned from Christian missionaries.
www.mnsu.edu /emuseum/cultural/southamerica/aymara.html   (236 words)

 UN Special Report: Aymara leader Antonio Machaca : ICT [2003/07/23]
Together with Spanish and Aymara, an indigenous language that predates the Incas, it is one of Bolivia's three official idioms.
Language, as often is the case, has been the point of entry.
Symbols of cultural respect in the schools, Native languages have also become a weapon in the ongoing struggle for souls.
www.indiancountry.com /content.cfm?id=1058968401   (1357 words)

 Cognitive Daily: Aymara: A language where the future is behind us (updated w/poll)
An emailer pointed me to a great description of research on the Aymara language, a language where the metaphoric representation of time is reversed compared to all known languages, claim the researchers.
When an Aymara speaker wishes to indicate something in the past, she points ahead of herself, whereas something in the future is gestured by flicking the hand over the shoulder.
The distinction is not cultural, but linguistic: as young speakers learn not only Aymara but also Spanish, their gestures adapt to the rest of the world, and they again use a forward-moving metaphor for the progress of time.
scienceblogs.com /cognitivedaily/2006/06/aymara_the_only_known_language.php   (1994 words)

 SIM People Group Profile: Aymara
The Aymara of Bolivia and Peru are believed to be descendants of the ancient Tiahuanacun civilization centered near Lake Titicaca in the early centuries A.D. The ruins of the ancient temple of Tiahuanacu in Bolivia are only partially excavated and reveal an advanced civilization.
Leadership roles within Aymara communities tend to be based on a complicated system of prestige, attained through community service, sponsorship of fiestas, accumulation of wealth, military service, and an ability to manipulate extra-community ties and organizations.
Portions of the Bible were translated into the Aymara language between 1829-1966, and the New Testament was completed in 1977.
www.sim.org /PG.asp?pgID=45&fun=1   (767 words)

 Origins and Diversity of Aymara   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The language that is normally called ‘Aymara’ is well-known to be spoken in much of the Altiplano, the ‘high plain’ at an altitude of around 4000 m that covers much of western Bolivia and the far south of Peru.
To understand exactly how the Aymara in the Altiplano is related to Jaqaru and Kawki, one has first to understand what it means exactly to talk in terms of ‘related’ languages, and ‘families’ of languages.
When it comes for names for this language family, and for the original language from which all the modern Aymara languages are derived, things can seem a little more complicated than they really are, just because there has been some confusion over names.
www.quechua.org.uk /Eng/Sounds/Aymara/AymaraOriginsAndDiversity.htm   (3905 words)

 Science Netlinks: Science Updates
He adds that Aymara culture and language emphasize the eyewitness point of view—which may explain why they visualize their past experiences right before their eyes, and the future, which they haven't seen, behind them.
The Spanish Conquistadors reportedly distrusted the Aymara people, finding them to be uninterested in progress or “going forward.” Although the Conquistadors' interpretation was negative and probably biased, it is true that the Aymara traditionally see little point in speculating about the future, since it is unknowable.
Unlike many indigenous languages, the Aymara language is not in danger of extinction, but its concept of time might be.
www.sciencenetlinks.com /sci_update.cfm?DocID=302   (820 words)

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