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Topic: B cells


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In the News (Sat 25 May 19)

  
  B Cells and T Cells
B cells are not only produced in the bone marrow but also mature there.
T cells is to monitor all the cells of the body, ready to destroy any that express foreign antigen fragments in their class I molecules.
T cells bind an epitope consisting of an antigen fragment lying in the groove of a class II histocompatibility molecule.
users.rcn.com /jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/B/B_and_Tcells.html   (1889 words)

  
 B cell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
B cells are produced in the bone marrow of most mammals.
B cell development occurs through several stages, each stage representing a change in the genome content at the antibody loci.
B cell recognition of antigen is not the only element necessary for B cell activation (a combination of clonal proliferation and terminal differentiation into plasma cells).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/B_cell   (1393 words)

  
 NIAID Researchers Identify HIV-Induced Changes in B Cells, NIAID News Release
"Their B cells produce excessive amounts of nonessential antibodies, fail to respond properly to normal physiologic signals, and are at increased risk of becoming cancerous," he explains.
B cells produce antibodies, proteins that specifically recognize and attach to foreign molecules, or antigens, such as those found on the surface of an invading virus or bacterium.
Plasma cells are B cells that, upon recognizing an antigen, rapidly divide and pump out thousands of antibody molecules to attack a microbial invader.
www.niaid.nih.gov /newsroom/releases/hivbcell-2.htm   (856 words)

  
 Tolerance Technology - B Cell Overview
B cells produce antibodies that recognize and bind to antigens and mark them for destruction.
B cells are normally triggered to produce antibodies by a two-step process.
If an activated B cell encounters a T cell that has been activated by the same antigen, antibodies against that antigen are produced.
www.ljpc.com /tolerance_tech_bcell_tolerance.html   (482 words)

  
 B Cells and T Cells
B cells are not only produced in the bone marrow but also mature there.
T cells is to monitor all the cells of the body, ready to destroy any that express foreign antigen fragments in their class I molecules.
T cells bind an epitope consisting of an antigen fragment lying in the groove of a class II histocompatibility molecule.
home.comcast.net /~john.kimball1/BiologyPages/B/B_and_Tcells.html   (1889 words)

  
 B Cells and Antibodies
Effector B cells can begin secreting antibody while they are still small lymphocytes, but the end stage of their maturation pathway is a large plasma cell (see Figure 24-7B), which continuously secretes antibodies at the astonishing rate of about 2000 molecules per second.
Cells of the placenta that are in contact with maternal blood have Fc receptors that bind blood-borne IgG molecules and direct their passage to the fetus.
Initially, during B cell development in the bone marrow, the antibody molecules are inserted into the plasma membrane, where they serve as receptors for antigen.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /books/bv.fcgi?rid=mboc4.section.4446   (3459 words)

  
 New monoclonal antibody that targets immune system B cells shows promise for treating leukemias
B cells are the immune system's "arms factories," producing antibodies that target invading microbes for destruction.
Abnormal B cell proliferation causes such leukemias as multiple myeloma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and such autoimmune diseases as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.
The depletion of precursor and immature B cells is important because aberrant versions of such cells cause a number of leukemias and other malignancies where new therapies are needed, said Tedder.
www.news-medical.net /?id=13702   (797 words)

  
 University of Pennsylvania : Research at Penn : Natural Science :: Attack of the Killer B Cells
Their studies link the evolution of the adaptive immune system in mammals, where B cells produce antibodies to fight infection, to the more primitive innate immunity in fish, where they found that B cells take part in phagocytosis (literally: cell eating), the process by which cells of the immune system ingest foreign particles and microbes.
In modern mammals, the B cell is a highly adapted part of the immune system chiefly responsible for, among other things, the creation of antibodies that tag foreign particles and microbes for destruction.
B cells themselves, for example, were first discovered in chickens in the 1960s.
www.upenn.edu /researchatpenn/preview/article.php?1112&sci   (825 words)

  
 Specialized immune-system B cells play double-barreled role
B cells are the arms factories of the immune system, producing antibodies that target invading microbes for destruction.
Thus, the researchers concluded that the B-1a cells regulate the innate immune response and the B-1b cells regulate the adaptive, long-term immune response.
But now, research is reaching a point where we can understand the signals that switch certain B cell populations on and off and regulate their function.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2005-07/dumc-sib071505.php   (744 words)

  
 Human B Cells Express Functional TRAIL/Apo-2 Ligand after CpG-Containing Oligodeoxynucleotide Stimulation -- Kemp et ...
B cells were stimulated for 24 h in the absence or presence of CpG-B ODN 2006, CpG-B ODN control 2041, CpG-A ODN 2216, or CpG-A ODN control 2243 (1 µg/ml).
B, Culture supernatants from the cells used in A were assayed for IL-6 by ELISA to demonstrate B cell responsiveness to CpG ODN stimulation.
The expression of a death-inducing ligand on B cells is not
www.jimmunol.org /cgi/content/full/173/2/892   (4984 words)

  
 Causes of Scleroderma: B Cells and T Cells
Understanding the interplay between T and B cells, and the processes that promote the fibrotic cytokine pattern seen in these patients is of utmost importance for the development of effective therapies to treat the clinical complications.
In addition to rheumatoid arthritis, B cells are likely to play a significant role in the development of other autoimmune rheumatic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, myositis, and vasculitis.
A study reports that regulatory T cells, which "police" the immune system, are produced in the thymus and not from other circulating T cells and that mistakes made by regulatory T cells may contribute to autoimmune disease.
www.sclero.org /medical/research/causes/autoimmunity/t-cells/a-to-z.html   (2407 words)

  
 B cell definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms
Many B cells mature into what are called plasma cells that produce antibodies (proteins) necessary to fight off infections while other B cells mature into memory B cells.
All of the plasma cells descended from a single B cell produce the same antibody which is directed against the antigen that stimulated it to mature.
B cells in mammals mature largely in the bone marrow.
www.medterms.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=2413   (388 words)

  
 || DukeMedNews || Specialized Immune-System B Cells Play Double-Barreled Role   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-19)
B cells are the arms factories of the immune system, producing antibodies that target invading microbes for destruction.
Thus, the researchers concluded that the B-1a cells regulate the innate immune response and the B-1b cells regulate the adaptive, long-term immune response.
But now, research is reaching a point where we can understand the signals that switch certain B cell populations on and off and regulate their function.
www.dukemednews.org /news/article.php?id=9137   (893 words)

  
 B Cells May Help Maintain HIV Infection
Moir explains that B cells are not a hidden reservoir of HIV, however, because they do not house internalized, replicating virus, and the amount of B-cell-bound virus decreases as HIV levels decline in the blood.
Now that the researchers have shown how B cells might play a role in HIV infection, they are testing to see if the HIV in infected T cells is genetically related to that on the B cells.
B cells of HIV-1-infected patients bind virions through CD21-complement interactions and transmit infectious virus to activated T cells.
www.niaid.nih.gov /newsroom/releases/hivbcell.htm   (814 words)

  
 B Cells, Immunology Bookcase, Dalhousie University
B cells develop from stem cells in the bone marrow.
The B cells are called naive because they have not seen antigen yet.
It is important to know that each and every B cell (and there are many millions in the body at any one time) has a different antibody on its surface.
pim.medicine.dal.ca /bcell.htm   (244 words)

  
 Cells of the Immune System
B cells spend their entire early life in the bone marrow.
Specialized B cells which grant the body the ability to manufacture more of a particular antibody as needed, in case a particular antigen is ever encountered again.
Unlike B cells, these cells leave the marrow at an early age and travel to the thymus, where they mature.
www.angelfire.com /mech/elispot/immune-system-cells.html   (542 words)

  
 B Cells and Antibodies
Cells expressing mutations which improve antigen binding are favoured in terms of activation and co-operation with T cells.
When B cells develop from their precursors they initiate a programme of differentiation which leads to rearrangement of the heavy chain gene segments.
Correspondingly those developing B cell clones which fail to make a productive rearrangement at both one of their heavy chain alleles and a light chain locus will die.
www-immuno.path.cam.ac.uk /~immuno/part1/lec06/lec6_97.html   (2538 words)

  
 B Cells Gone Bad: Researchers Uncover How HIV Causes Abnormalities in Antibody-Producing Cells
The malfunction of B cells in HIV-infected patients was first described more than 20 years ago by H. Clifford Lane, M.D., Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., and colleagues at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Moir and her team discovered that B cells of patients with high levels of HIV have reduced levels of BAFF-R on their surfaces, making these B cells more susceptible to cell death.
Decreased survival of B cells of HIV-viremic patients mediated by altered expression of receptors of the TNF superfamily.
www3.niaid.nih.gov /news/newsreleases/2004/bcells.htm   (788 words)

  
 6. Autoimmune Diseases and the Promise of Stem Cell-Based Therapies [Stem Cell Information]
Upon their departure from the bone marrow, immature T cells undergo a final maturation process in the thymus, a small organ located in the upper chest, before being dispersed to the body with the rest of the immune cells (e.g., B cells).
Such mature donor alloreactive T cells would be absent from pure populations of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, and under ideal conditions of immune tolerance induction in the recipient's thymus, the donor-derived mature T cell population would be tolerant to the host.
The ideal cell for optimum cartilage repair may be a more primitive cell than the chondrocyte, such as the stromal cell, or an intermediate cell in the pathway (e.g., a connective tissue precursor) leading to the chondrocyte.
stemcells.nih.gov /info/scireport/chapter6.asp   (4826 words)

  
 B cells and T cells in autoimmunity
The presence of T cells in the inflamed tissues indicates nothing very much since T cells (of the TH1 type) are normally brought in to any inflamed tissue by mediators such as cytokines, whereas B cells are not.
The acquisition of T cell responses to foreign antigens constantly present in the body, such as Epsten Barr virus may be necessary for the generation of rheumatoid factor.
It is almost certainly T cell dependent as well, but the stochastic generation of B cells committed to IgG rheumatoid factor production seems to us to be the only viable explanation for the initiation of the disease and the subsequent inflammatory mechanism.
www.ucl.ac.uk /~regfjxe/T.htm   (1290 words)

  
 Researchers studying developmental path for generating B cells from stem cells
Before stem cells of any origin can be used to treat patients, scientists will need to learn how to coax them to develop into the desired cell types.
The researchers describe four critical stages on the way from a multipotent precursor to a committed B cell and suggest how combinations of regulatory proteins and signaling pathways direct maturing cells through each crossroad, guiding them down one specific developmental path, preparing them to respond to signals yet to come and blocking off other options.
Five transcriptional regulators guide future B cells along this pathway, activating genes that move the cell to the next stage and enabling the cell to respond to specific chemical signals later on.
chronicle.uchicago.edu /041118/stemcells.shtml   (589 words)

  
 Roles of T Cells
Once a T cell recognizes its specific peptide antigen presented on a dendritic cell or B cell, the T cell becomes activated so that it now goes on to promote an aspect of an immune response.
Helper T cells develop in one of two directions, depending on the cytokine environment in which they are activated.
Thus, the role of CD8+ T cells is to identify cells that are synthesizing protein that is not a normal part of the body.
courses.washington.edu /conj/immune/tcells.htm   (1182 words)

  
 Immune System T Cells Lymphokines
Typically identifiable by the T4 cell marker, helper T cells are essential for activating B cells and other T cells as well as natural killer cells and macrophages.
Lymphokines (which are also secreted by B cells) and their relatives, the monokines produced by monocytes and macrophages, are diverse and potent chemical messengers.
Produced by T cells and macrophages (as well as by cells outside the immune system), interferons are a family of proteins with antiviral properties.
www.immunecentral.com /immune-system/iss8.cfm   (551 words)

  
 The Scientist : Clues to how B cells establish affinity
By using a panel of mutant lysozymes with various affinities for the B cell receptor, the researchers next showed that the affinity between the receptor and antigen correlated directly with the degree of B cell spreading.
The amount of B cell spreading determines the amount of antigen collected, and therefore establishes the ability of B cells to present antigen-derived peptides to T cells, Batista said.
In that case, B cells with "the higher affinity would take up more of the antigen and be able to present it to the T cell," DeFranco said.
www.the-scientist.com /news/display/23357   (721 words)

  
 Memory B cell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed following primary infection.
When a B cell is activated, by recognizing a specific antigen, it proliferates to form antibody producing plasma cells and long-lived memory cells.
The memory B cells are specific for the antigen that first stimulated their production.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Memory_B_cell   (157 words)

  
 'Killer' B cells provide new link in the evolution of immunity
"When examining fish B cells we see them actively attacking and eating foreign bodies, which is a behavior that, according to the current dogma, just shouldn't happen in B cells," said J. Oriol Sunyer, a professor in Penn Vet's Department of Pathobiology and leader of the research team.
The researchers determined that these attack B cells account for more than 30-40 percent of all immune cells in fish, whereas phagocytic cells make up only a small portion of the total number of immune cells in mammals.
According to Sunyer, the findings are important for not only understanding the evolution and function of immune cells in fish but also may point to novel roles of B cells in mammals.
www.physorg.com /news79101607.html   (724 words)

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