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Topic: BF Skinner


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In the News (Tue 2 Sep 14)

  
  B. F. Skinner
Burrhus Frederic Skinner was born March 20, 1904, in the small Pennsylvania town of Susquehanna.
This is a special cage (called, in fact, a “Skinner box”) that has a bar or pedal on one wall that, when pressed, causes a little mechanism to release a food pellet into the cage.
Skinner and his students have been quite successful in teaching simple animals to do some quite extraordinary things.
www.ship.edu /~cgboeree/skinner.html   (3003 words)

  
  A Review of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, by Noam Chomsky
Skinner's thesis is that external factors consisting of present stimulation and the history of reinforcement (in particular, the frequency, arrangement, and withholding of reinforcing stimuli) are of overwhelming importance, and that the general principles revealed in laboratory studies of these phenomena provide the basis for understanding the complexities of verbal behavior.
Skinner recognizes (20) the fundamental character of the problem of identification of a unit of verbal behavior, but is satisfied with an answer so vague and subjective that it does not really contribute to its solution.
Skinner accepts the traditional account in toto, as can be seen from his definition of a tact as a response under control of a property (stimulus) of some physical object or event.
www.chomsky.info /articles/1967----.htm   (14778 words)

  
 BF Skinner   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
This is a special cage (called, in fact, a “Skinner box”) that has a bar or pedal on one wall that, when pressed, causes a little mechanism to release a foot pellet into the cage.
So he decided to reduce the number of reinforcements he gave his rats for whatever behavior he was trying to condition, and, lo and behold, the rats kept up their operant behaviors, and at a stable rate, no less.
Skinner was to enjoy considerable popularity during the 1960's and even into the 70's.
www.linwoodschools.org /breslow/skinner.htm   (2794 words)

  
 Eyes of BF Skinner
Through the Eyes of BF Skinner is focused primarily on Skinner's theory of operant conditioning within the genre of behaviorism.
Skinner was interested in the behavior of animals, and he constructed apparatus after apparatus to observe and record rats' behavior and its changes.
Skinner's final significant contribution was his theories on how to get rid of an incompatible behavior; namely through his processes of extinction, satiation, and/or shaping.
www.public.asu.edu /~evatz/Skinneressay.html   (1726 words)

  
 B. F. Skinner Foundation - Biography
Skinner discovered that the rate with which the rat pressed the bar depended not on any preceding stimulus (as Watson and Pavlov had insisted), but on what followed the bar presses.
When the war was about to end, Skinner attended a dinner party and mentioned to a friend that it was too bad that her son and other young people would come back to the old ways of doing things.
Skinner's analysis of how to design sequences of steps came to him as he was finishing a book on which he had worked, on and off, for twenty years.
www.bfskinner.org /bio.asp   (2152 words)

  
 B. F. Skinner
Skinner believed that the only scientific approach to psychology was one that studied behaviors, not internal (subjective) mental processes.
Skinner later sought to unite the reinforcement of individual behaviors, the natural selection of species, and the development of cultures under the heading of The Selection by Consequences (1981), the first of a series of articles in the journal Science.
Skinner was heavily influenced by the work of John B. Watson as well as early behaviorist pioneers Ivan Pavlov and Edward Thorndike.
www.nndb.com /people/297/000022231   (441 words)

  
 B.F. Skinner
Skinner concluded with the theory that the proposed changes would free the teacher for more important functions and that mechanized instruction should be integrated into all schools, not as a replacement for, but as an adjunct to the teacher.
Skinner supported this idea with the fact that responses should be recalled, not simply recognized, and that wrong selections may seem out of place and strengthen unwanted recall.
Skinner also noted that the machine itself does not teach, but brings the student into contact with the person who composed the material it presented.
www.coe.uh.edu /courses/cuin6373/idhistory/skinner.html   (727 words)

  
 dee dee dot com
BF Skinner’s article, “Science and Human Behavior,” rejects the idea of “mind” and intermediate mental states in favor of behaviors that can be observed.
Consequently, Skinner believes behavior is simply a response to external stimuli, and the history of that environmental input—not the product of a non-physical “mind.” Skinner claims that when one relies on “conceptual inner causes” to explain behavior, circular reasoning ensues [a man “behaves brilliantly because of his intelligence” (57)].
Skinner makes the correct judgment that scientific experimentation relies on available observations, but Chomsky continually points out that Skinner’s science is neither truly scientific, nor realistically capable of accounting for the great variability and complexity of human behavior.
www.dangerrrdoll.com /Content/Writing/Articles/essay7.html   (1617 words)

  
 SoccerBlog.com: The Eurocentric effect on soccer: Juju men are being marginalized
BF Skinner, the father of behavior pyschology studied the association between ritualistic behavior and a desired outcome that leads to superstitions.
Skinner's work in 1947 was performed on pigeons that were starved of food and then held in cages where food would be presented at specific regulated intervals and then taken away, irrespective of whether the pigeon got to the food or not.
Skinner stated that these rituals developed because the association of a particular response at the time of the stimuli of food, which led to the pigeons believing that the pursuit of these behaviors in the future would lead to the successful outcome of the presentation of food.
www.soccerblog.com /2006/05/the_eurocentric_effect_on_socc.htm   (796 words)

  
 Key Theorists/Theories in Psychology - B.F. SKINNER
B.F. Skinner was an American psychologist, born in Susquehanna, Pa. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1931, and remained there as an instructor until 1936, when he moved to the Univ. of Minnesota (1937—45) and to Indiana Univ., where he was chairman of the psychology department (1945—48).
Skinner was the leading exponent of the school of psychology known as behaviorism, which explains the behavior of humans and other animals in terms of the physiological responses of the organism to external stimuli.
Skinner maintained that learning occurred as a result of the organism responding to, or operating on, its environment, and coined the term operant conditioning to describe this phenomenon.
www.psy.pdx.edu /PsiCafe/KeyTheorists/Skinner.htm   (487 words)

  
 B.F. Skinner and the Perversion of Behaviorism; or how Kent Berridge finally got behaviorism right!
So the problem Skinner faced was that the wholesale transfer of a behavioristic methodology to human affairs compromised behaviorism, since unfalsifiable mentalisms of need, drive, and desire got in the way of cause and effect.
Because the mentalisms that populated common speech were unfalsifiable, Skinner simply banished them, and the methodology of his brand of behaviorism, or a 'methodological' behaviorism became by virtue of its intrusion in common affairs, the behaviorism that is popularly known today in notoriety and fame.
One could be impressed in 1938, when Skinner's first major book appeared, by the clarity of the early studies of operant performance curves, of the smooth versus scalloped differences in their shapes produced by fixed ratio versus fixed interval reinforcement schedules, and so on.
www.homestead.com /flowstate/skinner.html   (2520 words)

  
 B. F. Skinner - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Skinner was mainly responsible for the development of the philosophy of radical behaviorism and for the further development of applied behavior analysis, a branch of psychology which aims to develop a unified framework for animal and human behavior based on principles of learning.
Skinner's political writings emphasized his hopes that an effective and humane science of behavioral control - a behavioral technology - could solve human problems which were not solved by earlier approaches or were actively aggravated by advances in physical technology such as the atomic bomb.
Skinner saw the problems of political control not as a battle of domination versus freedom, but as choices of what kinds of control were used for what purposes.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/B._F._Skinner   (2809 words)

  
 Urban Legends Reference Pages: Science (One Man and a Baby Box)
This "baby tender," as Skinner called it, provided Deborah with a place to sleep and remain comfortably warm throughout the severe Minnesota winters without having to be wrapped in numerous layers of clothing and blankets (and developing the attendant rashes).
Nonetheless, many people jumped to the conclusion that Skinner was raising his daughter in a cramped box equipped with bells and food trays and was conducting psychological experiments of the "rewards and punishments" variety on her.
In fact, Deborah Skinner (now Deborah Skinner Buzan) grew up about as normally as can be, remained close to her father, and has been living and working in London as an artist since the mid-1970s.
www.snopes.com /science/skinner.asp   (1253 words)

  
 Essay Depot - B. F. Skinner
Burrhus Frederic Skinner, psychologist and behaviorist, was born in Susquhanna, Pennsylvania in 1904 to William Skinner and Grace Burrhus.
Skinner had a friend who was teaching that summer at Minnesota, and he mentioned Skinner to R.M. Elliott, who was looking for someone to teach small sections of a big introductory course.
Skinner experienced a renewed interest in Literature when he realized that the written word could also be analyzed for human behavior.
www.essaydepot.com /essayme/1347/index.php   (854 words)

  
 TIP: Theories
The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior.
One of the distinctive aspects of Skinner's theory is that it attempted to provide behavioral explanations for a broad range of cognitive phenomena.
Skinner (1957) tried to account for verbal learning and language within the operant conditioning paradigm, although this effort was strongly rejected by linguists and psycholinguists.
www.gwu.edu /~tip/skinner.html   (514 words)

  
 B.F. Skinner
Skinner and others developed the learning theory known as operant (or instrumental) conditioning, in which the stimulus follows the behavior, as opposed to classical conditioning, in which the stimulus always precedes the behavior.
Skinner recognized the critical importance of constancy of conditions in his experiments and developed the instrumental conditioning chamber or ‘Skinner box’ (more pics).
Intrigued, Skinner read Watson as well as the recently translated Pavlov, liked what he read, and began to suspect that behavioristic analyses might just be able to account for many of those “whys” of behavior that were missing in literature.
www.skewsme.com /skinner.html   (2001 words)

  
 BF Skinner
urrhus Frederic Skinner was born and raised in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania.
Young Skinner was taken by Crozier, an ardent advocate for animal studies and behavioral measures, and began to tailor his studies according to Crozier's highly functional, behaviorist framework.
Skinner, however, focused on what occurred after a behavior, noting that the effects or repercussions of an action could influence an organism's learning.
www3.niu.edu /acad/psych/Millis/History/2003/cogrev_skinner.htm   (1218 words)

  
 TIP: Theories   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior.
One of the distinctive aspects of Skinner's theory is that it attempted to provide behavioral explanations for a broad range of cognitive phenomena.
Skinner (1957) tried to account for verbal learning and language within the operant conditioning paradigm, although this effort was strongly rejected by linguists and psycholinguists.
tip.psychology.org /skinner.html   (514 words)

  
 Burrhus Frederic Skinner
Skinner is particularly known for his work in the area of behaviorism.
Skinner proposed that subjects (students) could not move to the next level of learning unless they had completely mastered the previous level.
Skinner's ideas will continue to be put to use well into the future, even if those who use them, do not understand the concepts or the educational philosophy behind them.
www.geocities.com /derekgaudet/bfskinner.htm   (1263 words)

  
 Behaviorism, B.F. Skinner, Social Control, Modern Psychology, Man as Machine, and Denial of Man's Mind and Soul
Dignity, Skinner put forth the notion that Man had no indwelling personality, nor will, intention, self-determinism or personal responsibility, and that modern concepts of freedom and dignity have to fall away so Man could be intelligently controlled to behave as he should.
Skinner follows in the tradition of all elitists who imagine they know what is best for everyone else and have no compunctions about enforcing his ideas upon others in there own best interests.
The Stimulus and the Response: A Critique of B.F. Skinner
www.sntp.net /behaviorism/skinner.htm   (2312 words)

  
 Amazon.com: Walden Two (Trade Book): Books: B. F. Skinner   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
B.F. Skinner's book presents a fictional outline of a modern utopia in which human problems are solved by a scientific technology of human conduct.
Skinner's main aim in analyzing behavior was to find out the relationship between behavior and the environment, the interactions between the two.
B.F. Skinner was a famous research psychologist who had a life-time of noted insights into the human psyche and his constant experimentation with behavioral studies led him to map-out, in a fictional utopian setting, a demonstration of what the supposed benefits of behavioral modification would do for a large group of people.
www.amazon.com /Walden-Two-Trade-Book-Skinner/dp/002411510X   (3164 words)

  
 A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: B.F. Skinner
For the most part, the psychology department there was immersed in introspective psychology, and Skinner found himself more and more a behaviorist.
Skinner compared this learning with the way children learn to talk -- they are rewarded for making a sound that is sort of like a word until in fact they can say the word.
Skinner was known for making audacious statements on this matter (and others), following in Watson's tradition of being provocative, controversial, and an excellent publicist of his ideas.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bhskin.html   (641 words)

  
 PAR 103: Skinner and Vetter Reading
Exemplary of this trend is Skinner (1953), who maintained that, like all other behaviors, the religious varieties occur because they have been followed by reinforcing stimuli.
Recalling Skinner's observations of "superstitious" behavior in randomly reinforced pigeons and N. Maier's report of stereotypic and nonfunctional behavior when rats were forced to make impossible discriminations, Vetter argued that religious behaviors are the comparable human response to unpredictable and uncontrollable situations.
Although behavioral principles, especially those developed by Skinner, retain wide currency among both academic and clinical psychologists, many find their emphasis on individually reinforced response units too molecular and mechanistic to account for such complex behaviors as are found in the religious realm.
people.uncw.edu /bergh/par103/L18RSkinnerAndVetter.htm   (724 words)

  
 skinner
Skinner founded operant conditioning which uses reinforcements, instead of strengthening stimulus-response habits(Ormrod, 1999).
Skinner' s Law of Conditioning, states response followed by a reinforcing stimulus is strengthened and more likely to occur again.
Skinner worked with rats in his Skinner Box, through a process using reinforcement (positive) to teach them to push a metal bar for food.
web.syr.edu /~tcargond/ide621/skinner.html   (78 words)

  
 The Pigeon and the Predictor
Skinner himself recalls in a kind of primer on behaviorism that he only promoted the "experimental analysis of behavior" which is a "special discipline" among behavioral sciences.
Skinner was asked to produce quantitative data that could be analyze by Albert Hall, a specialist at the Servomechanisms Lab at MIT who served as a consultant for the decision.
Skinner’s project with pigeons was pursued under the name ‘ORCON’, from the words ‘organic’ and ‘control’, and contrary to ‘cybernetics’, scientist never used the term ‘cyborg’.
www.jerome-segal.de /Publis/pigeon.html   (7964 words)

  
 The Straight Dope: Whatever became of B. F. Skinner?
Drawing on a famous series of animal experiments involving a "Skinner box" (a cage containing a lever or button that produced a food pellet when pressed), Skinner showed that an organism's behavior can be understood as a function of its interaction with its environment.
Skinner's ideas had obvious application to education, and he was an early proponent of programmed instruction, in which a "teaching machine" or other technique gives a student immediate feedback on his responses.
An inveterate tinkerer, in the 40s he invented the "air crib," a climate-controlled crib/playpen that some called a "baby in a box." His daughter Deborah slept in the device for her first two and a half years, leading some to claim he was using her as a guinea pig.
www.straightdope.com /columns/030815.html   (867 words)

  
 B.F. Skinner Biography (Psychologist) — Infoplease.com
B.F. Skinner earned his doctorate degree in psychology in 1931.
For many years Skinner was a professor at Harvard University, and he authored several books, including The Behavior of Organisms (1938), Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971) and the novel Walden Two (1948).
Skinner developed the "air-crib," a modified crib designed to take care of infants' needs, and the Skinner box, a laboratory device for animal experimentation, designed to study responses to external stimuli.
www.infoplease.com /biography/var/bfskinner.html   (208 words)

  
 Food Machinery UK Ltd
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www.foodmachineryrepairs.com /index1.htm   (2560 words)

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