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Topic: Background independence

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In the News (Sun 21 Apr 19)

  Background independence | The String Coffee Table
Hence perturbation theory and backgrounds are inseperable and denying the usefulness of backgrounds in quantum gravity amounts to denying the usefulness of perturbation theory.
Background independence comes about because the space of p-jets is invariant under diffeomorphisms.
The distinction between background independence and diffeomorphism invariance is merely a semantic one.
golem.ph.utexas.edu /string/archives/000621.html   (10493 words)

  Background independence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Background independence is a condition in theoretical physics, especially in quantum gravity, that requires the defining equations of a theory to be independent of the actual shape of the spacetime and the value of various fields within the spacetime.
Other Background independent theories of quantum gravity are [[dynamical triangulations]] and non-commutative geometry.
Perturbative string theory (as well as a number of non-perturbative developments) is not background independent, the scattering matrix they calculate is not invariant under active diffeomorphisms.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Background_independence   (2585 words)

 CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Background   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Azerbaijan - a nation with a Turkic and majority-Muslim population - was briefly independent from 1918 to 1920; it regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Although a referendum on independence from the UK was soundly defeated in 1995, the present government has reopened debate on the issue.
Following independence in 1975, and a tentative interest in unification with Guinea-Bissau, a one-party system was established and maintained until multi-party elections were held in 1990.
www.cia.gov /cia/publications/factbook/fields/2028.html   (17790 words)

 Independence High School   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Independence High School is a four-year high school (grades 9-12) in the Columbus Public School district.
The residents of this area are from a fairly diverse cultural and economic background.
Independence has an enrollment of 1125 students and is accredited by North Central Association of Secondary Schools and the Department of Education, State of Ohio.
www.denison.edu /english/fys101-18/5/DSP7.html   (133 words)

 Basis for Conclusions Paper—Nonattest Services Independence Rules   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
When a member is found to be in violation of another body's independence rule, deeming that member to be in violation of Rule 101 when the member made a good faith judgment in applying the other body's independence rule, particularly one that may be complex, ambiguous, or unclear, seemed unfair to one respondent.
If a member finds an independence rule to be complex, ambiguous, or unclear, the Committee expects the member to seek appropriate guidance to address the complexity or ambiguity and gain the necessary clarity to comply with the applicable independence rule prior to performing the nonattest service.
The Committee considered whether a member's independence would be considered to be impaired if he or she failed to document his or her understanding with the attest client prior to performing nonattest services.
www.aicpa.org /members/div/ethics/index/bfc1.htm   (6560 words)

 Luboš Motl's reference frame: July 2005
Background independence is definitely an interesting topic in philosophy of physics.
The maximally supersymmetric backgrounds - such as the N=4 gauge theory - are best understood, and one can show that the dual is not just some generic five-dimensional gravitational theory, but the ten-dimensional type IIB string theory on a very specific background.
And it is natural to think that all backgrounds of string theory may be described by a system that follows the same requirement of beauty and physical consistency as two-dimensional conformal field theory, but one that is more general.
motls.blogspot.com /2005_07_01_motls_archive.html   (17738 words)

 Independence: Founding of the nation | Pridnestrovie.net - Tiraspol, PMR: Pridnestrovskaia Moldavskaia Respublica ...
As a truly multiethnic nation, it's independence was a result of standing up for minority rights and self-determination in the face of ethnic genocide.
Pridnestrovie's existence follows the requirements of international law and, as such, is independent of recognition by its larger neighbor or other states.
Pridnestrovie's independence came after a legal referendum and in accordanance with the laws prevailing on its territory at the time.
pridnestrovie.net /taxonomy/term/42   (617 words)

 Lech Walesa hero file   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Background: Sandwiched between Germany and Russia, Poland is under constant threat of invasion from the time of its formation in the middle of the 10th Century.
Solidarity is officially formed in September and recognised by the government in October, becoming the country's first legally recognised independent trade union since the end of the Second World War.
Often described as blunt and domineering he is also a completely human man. His humour, passion and understanding caught the imagination of the Polish people in the 1970s and 80s and saw him become the fulcrum of their battle for independence.
www.moreorless.au.com /heroes/walesa.html   (3525 words)

 Luboš Motl's reference frame: Background independence
Let us agree that if background independence means to return us to the Machian dogmas that the space (and gravitational waves) can't exist, then it's a medieval silliness that we should no longer discuss in the 21th century.
It does not really matter whether one uses new terms such as "spin network", "spin foam", "background independence": these things mean nothing else than new versions of the gravitational aether and they are as discredited as luminiferous aether.
This subsection starts with the statement of the physicists that physics around a particular background of string theory may be studied without a background-independent formulation of the theory.
motls.blogspot.com /2005/07/background-independence.html   (8982 words)

 ABA Division for Public Education: Resources on Independence of the Judiciary: Article
An independent judiciary in the United States generally protects these principles; a fact not to be taken lightly.
Though judges in Britain developed some independence, their counterparts in the American colonies remained essentially Crown officers, whose duty was to enforce British policies and law, leading to frequent conflicts with the colonists.
When independence came, the framers of the Constitution worked to create a third branch of government that was relatively independent of the executive and the legislative branches.
www.abanet.org /publiced/resources/indcourtsarticle.html   (1172 words)

 Actors on a changing stage
Newton's view of the universe is manifestly background dependent - whether or not a particle is moving or at rest is determined in relation to Newton's absolute space and time.
Closely related to background independence is another basic ingredient of general relativity, known by the imposing name diffeomorphism invariance.
The quantum geometry is formulated using beautiful relational structures such as connected networks with nodes and connections (compare the page Loop quantum gravity in the section Relativity and the quantum of Elementary Einstein as well as the spotlight text The fabric of space: spin networks).
www.einstein-online.info /en/spotlights/background_independence/index.html   (1142 words)

 Not Even Wrong » Blog Archive » What Is Your Dangerous Idea?
The remarks about background independence are more widely known, and have more justification, although the appeals to Leibniz’s theory of space should not be made, since Leibnizian space was disproved by Kant in the 1780’s.
But the point is that from a background independent point of view, any result that requires the specification of a specific solution rather than a generic prediction of the theory seems unreliable exactly because the symmetric solutions are in many ways non-generic.
Background independence will be nice, but we just don’t know for sure if it is a necessary feature of quantum gravity.
www.math.columbia.edu /~woit/wordpress?p=319   (7710 words)

 Search Results for "UK"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Background:Established as a territory of the UK in 1965, a number of the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) islands were transferred to the Seychelles when it...
Background:The islands were part of the UK's Jamaican colony until 1962, when they assumed the status of a separate crown colony upon Jamaica's independence.
Background:The Gambia gained its independence from the UK in 1965; it formed a short-lived federation of Senegambia with Senegal between 1982 and 1989.
www.bartleby.com /cgi-bin/texis/webinator/sitesearch?FILTER=&query=UK   (253 words)

 [No title]
It affirms that everyone is entitled to the equal protection of the law; that the accused must be presumed innocent until proven guilty, in a fair and public hearing, by an "independent and impartial" tribunal; and that no one should suffer arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
In fulfilment of his mandate to inquire into serious allegations of attacks on the independence of the judiciary, lawyers and court officials, his first report on specific cases, along with conclusions and recommendations, is due early in 1996.
United Nations experts have continued to urge that pay raises be instituted, citing the value of insuring the financial independence of judges and the appearance of propriety.
www.un.org /rights/dpi1837e.htm   (2668 words)

 CapitalistImperialistPig: Epistle to the Boetians
This is despite there being compelling arguments that a fundamental theory must be background independent.
One of the core elements of his arguement is that only a relational, background free theory can be free of boundary conditions or other things outside the domain of the theory.
Some string theorists have also claimed that string theory does not need a background independent formulation, because the fact that string perturbation theory is, in principle, defined on many different backgrounds is sufficient.
capitalistimperialistpig.blogspot.com /2005/07/epistle-to-boetians.html   (583 words)

 Loop quantum gravity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Quantum field theory studied on curved (non-Minkowskian) backgrounds has shown that some of the core assumptions of quantum field theory cannot be carried over.
In particular, the vacuum, when it exists, is shown to depend on the path of the observer through space-time (see Unruh effect).
Whether or not Lorentz invariance is broken in the low-energy limit of LQG, the theory is formally background independent.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Loop_quantum_gravity   (1990 words)

 UPJ - UCLA Undergraduate Psychology Journal
People with independent self-construals strive to develop and express their unique characteristics, whereas people with interdependent self-construals place value on harmonious relationships with others and acceptance in their community.
Singelis (1994) argues that interdependent and independent self-construals are two distinct dimensions along which individuals will vary independently on a continuum; for example, if people have parents from different cultures or have opportunities to interact with people from other cultures, they could have two well-developed dimensions of the self.
Moreover, the correlation between independence and BAS was significant, r =.41, p <.001, indicating that participants high in independence scored high in approach orientation.
www.studentgroups.ucla.edu /upj/fall2002/kaoritakagi.html   (2724 words)

 History of 4th of July.
The following day, copies of the Declaration of Independence were distributed and, on July 6, The Pennsylvania Evening Post became the first newspaper to print the extraordinary document.
On July 8, 1776, the first public readings of the Declaration were held in Philadelphia’s Independence Square to the ringing of bells and band music.
All of this had occurred with some of the delegates to the Congress not even present; New York, for example, did not even vote on the resolution until July 9th.
www.twilightbridge.com /hobbies/festivals/independence/historyfourth.htm   (786 words)

 Lee Smolin’s Background-Independent, Relational Description of Nature—and What it Means for You   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
In a background-independent theory of nature, there is no inert background in which “things” are suspended and in which they interact.
Thus background independence theory extends further than representing “things” as the executions or simulations of programs in a gigantic computer, as Wolfram’s book basically suggests.
Most importantly, with background independence, we can start to see biology and complex nervous systems fitting in more naturally.
www.people.fas.harvard.edu /~ulm/Vision/smolin_background_independence.htm   (1943 words)

 Background Independence, Locality, and Rare Events
Background independence vs dependence and locality vs globality are ways of looking at or classifying the world (I almost wrote categorizing, but that is already taken).
It consists of Statistically Independent Events/Processes, and in terms of fuzzy multivalued logic it consists of Godel fuzzy multivalued logical implication, which are isomorphic for non-trivial cases since they both equal (x-->y) = y.
Well, sad as it seems, people who are concerned with background independence - and I notice Edward Witten's "On background independent open-string field theory" 10 Aug 92 arXiv:hep-th/9208027 starting the whole thing more or less in the 1990s - are living in or near a theoretical-practical Very Frequent Event universe (VFE).
superstringtheory.com /forum/dualboard/messages9/21.html   (696 words)

 Christine´s Background Independence: Quantum gravity and the standard model   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
A basic dynamics is developed by treating the binding of preons as topological in nature and identifying the substructure of quarks, leptons and gauge bosons with elements of the braid group B_3.
Half the problem for background independent approaches to quantum gravity is getting the ideas convincing and clear, and the other half is ridiculing mainstream string theory propaganda efficiently enough that people will give LQG a second glance.
In such a background independent framework, we propose to probe the structure of a surface through the analysis of the coarse-graining and renormalisation flow(s) of its area.
christinedantas.blogspot.com /2006/03/quantum-gravity-and-standard-model.html   (11125 words)

 Rescuing String Field Theory and Background Independence
He defines background independence essentially as no a-priori choice of open string type as far as I understand.
Part 4 of his paper, Conclusions, says that he has demonstrated at least that the important structure of the requied space is that it have a BRST invariant antibracket and concludes that background independent closed SFT may be closer than it appears.
He hopes that an anticommuting vector field on the space of closed-string theories can be done by embedding the two-dimensional world-sheet as a non-topological defect in a higher dimensional topological theory and using the higher dimensional world similarly to the way that he used the disc in this paper.
superstringtheory.com /forum/dualboard/messages9/54.html   (533 words)

 Does string provide a quantum gravity theory?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
GR is background independent and it makes predictions and is checked more and more in regimes where that background independency matters a whole bunch.
On the other hand, as far as we know, the characteristic of background independence is not logically required to quantize gravity, and even if it is, we can't yet know whether spin-networks is the way to do it.
The characteristic of background independence is logically required by a theory which purports to quantize Relativity because Relativity is background independent.
www.physicsforums.com /showthread.php?p=170235   (2058 words)

 Georgia (09/05)
The zenith of Georgia’s power as an independent kingdom came in the 11th and 12th centuries, during the reigns of King David the Builder and Queen Tamara, who still rank among the most celebrated of all Georgian rulers.
On April 9, 1991, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia declared independence from the U.S.S.R. Beset by ethnic and civil strife from independence in 1991, Georgia began to stabilize in 1995.
Currently, Russian peacekeepers, under the authority of the Commonwealth of Independent States, are stationed in Abkhazia, along with UN observers.
www.state.gov /r/pa/ei/bgn/5253.htm   (3711 words)

 Declaration of Independence historical background
On June 11 consideration of the Lee Resolution was postponed by a vote of seven colonies to five, with New York abstaining.
Before Congress recessed, therefore, a Committee of Five was appointed to draft a statement presenting to the world the colonies' case for independence.
In 1823 Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to Madison concerning the background history to the Declaration of Independence, wrote that the other members of the committee "unanimously pressed on myself alone to undertake the draught [sic].
www.age-of-the-sage.org /philosophy/declaration_of_independence.html   (1239 words)

 Christine's Background Independence
This blog is the result of one year of studies, discussions with professional scientists and amateurs, and posting of reviews and research papers representing our current understanding of quantum gravity, specially, but not limited to, background independent approaches.
Given my recent interest in background independent approaches to quantum gravity, one might tend to believe that I am simply overexcited by the book.
This is supposed to include the "canonical" LQG as well as more recent "spinfoam" (path integral) approaches to background independent, non-pertubative quantum gravity.
christinedantas.blogspot.com   (4551 words)

 Independence (from Mexico) --  Britannica Student Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
On Sept. 16, 1810, in the town of Dolores Hidalgo, the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rang his church's bells and exhorted the local Indians to “recover from the hated Spaniards the land stolen from your forefathers…” This is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day.
His plan called for an independent Mexico ruled by a European prince (or by a Mexican—i.e., Iturbide himself—if no European could be found), retention by the Roman Catholic church of all...
Texas won its independence from Mexico in 1836 and applied for U.S. statehood in the summer of 1837.
www.britannica.com /ebi/article-204567   (959 words)

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