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Topic: Bacteriophage

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In the News (Thu 23 May 19)

  Bacteriophage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A bacteriophage (from 'bacteria' and Greek phagein, 'to eat') is a virus that infects bacteria.
Bacteriophages may have a lytic cycle or a lysogenic cycle, however a few viruses are capable of carrying out both.
Complex bacteriophages, such as the T-even phages, are thought to use a syringe-like motion to inject their genetic material into the cell.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Bacteriophage   (1309 words)

Bacteriophages infect only specific bacteria, so, for research purposes, it is important to coordinate bacteria with their operative bacteriophage.
Some bacteriophages are virulent (reproduce uncontrollably upon infecting the bacterium until they lyse, or burst out of the bacterium, killing it), while others either integrate their genetic material into the DNA of the host or establish themselves as intracellular plasmids, becoming copied with each cell division (these are called prophages).
Bacteriophages are being studied for their potential in fighting bacterial infection, with uneven success.
www.iscid.org /encyclopedia/Bacteriophage   (241 words)

 The Biotech Journal
Bacteriophages require their specific bacterium in order to exist and, in the absence of that specific bacterium, they are eliminated rapidly.
Bacteriophage solutions or aerosols can also be used to treat the surfaces and instruments in operating rooms as well as the skin of the surgical patient (prior to surgery).
Bacteriophages were found in all tissues examined (muscle, blood, spleen, liver, and brain) within 5 minutes of their injection into the muscle (Ref. 2).
www.biotechjournal.com /Journal/feb2003/Article1text.htm   (1674 words)

 bacteriophage - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Bacteriophage, any of various viruses that are parasites of bacteria.
The most elaborate viruses are the bacteriophages, which use bacteria as their hosts.
Bacteriophages are used as vectors in gene cloning and have other biotechnological uses.
encarta.msn.com /bacteriophage.html   (125 words)

While bacteriophages have been the subjects of intense scientific study for decades, knowledge of their replication potential in situ is limited.
The exact origin(s), ecological importance, and functions of these bacteriophage particles are uncertain at the present time, but those studies that have been done (Proctor and Fuhrman, 1990; Suttle and Chen, 1992) coupled with the sheer magnitude of the abundance of these particles suggest significant ecological impact.
Studies of the ability of bacteriophages to reverse DNA damage due to solar UV irradiation have revealed that some apparently may be reactivated by host cells exposed to solar UV radiation (Weigle reactivation).
www.isb.vt.edu /brarg/brasym94/kokjohn.htm   (2000 words)

 All the World's a Phage: Science News Online, July 12, 2003
Bacteriophages, also known simply as phages, came to light around 90 years ago, when two European scientists independently discovered that there are viruses that kill bacteria.
Bacteriophages are drawing renewed interest in part because scientists are only now coming to appreciate how many of these viruses exist.
Almost as staggering as the number of bacteriophages is their genetic diversity, according to scientists at the microbiology meeting.
www.sciencenews.org /articles/20030712/bob9.asp   (2459 words)

Bacteriophage were jointly discovered by Frederick Twort in England and by Felix d'Herelle at the Pasteur Institute in Farance.
Bacteriophage T7 has been used for the study of DNA replication because of its linear chromosome and the problems that poses for DNA replication and also because it encodes its own DNA polymerase.
Bacteriophage lambda has been one of the work-horses of molecular biology particularly as a model system for understanding gene regulation.
www.mun.ca /biochem/courses/3107/Lectures/Topics/bacteriophage.html   (1125 words)

 Division M HomePhage
Regardless of the exact nature of the bacteriophage, it was quickly realized that bacteriophages had the potential to kill the bacteria that cause many infectious diseases in humans, as well as in agriculturally important plants and animals.
Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage survived and continued to supply phage for therapeutic uses to the entire Soviet Union until the recent breakup of the Soviet Union.
The viral nature of the bacteriophage was clearly established, the chemical composition of the virions (the extracellular virus particles) was measured and shown to be protein and DNA, new phages infecting a variety of bacterial hosts were isolated, and some rudimentary progress was made in understanding the virus life cycle.
www.asm.org /division/m/M.html   (1871 words)

 Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteriophage UNL-1, a Bacterial Virus with a Novel UV-A-Inducible DNA ...
Bacteriophage lysates were produced by using a modification of the soft agar overlay method of Arber et al.
Bacteriophage DNA was isolated by using a modification of the method of Miller et al.
Prevalence of broad-host-range lytic bacteriophages of Sphaerotilus natans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
aem.asm.org /cgi/content/full/65/6/2606   (4042 words)

 Research in Genomics
Bacteriophages are the most abundant life form on the Earth, and in fact the majority (!) of genomes in the biosphere are those of dsDNA phages.
Hatfull, Hendrix, and Lawrence and their research groups are working together to learn about the genetic structure of this largest of all biological populations and to infer how it evolves.
As phages alternate between their infectious virion and prophage forms, they are undoubtedly responsible for much of the movement of DNA sequences among bacteria as well (see Bacterial Genomics).
www.pitt.edu /~biohome/Dept/Frame/genomics.htm   (1221 words)

 Bacteriophage Ecology Group: Full Text Entry (Abedon, 1993)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The evidence suggests that T. Rakieten, and her frequent coauthor (and husband) M. Rakieten, considered sewage to be "an excellent source of bacteriophage of the coli-typhoid group" (Rakieten, 1932).
Since it is possible to maintain 'pure line' bacteriophage without significant observable changes over a period of years, the use of such phages in investigative work should be encouraged.
The fact that bacteriophages, particularly those lysing organisms of the enteric group, are practically always mixtures of several types has made it difficult to duplicate the results of many published reports.
www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu /~sabedon/sta0003.htm   (2360 words)

 Bacteriophage Lecture Notes
In addition a knowledge of the life cycle of bacteriophage is necessary to understand one of the mechanisms by which bacterial genes can be transferred from one bacterium to another.
At one time it was thought that the use of bacteriophage might be an effective way to treat bacterial infections, but it soon became apparent that phage are quickly removed from the body and thus, were of little clinical value.
However, bacteriophage are used in the diagnostic laboratory for the identification of pathogenic bacteria (phage typing).
www.med.sc.edu:85 /mayer/phage.htm   (1991 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for bacteriophage   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
bacteriophage BACTERIOPHAGE [bacteriophage], virus that infects bacteria and sometimes destroys them by lysis, or dissolution of the cell.
Bacteriophages, or phages, have a head composed of protein, an inner core of nucleic acid —either deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA)—and a hollow protein
Fred Bledsoe, of Fort Wayne, Indiana, holds a vial of the bacteriophage his staph infection was treated with in the former Soviet Union's Republic of Georgia.
www.encyclopedia.com /articles/00993.html   (316 words)

 bacteriophage - HighBeam Encyclopedia
BACTERIOPHAGE [bacteriophage], virus that infects bacteria and sometimes destroys them by lysis, or dissolution of the cell.
Bacteriophages, or phages, have a head composed of protein, an inner core of nucleic acid —either deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA)—and a hollow protein tail.
The bacteriophage was discovered independently by the microbiologists F. Twort (1915) and Félix d'Hérelle (1917).
www.encyclopedia.com /html/b1/bacterio.asp   (569 words)

As such, there was much interest in using "bacteriophage therapy" as a means to prevent and cure infection since their discovery in the early 1900's.
It is the lytic system of the bacteriophage that actually lyses the infected bacterial cell, resulting in death.
All double stranded DNA bacteriophage contains a lytic system consisting of a holin and at least one mureine hydrolase or "lysin" which is capable of degrading the bacterial cell wall to allow phage release (see Young et al., 2000, for a review).
www.nhdiag.com /phage.shtml   (235 words)

 ASM Division M: Bacteriophage, Glossary
A moron (in bacteriophage biology) is a DNA element inserted between a pair of genes in one phage genome when the genes of this same pair are adjacent in a related phage genome.
A bacteriophage is said to cause a persistent infection when infection leads to virus replication but mature virions are extruded individually from the host cell without killing the cell.
Since bacteriophages are in the business of carrying genetic information from one bacterium to another, bacteriophage sequences are often used as a carrier (usually termed "vector") to move other types of sequences around in such procedures.
www.asm.org /division/M/blurbs/glossary/lexicon.html   (2269 words)

 Bacteriophage   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Bacteriophage Ecology Group Possibly the only site dealing with bacteriophage virus ecology.
Bacteriophage T4 Virus (not computer ones) resources and visualisations (VRML 1and2).
Structural Biochemistry Group at Edinburgh University Research in structural function of biological molecules, with particular focus upon bacteriophage T7 ocr protein, capable of mimicking DNA.
www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Bacteriophage.html   (165 words)

 Bacteriophage Therapy -- Sulakvelidze et al. 45 (3): 649 -- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Bacteriophages or phages are bacterial viruses that invade bacterial cells and, in the case of lytic phages, disrupt bacterial
The efficacy of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteriophage in the therapy of experimental Klebsiella infection.
Bacteriophage therapy in the treatment of recurrent subphrenic and subhepatic abscess with jejunal fistula after stomach resection.
aac.asm.org /cgi/content/full/45/3/649   (6314 words)

 Bacteriophage Flux in Endosymbionts (Wolbachia): Infection Frequency, Lateral Transfer, and Recombination Rates -- ...
bacterial endosymbionts in the biosphere (Wolbachia), a bacteriophage
Isolation and characterization of the bacteriophage WO from Wolbachia, an arthropod endosymbiont.
Isolation and characterization of APSE-1, a bacteriophage infecting the secondary endosymbiont of Acyrthosiphon pisum.
mbe.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/21/10/1981   (5746 words)

 ARS | Publication request: Bacteriophage: Biology and Genetics
Since their discovery in 1915 by the British investigator Frederick W. Twort, and the introduction of the term bacteriophage by Felix Hubert d'Herelle (1), bacteriophage have become important tools, not only in studies of bacterial genetics and cellular mechanisms, but also in the field of Environmental Microbiology.
These spherical bacteriophage are used as indicators or model viruses not only because they have similar size and shape to important human pathogenic viruses, but more importantly because they are much easier and less expensive to assay.
Bacteriophage are very small and made up of a protein coat with an inner core containing their genetic material.
www.ars.usda.gov /research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=131954   (354 words)

 The Bacteriophage T4 Virus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
A bacteriophage is a virus which infects bacteria.
In particular, the bacteriophage T4 is a virus which infects E.Coli, a bacteria that has been used extensively for molecular biology research.
The bacteriophage binds to the surface of the host, punctures the cell with its injection tube, and then injects its own genetic blueprint.
www.dform.com /projects/t4/virus.html   (461 words)

 Bacteriophage Vaccines?
A bacteriophage is a virus that attacks bacteria but which is generally harmless to human beings.
If a genetically engineered bacteriophage could be developed that would contain DNA of common viruses that would then elicit an immune response when injected into human beings, this would drastically reduce the cost of producing vaccines because the bacteriophages could be cheaply grown in culture.
As the research in animals continues, scientists learn more about bacteriophages and their possible role in vaccination that could someday lead to breakthroughs in understanding how they could be applied to vaccinating human beings.
www.overpopulation.com /articles/2003/000044.html   (251 words)

They are still a paradigm for many areas of biology, especially gene expression (See Bacteriophage Lambda).
Bacteriophages, like bacteria, are very common in all natural environments and are directly related to the numbers of bacteria present.
These lysogenized cells are immune (not resistant!) to superinfection by the same phage due to repression of transcription caused by the resident prophage (See Bacteriophage Lambda).
www.biosci.ohio-state.edu /~mgonzalez/Micro521/Lambda/phage_intro.html   (649 words)

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