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Topic: Baltic Republics

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In the News (Wed 17 Apr 19)

  Stephen Roth Institute: Antisemitism And Racism
At the beginning of 2000, the Jewish population of the Baltic republics was about 24,500: 13,500 in Latvia, 8,000 in Lithuania and 3,000 in Estonia.
About 40 Jewish organizations and religious communities function in the three Baltic republics, their leaders representing the Jewish population in dealing with the local authorities and with Jewish organizations in the West and with Israel.
A crucial aspect of this identity crisis is the Baltic people’s perception of the Jews, the Holocaust and the participation of the native population in the extermination of the Jews who lived in their lands.
www.tau.ac.il /Anti-Semitism/asw99-2000/baltics.htm   (1685 words)

The three small republics, huddled on the western tip of Russia, were not part of the vast territory which came under the sway of the Red Army as Nazi Germany was collapsing in 1944.
As a result, the Baltic states spent half a century submerged inside the Soviet Union itself, largely losing their identities in the eyes of the outside world.
While the Baltic people massed in protest, the popular front in each republic issued a joint statement, called the Baltic Way, urging the international community to support their collective desire for independence.
www.rferl.org /specials/communism/10years/baltics1.asp   (869 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Baltic states
In the 1920s the newly established countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were referred to as the Baltic states, and during that period Finland was also often referred to as one of the Baltic states.
In all three countries, Baltic partisans, known colloquially as the Forest Brothers, waged unsuccessful guerrilla warfare against the Soviet occupation for the next eight years in a bid to regain their nations' independence.
After the Baltic states achieved independence in 1991, while German made a comeback as a language of study it was English that became the most commonly studied foreign language, and the role of Russian language in education fell sharply.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Baltic_Republics   (2175 words)

  NRCCL: The Baltic Republics and their Legal Information Systems   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Soviet re- conquered the Baltic republics 1944- 45.
The task facing the Baltic republic in terms of legal reform, is of a proportion we are not used to handle in the Western European countries.
Estonia - in Estonian Eesti Vabariik - is a republic.
www.jus.uio.no /iri/forskning/lib/papers/balticum/balticum.html   (10316 words)

  Occupation of Baltic Republics information - Search.com
The occupation of Baltic Republics generally refers to the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) in the first phases of World War II.
The direct Soviet aggression against the Baltic countries occurred on 14-17 June 1940 when the world’s attention was focused on the military actions in Western Europe where Paris fell to the Germans on 14 June.
The result was that all three Baltic states had communist majorities in their parliaments, and in August these three parliaments unanimously "appealed" to the Soviet government to become parts of the Soviet Union.
www.search.com /reference/Occupation_of_Baltic_Republics   (1871 words)

  Union of Soviet Socialist Republics - MSN Encarta
In this same region, the Tajik republic (Tajikistan) was demarcated from Uzbek territory in 1929, and the Kazakh and Kirgiz republics (now Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan) were likewise formed from RSFSR territory in 1936.
From its westernmost point on the Baltic Sea to its easternmost island in the Bering Strait, the Soviet Union spanned more than 10,000 km (6200 mi) and 11 time zones; the maximum distance from Central Asia in the south to the Arctic Ocean in the north was almost 5000 km (3110 mi).
In the capital cities of seven of the 14 non-Russian republics, the titular nationality was less than 50 percent of the population, and in two it was 51 percent.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761553017/Union_of_Soviet_Socialist_Republics.html   (2993 words)

 Latvia encyclopedia : Cultural Information , Maps, Latvia politics and officials, Latvian History. Travel to Latvia
It should be noted that although politically the present-day Baltic countries are republics, the term "Baltic republics" often refers to something different: the Soviet republics of Baltic countries.
The histories of today\'s Baltic countries took a first "common turn" in the 13th century when Christianity and feudalism were effectively introduced to the region by the invasion of the crusaders from the west (German Sword Brethren, Denmark) and the conversion of Lithuania\'s rulers from Paganism to Christianity.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Baltic provinces (Curonia, Livonia, Estonia and Ingria) and Lithuania in the 19th century, albeit with names and borders different from the present-day countries, were part of the Russian Empire.
www.latviaiworld.com /wiki-Baltic_states   (1947 words)

 Chernobyl   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The fact that the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was a major force behind the Baltic independence movement is apparent because it brought to light the flaws of the soviet political machine in the eyes of Gorbachev and created a physical environment in the Baltic states that was ideal for autonomy.
What the Baltic republics witnessed in the two years after Chernobyl; was the Soviet system poisoning their land, people, and individuality.
The Baltic republics used the role of environmental reforms as a catalyst for protest on other issues; including the goal of independence and possibly autonomy.
www.personal.psu.edu /users/m/j/mjb433/research/chernobyl.htm   (2740 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Baltic   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Baltic Sea Part of the Atlantic extending past Denmark, along the n coasts of Germany and Poland, and the e coasts of the Baltic states, and separating Sweden from Russia and Finland.
Baltic states Countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, on the e coast of the Baltic Sea.
Baltic Entente (1934) A mutual defence pact between Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Baltic   (913 words)

 Dissent in the Baltic Republics - A Balance Sheet
The human rights and dissident movement in the Baltic Republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania is distinguished from its counterpart in Moscow by a strong nationalistic component and a broad mass support base.
In the Baltic Republics, besides the basic human rights concerns (freedom of religion, speech, association, emigration, etc.), also of intense, even of paramount concern is the internationally accepted collective right of national self-determination.
Dissent in the Baltic Republics, which began at the end of the 1960s, also appears to be ebbing as a result of decimation of dissident ranks by the KGB and the lack of progress in fulfilling the human rights promises of the Helsinki Accords.
www.lituanus.org /1984_2/84_2_01.htm   (7099 words)

Baltic republics have moved decisively towards economic reform and economic stabilization, and their economic growth is expected to resume in 1994.
Given the economic conditions in the Baltic republics, it is unlikely that the volume of catches will increase substantially from the lower levels of the 1990s, as reduced fishing area, ongoing privatization and strong competition in the world market will probably continue to constrain any significant growth in the short to medium term.
Nevertheless, Baltic economic recovery will be dependent on the continuation of sound fiscal and monetary policies and, to some extent, on the rate of progress made by the other former Soviet republics in their transition to market economies.
www.fao.org /docrep/t4450e/T4450E0g.htm   (5449 words)

 Baltic Independence
The Baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were the last to enter the Soviet Union as union republics and the first to leave.
In the wake of the Nazi invasion of the USSR, the three republics were placed under German rule, but the return of the Red Army in 1944 led to the re-imposition of Soviet power.
Political independence, the dream of many in the Baltic region who long chafed under Soviet rule, was made possible thanks to Gorbachev's policy of glasnost.
www.soviethistory.org /index.php?action=L2&SubjectID=1991baltic&Year=1991   (514 words)

 History of the Baltic states
As far as the bourgeoisie of the three Baltic provinces was concerned, independence became a vital necessity only with the success of the October Revolution.
The peasant masses, in their majority landless and impoverished pushed for social transformation, for land distribution, expropriation of the rich, etc. Although Communist parties were weakened by the Civil War and the exile of many activists to Russia, these began to grow anew.
The communist movement in the in the three Baltic states, as well as in Poland, Finland, and throughout Europe was further weakened due to errors and mistakes in the leadership of the Comintern.
web.mit.edu /fjk/Public/essays/baltics.html   (2692 words)

 The Baltic Republics - New York Times
Even in neighboring countries that have begun to discover the secrets of Baltic tourism, there is still persistent word-of-mouth that they are a little iffy, suitable perhaps for the adventurous, but not entirely civilized.
For the record, the Baltic countries are now as safe, stable and traveler-friendly as any destination in ''old'' Europe.
According to type-casting, Lithuanians are the most passionate of the Baltic peoples, Estonians the most standoffish and cerebral and Latvians temperamentally (as well as geographically) in between.
query.nytimes.com /gst/fullpage.html?sec=travel&res=990DE0D71038F937A2575AC0A9659C8B63   (464 words)

 Nutrition in Baltic Republics
In 1996, WHO facilitated the Baltic Project, funded by the Luxembourg Government, to support Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to carry out their first cross-sectional surveys of nutrition and lifestyle behaviours, using a common methodology.
The final report for this project, Nutrition and lifestyle in the Baltic Republics, is now available.
The main objective of the Baltic Nutrition Surveys was to provide national representative information on of food security, dietary intake, nutritional beliefs, obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity.
www.lshtm.ac.uk /ecohost/projects/nutrition-baltics.htm   (506 words)

 Russian Navy was absolutely negligent to withdraw vessels from Baltic republics - Pravda.Ru
In the army harbor of the Latvian city of Liepaja, the Russian fleet left over 40 battleships and three submarines and a floating dock remained in the harbor of Bolderai in Riga.
In fact, removal of the Russian troops from the Baltic republics revealed absolute chaos and disorganization in the Russian army.
This is incredible that in peaceful conditions of 1994, the Russian Navy abandoned 22 submarines during removal of the Russian forces from the Baltic republics.
english.pravda.ru /russia/20-10-2005/9101-submarine-0   (603 words)

 Russia and the Former Soviet Republics Maps - Perry-Castañeda Map Collection - UT Library Online
The following maps were produced by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, unless otherwise indicated.
Russia and the Former Soviet Republics Historical Maps
Baltic States - Major Defense Industry Facilities in the Baltic States from Defense Industries of the Newly Independent States of Eurasia.
www.lib.utexas.edu /maps/commonwealth.html   (913 words)

 RUSNET :: Encyclopedia :: B :: Baltic States
In the late Middle Ages East Prussia on the southern and southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea was overtaken by German expansion from the west.
In 1940 the Baltic states were forcibly occupied by the USSR, which in 1939 had entered into a secret agreement with Nazi Germany that recognized Soviet hegemony over them.
On this occasion Baltic independence was quickly recognised by many major nations, and on Sept. 6, 1991, it was recognised by the rump USSR itself in one of the first official acts of its new parliament.
www.rusnet.nl /encyclo/b/baltic_states.shtml   (621 words)

 CNN - U.S., Baltic states sign partnership pact - January 16, 1998
WASHINGTON (CNN) -- Leaders of the Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania signed a partnership agreement Friday with the United States -- a possible step toward NATO and European Union membership for the three former Soviet states.
The Baltic leaders took great pains to reassure Russia that the pact should not be seen as a threat.
The Baltic states broke free when the Soviet Union disbanded in 1991, but their membership in NATO was put on the alliance's back burner after Moscow objected to their inclusion.
www.cnn.com /WORLD/9801/16/baltic.treaty.pm/index.html   (467 words)

 PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly - Winter 2000-01
The Baltic republics have sought to demonstrate their commitment to NATO membership by ensuring that adequate resources are dedicated to defense.
The consequence of Baltic efforts to support NATO peace operations is the creation of a two-tier armed forces within the Baltic republics, one designed to engage in peace operations, and the other for national defense, with neither able to function well as a whole.
Proponents of Baltic membership in NATO contend that Russia is incapable of resorting to a military response due to its present state of decline.
carlisle-www.army.mil /usawc/Parameters/00winter/meyer.htm   (5297 words)

 The Baltic Republics and Kaliningrad Oblast - Conventional Arms in Europe: NATO, European Security and the Future of ...
As Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were constituent republics of the Soviet Union rather than members of the Warsaw Pact, their comparatively early assertion of secessionism during the period of the Gorbachev reforms signaled that Moscow has lost control of the pace of domestic change.
It foreclosed Baltic neutrality by heightening the concern of Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Germany, Poland, and the United States for the security of the republics and thereby made their admission to NATO more, rather than less, likely.
The governments of the Baltic republics, on the other hand, feared that their signature on the CFE Treaty could be used as an alibi for refusing them NATO membership.
www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca /arms/isrop/research/hogg_hodge_2003/section04-en.asp   (874 words)

 PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly - Winter 2000-01
The Baltic republics have sought to demonstrate their commitment to NATO membership by ensuring that adequate resources are dedicated to defense.
The consequence of Baltic efforts to support NATO peace operations is the creation of a two-tier armed forces within the Baltic republics, one designed to engage in peace operations, and the other for national defense, with neither able to function well as a whole.
Proponents of Baltic membership in NATO contend that Russia is incapable of resorting to a military response due to its present state of decline.
www.carlisle.army.mil /USAWC/Parameters/00winter/meyer.htm   (5297 words)

 Bambooweb: Baltic Republics
The term Baltic Republics referred to the three Soviet Republics of Estonian SSR, Latvian SSR, and Lithuanian SSR.
They regained their independence in 1991 and are now jointly referred to as the Baltic States.
The fifteen Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR) that made up the USSR in the post-War period, including the three Baltic Republics, formally kept a form of sovereignty, retaining the option to leave the Union.
www.bambooweb.com /articles/b/a/Baltic_Republics.html   (360 words)

 Baltic Republics Tours Main Page
The Baltic Republics of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania all have a long and rich history, which is very much present everywhere, especially in the old parts of their capital cities, each with its own distinctive cultural tradition and historical heritage.
Then visit the Baltic Republics, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania all have a long and rich history, which is very much present everywhere, especially in the old parts of their capital cities.
A discovery of Russia, the Batlic Republics and Poland.
www.travelvantage.com /tou_baltrep.html   (522 words)

 How America Can Help Baltic Independence
Washington responded by extending to the Baltic states its policy of refus ing to recognize the forcible seizure of territory by the fascist powers.This was the origin of the non-recognition policy by-which the U.S. continues to treat the Baltic states as independent and does not officially recognize their incorporation into the Soviet Union.
The Muslim republics, especially Azerbaijan, are increasingly defiant of Moscow Moscow understands that the Baltic states moves toward regaining their in dependence are only the first in a series of challenges to Soviet rule by the non-Russian nationalities Important Precedent.
What is at stake is the future of the Baltic republics, the hopes of the other Soviet peoples striving for freedom, and the possibility that the Soviet Union can shed its repressive past and emerge as a responsible and trustworthy member of the community of nations.
www.heritage.org /Research/RussiaandEurasia/bg762.cfm   (5055 words)

 Baltic Tours | Scantours.net
Latvia's capital is Riga and it is the largest city in the Baltic States.
This is a place of rolling hills and gentle plains; of quietly flowing rivers and of lakes which reflect the blueness of the sky.
Called the Curonian Spit, it is a sixty mile-long bank of sand dunes and pine trees which stretches from the southwest to the seaport of KlaipÄ—da and encloses the vast Curonian Lagoon.
www.scantours.net /products/catgry.php5?id=127   (298 words)

 The Baltic Republics
In 1940, the Baltic republics (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) came under the rule of the neighboring Soviet Union (USSR).
Estonia is the smallest of the three Baltic countries.
In both size and population, Lithuania is the largest of the Baltic republics.
www.mccallie.org /msacademics/therring/balticrepublics13,1.htm   (281 words)

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