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Topic: Baltic languages


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  Baltic languages — FactMonster.com
Baltic languages, a subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages.
Latvian - Latvian Latvian or Lettish, a language belonging to the Baltic subfamily of the Indo-European...
Lithuanian - Lithuanian Lithuanian, a language belonging to the Baltic subfamily of the Indo-European family of...
www.factmonster.com /ce6/society/A0805961.html   (240 words)

  
  Baltic languages. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The Indo-European subfamily to which the Baltic languages appear to be closest is the Slavic.
B.C. The Baltic languages are said to be the closest of the living Indo-European languages to Proto-Indo-European—the original parent of all the Indo-European tongues—both phonologically and grammatically.
The earliest surviving text in a Baltic language may be dated c.1400, but by the 16th cent.
www.bartleby.com /65/ba/Balticla.html   (277 words)

  
 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Baltic languages
The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.
Speakers of modern Baltic languages are generally concentrated within the borders of Lithuania and Latvia, and in emigrant communities in the United States, Canada, Australia and former Soviet states.
Several of the extinct Baltic languages have a limited or nonexistent written record, their existence being known only from the records of ancient historians and personal or place names; all of the languages in the Baltic group (including the living ones) were first written down relatively late in their probable existence as distinct languages.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Baltic_languages   (998 words)

  
 Baltic 21 - An Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea Region
Baltic 21 is a regional multi-stakeholder process for sustainable development initiated in 1996 by the Prime Ministers from the eleven member states of the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS).
The Mission of Baltic 21 is to pursue sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region by regional multi-stakeholder co-operation.
Annexed to this report is a new Baltic 21 mandate, which is a Baltic 21 response to the lessons learned during the first five years of the process and to the new challenges to sustainable development of the Baltic Sea Region.
www.baltic21.org   (877 words)

  
 Baltic
The Baltic languages are more closely related to Slavic, Germanic, and Indo-Iranian (in that order) than to the other branches of the family.
The language of all the Old Prussian catechisms is rather poor: the translations are excessively literal, and there are many errors in language and orthography.
Characteristics of the Baltic languages > Loanwords in Baltic
www.rkp-montreal.org /en/05baltic   (3519 words)

  
  AllRefer.com - Baltic languages (Language And Linguistics) - Encyclopedia
Baltic languages, a subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages.
The Indo-European subfamily to which the Baltic languages appear to be closest is the Slavic.
B.C. The Baltic languages are said to be the closest of the living Indo-European languages to Proto-Indo-European : the original parent of all the Indo-European tongues : both phonologically and grammatically.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/B/Balticla.html   (352 words)

  
 Baltic - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Baltic, international centre for contemporary art located in a converted 1950s grain warehouse on the south bank of the River Tyne, Gateshead,...
Baltic Crusades, a series of military campaigns that took place between the mid-12th century and the beginning of the 15th century, with the aim of...
Baltic Languages, languages spoken in the area bordering the Baltic Sea, which form a subfamily of the Indo-European languages, but are more closely...
uk.encarta.msn.com /Baltic.html   (120 words)

  
 Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Baltic languages
The Baltic languages form one branch of the Indo-European language family.
Today Latvian language is considered younger than East Lithuanian, although that greatly changed from its first recording in the 16th century.
The Baltic languages have for a long time been verbal languages, the Balts did not use writing until fairly recently.
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/ba/Baltic_languages   (209 words)

  
 Latvian language at AllExperts
The Baltic languages are of particular interest to linguists because they retain many archaic features believed to have been present in the early stages of the Proto-Indo-European language.
The Eastern Baltic languages split from the Western Baltic ones (or, perhaps, from the hypothetic proto-Baltic language) between 400 and 600.
The closest ties the Baltic languages have are with the Slavic and Germanic languages.
en.allexperts.com /e/l/la/latvian_language.htm   (1905 words)

  
 Baltic Branch of the Indo-European Family
Languages of the World is brought to you by the National Virtual Translation Center.
The Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family consists of related languages that were spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.
Latvian and Lithuanian is considered to be a Category II language in terms of difficulty for speakers of English.
www.nvtc.gov /lotw/months/december/BalticBranch.html   (899 words)

  
 The Dispatch - Serving the Lexington, NC - News   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The Baltic Sea is artificially linked to the White Sea by the White Sea Canal and to the North Sea by the Kiel Canal.
The Baltic Sea's salinity is much lower than that of ocean water (which averages 3.5%, or 35 parts per thousand), as a result of abundant freshwater runoff from the surrounding land; indeed, runoff contributes roughly 1/40th its total volume.(Alhonen 88) It varies from 0.1% in the north to 0.6-0.8% in the center.
The northern part of the Baltic Sea is known as the Gulf of Bothnia, of which the northernmost part is the Bay of Bothnia or Bothnian Bay.
www.the-dispatch.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Baltic_Sea   (3359 words)

  
 Evaluation of programmes in Baltic Languages at Stockholm University and Celtic Languages at Uppsala University   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The possibilities of studying abroad should be improved for students of Baltic Languages in particular, for example by including one term of language study at one of the Baltic universities in their programmes and enabling these credits to be transferred.
The assessors recommend that courses in Baltic Languages should be given content of the kind that corresponds to the interests of postgraduate students and their thesis subjects, and also that the proportion of taught courses should be reduced from 80 credit points to 60 or 40.
For Baltic Languages the possibility of greater individualisation of postgraduate programmes could be increased by the introduction of assistant supervisors and the development of routines for supervision of this kind.
english.hsv.se /reports/2003/5.539a949110f3d5914ec800067494.html   (1119 words)

  
 Indo-European languages Summary
Genetically related languages are demonstrably derived from a common ancestor, a "Proto-Language," which, in the case of Indo-European, is thought to have flourished during the fourth–third millennia BCE, before it split up into the daughter languages from which scholars are able to infer its existence.
Old Indian is represented by Vedic, the language of the sacred literature of Brahmanic religion, and Sanskrit, the highly normed and thus to a degree artificial language of classical Indian literature.
Baltic languages, attested from the 14th century, and, for languages attested that late, they retain unusually many archaic features attributed to Proto-Indo-European.
www.bookrags.com /Indo-European_languages   (3141 words)

  
 Baltic - Search Results - MSN Encarta
- Indo-European language group: a group of Indo-European languages in northeastern Europe, closely related to the Slavic group.
Baltic Sea, enclosed sea, northern Europe, bounded by Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, and Germany.
Baltic States, independent republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea.
ca.encarta.msn.com /Baltic.html   (87 words)

  
 Bambooweb: Baltic languages
With the ongoing Christianization and Germanization of Prussia, the Old Prussian language became extinct at the end of the 17th century.
The Baltic languages have for a long time been oral languages, the Balts did not use writing until fairly recently.
However, writing in those languages was not widespread until the middle of the 19th century, partly due to the fact that Latvia and Lithuania were not independent at that time and the countries which ruled them attempted to impose their languages as the languages for writing.)
www.bambooweb.com /articles/b/a/Baltic_languages.html   (259 words)

  
 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Baltic
Baltic Sea Part of the Atlantic extending past Denmark, along the n coasts of Germany and Poland, and the e coasts of the Baltic states, and separating Sweden from Russia and Finland.
(the Baltic) the Baltic Sea or the Baltic...
Baltic states Countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, on the e coast of the Baltic Sea.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Baltic   (901 words)

  
 excerpt from Janis Endzelins' Comparative Phonology and Morphology of the Baltic Languages
Comparing the East Baltic languages with each other, one can say that the Lithuanian language is more conservative than Latvian; the greater part of the sounds and forms of Latvian have developed from sounds and forms similar to those even now used in Lithuanian.
The majority of features which now separate the Slavic languages from the Baltic could for the greater part have developed after the period when the Balts and Slavs lived together; in addition it is necessary to keep in mind that Baltic language texts begin only in the 16th century.
In all of the Baltic languages one finds the influence of the Slavic and Germanic languages, but in Latvian the influence of Livonian and Estonian is noted also.
www.suduva.com /virdainas/excerpt.htm   (1427 words)

  
 Baltic Languages - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Baltic Languages - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Baltic Languages, languages spoken in the area bordering the Baltic Sea, forming a subfamily of the Indo-European languages.
Latvian Language, the official language of Latvia since 1918.
encarta.msn.com /Baltic_Languages.html   (131 words)

  
 The Baltic States
Despite this, the Baltic peoples were able to retain their distinct identities, thanks to the vigorous activities of nationalist intellectuals and writers, and their support by the broader Baltic populations.
Lithuania's annexation to the German Reich in 1943 marked the beginning of what was to be the conversion of the Baltic States into German colonies of settlement and the enslavement or extermination of the indigenous populations.
A potentially disastrous increase in ethnic tensions between the Balts and the Russian refugees was halted by the 1985 admission of the Federated Russian Republics to the European Confederation and the emigration of Russian refugees, either to their homeland or to destinations in western Europe.
www.ahtg.net /TpA/baltstat.html   (1296 words)

  
 Lithuanian Computing Information (Penn State)
Although the language is written in the same alphabet as Spanish and French, it includes special characters which require extra fonts and utilities.
Language tags are also suggested so that search engines and screen readers parse the language of a page.
Another option is to compose the basic text in an international or foreign languags text editor or word processor and export the content as an HTML or text file with the appropriate encoding.
tlt.its.psu.edu /suggestions/international/bylanguage/lithuanian.html   (1192 words)

  
 Arabic languages - languages
It is a modernized form of Classical Arabic, the language of the Qur'an, with which it shares most of its vocabulary, syntax and morphology, though there are noticeable differences.
Arabic is the official language of Algeria, Saudi Arabia, the Palestinian National Authority, Bahrain, Comoro, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Eritrea, Jordan, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia and Yemen.
Central European and Baltic languages Soget possesses IT resources for handling texts, graphics and layouts in the main Central European and Baltic languages.
www.soget.com /Arabic-languages.asp   (573 words)

  
 Revival of the ancient Baltic religions
Sanskrit and Baltic are the two linguistic poles between which the languages of the Indo-European homeland are "found".
For studies of comparative religion, the value of the Lithuanian and Latvian folklore and folk art is of the same importance as that of the Baltic languages for the reconstruction of the "mother tongue" of the Indo-Europeans.
Sources from the 14th century state that in the center of Baltic lands (today Kaliningrad region), there existed Romuva sanctuary, which was revered by all Baltic nations, the eternal fire burning there spread her light and peace throughout the entire Baltic coast and even further.
www.infinityfoundation.com /mandala/h_es/h_es_trink_j_baltic.htm   (3331 words)

  
 LINGUIST List 13.1993: Typology/Lang Description: Circum Baltic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Selected topics in the grammar of the Circum-Baltic Languages (part numbering is continued from Volume 1) Impersonals and passives -- Holvoet The impact of West Finnic along the Lithuanian and Latvian contact zones is detailed on the basis of nominative in various forms.
Genitive positions in Baltic and Finnic languages -- S. Christen A continuum from multiple usage of attributive genitive structures in Lithuanian and a more restrictive Latvian to a limit of two in the Finnic languages is presented.
Typological perspectives "A piece of the cake" and "a cup of tea": Partitive and pseudo-partitive nominal constructions in the Circum-Baltic languages -- M.Kaptjevskaja-Tamm Quantifiers and related 'partitive' phrases are used to figuratively and graphically map the relationships between languages and their families in the region and its surrounds.
www.ling.ed.ac.uk /linguist/issues/13/13-1993.html   (1038 words)

  
 European Languages
You may have noticed that a few languages spoken on the European continent are not included in the Indo-European family of languages.
The western languages generally use /s/ as a plural marker, though it is silent in spoken French, while the eastern languages use vowels.
The Slavic languages are spoken in Eastern Europe and Russia and are the harder of the three language groups analyzed to learn.
www.ielanguages.com /eurolang.html   (1535 words)

  
 Baltic
When the Baltics were invaded by the Soviets, the Nazis and then the Soviets again, you know nothing good was going to come of it.
Proto-Indo-European languages are the origin of the majority of languages spoken in Eastern Europe.
The three Baltic nations – Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania –are just emerging from the shadow of their USSR past to become tourist destinations in their own right.
www.suite101.com /reference/baltic   (1723 words)

  
 Finno-Ugric languages at AllExperts
A portion of the Baltic-Finnic lexicon is not shared with the remaining Finno-Ugric languages and may be due to a pre-Finnic substrate, which may coincide in part with the substrate of the Indo-European Baltic languages.
As far as the Sami (Lappic) languages are concerned, a hypothesis has been advanced that the ancestors of the Sami originally spoke a different language, but adopted their current tongue under the pressure of their Finnic-speaking neighbours.
Notably, Kalevi Wiik has argued that Proto-Finno-Ugric was the original language in most of Northern and Central Europe, and that the earliest Finno-Ugric speakers and their languages originated in the territory of modern Ukraine (the so-called "Ukrainian refuge") during the last glacial period, when the whole of northern Europe was covered with ice.
en.allexperts.com /e/f/fi/finno-ugric_languages.htm   (2392 words)

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