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Topic: Barotrauma

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In the News (Thu 23 May 19)

  American Hearing Research Foundation (AHRF) Barotrauma   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Barotrauma refers to injury sustained from failure to equalize the pressure of an air-containing space with that of the surrounding environment.
Barotrauma is caused by a difference in pressure between the external environment and the internal parts of the ear.
For outer ear barotrauma, the treatment consists of clearing the ear canal of the obstruction, and restricting diving or flying until the blockage is corrected and the ear canal and drum return to normal.
www.american-hearing.org /name/barotrauma.html   (1281 words)

 Barotrauma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Barotrauma is physical damage to body tissues caused by a difference in pressure between an air space inside or beside the body and the surrounding gas or liquid.
Barotrauma typically occurs to air spaces within a body when that body moves to or from a higher pressure environment, such as when a SCUBA diver, a free-diving diver or an airplane passenger ascends or descends.
Diving barotrauma can be avoided by eliminating any pressure differences acting on the tissue or organ by equalising the pressure.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Barotrauma   (558 words)

 Pulmonary Barotrauma   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The potential for pulmonary barotrauma is why the first rule of scuba diving is never hold your breath.
For an equivalent change in depth the risk of expansion barotrauma is greatest near the surface, a fact explainable by Boyle's law.
Barotrauma correlates with both increase in pressure in the lungs and 'over stretching' of the lung tissue.
www.divefortyoung.com /pulbar.html   (476 words)

 Barotrauma: Diving and Compressed Air Injuries: Merck Manual Home Edition
Barotrauma is tissue injury caused by a change in pressure, which compresses or expands gas contained in various body structures.
Nonpulmonary barotrauma is injury to gas-filled parts of the body other than the lungs caused by increasing pressure that occurs during descent.
Pulmonary barotrauma is injury caused by the expansion of air held in the lungs due to decreasing pressure during ascent.
www.merck.com /mmhe/sec24/ch295/ch295b.html   (1301 words)

 MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Ear barotrauma
Ear barotrauma is a condition of discomfort in the ear caused by pressure differences between the inside and the outside of the eardrum.
Barotrauma commonly occurs with altitude changes, such as with flying, scuba diving, or driving in the mountains.
Diving while you are suffering with allergies or a respiratory infection is dangerous, because barotrauma may be severe.
www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/ency/article/001064.htm   (686 words)

 Disease - Ear barotrauma - Detroit, Michigan
Severe barotrauma may be difficult to distinguish from ear infection.
Diving is dangerous during respiratory infections or allergies because barotrauma may be severe.
Barotrauma is usually benign and responsive to self-care.
www.henryfordhealth.org /12080.cfm   (599 words)

 The Oxford Handbook of Sports Medicine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Barotrauma is the tissue damage resulting from the expansion or contraction of enclosed gas spaces, and is a direct effect of the gas volume changes causing tissue distortion.
Barotrauma of descent is that damage which occurs during descent in water, i.e.
Barotrauma of ascent is the result of the distension of tissues around the expanding gas.
www.worldortho.com /oxsportsmed/chapt26.html   (4047 words)

 American Family Physician: Neurologic Complications of Scuba Diving   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Barotrauma to the middle or inner ear can occur during the descent or ascent phases of the dive and may cause vertigo and other neurologic symptoms.(2-5,7) Middle ear barotrauma of descent is the most common type of diving injury and may involve hemorrhage and rupture of the tympanic membrane.
Inner ear barotrauma also can develop in patients with middle ear barotrauma.(2-5,7) A pressure gradient between the perilymph of the inner ear and the middle ear cavity can occur, causing rupture of the labyrinthine windows (round and oval) and leakage of perilymph into the middle ear (i.e., fistula).
Pulmonary barotrauma is the most severe form of barotrauma and occurs during ascent.(2-4,9) In accordance with Boyle's law, as the ambient pressure is reduced during ascent, gas inside the lungs will expand in volume.(6) If the expanding gas is not allowed to escape by exhalation, the alveoli and surrounding tissues will tear.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m3225/is_11_63/ai_75262539   (1169 words)

 DAN Divers Alert Network : Guide to Avoiding Ear & Sinus Injuries in Scuba Diving
The most common reason divers suffer barotrauma is a failure to inflate their ears and sinuses with additional air during descent.
The most common barotrauma symptom a diver experiences may be mild discomfort to intense pain in the sinus or middle ear - this is usually the first indication of a problem in equalizing.
Blood from the nose or in the sputum is also an indication of barotrauma and does not have to be associated with other symptoms.
www.diversalertnetwork.org /medical/articles/article.asp?articleid=13   (1111 words)

 barotrauma   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Pulmonary barotrauma was not contemplated because of the relatively mild presentation.
Dysbarism is a general term used to describe pathology from altered environmental pressure, and has two main forms: barotrauma from the uncontrolled expansion of gas within gas-filled body compartments and decompression sickness from too rapid a return to atmospheric pressure after breathing air under increased pressures.
Barotrauma may result in several different types of cranial neuropathies and should be recognized as another possible cause for neurologic deficits following a dive.
www.ais.up.ac.za /med/sport/barotrauma.htm   (7580 words)

 MR Imaging Appearance of Frontal Sinus Barotrauma -- Segev et al. 24 (3): 346 -- American Journal of Neuroradiology
to barotrauma, was thought to be the cause of the headache.
to barotrauma and that the developmental venous anomaly was
Note that because of differences in angulation of the axial plane, the brain morphology is different from that shown in Figure 1 but the morphology of the frontal sinus is similar.
www.ajnr.org /cgi/content/full/24/3/346   (1050 words)

 [No title]
Pathological changes of middle ear barotrauma: The pathological changes that occur with middle ear negative pressure vary according to the rate and magnitude of pressure change and include: mucosal hemorrhage and congestion, edema, serous and hemorrhagic effusions,and infiltration of leucocytes (PMN) within the middle ear mucosa.
Phenomenon of end of the day barotrauma- repeated mild barotrauma that asymptomatically results in swelling of the ET eventually results in symptomatic barotrauma as ET function becomes worse.
Evaluation and treatment for an acute episode of sinus barotrauma is similar to that with acute sinusitis with decongestants and antibiotics.
www.utmb.edu /oto/Grand_Rounds_Earlier.dir/Barotrauma_1992.txt   (3104 words)

 Rarest Barotrauma   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
"Barotrauma --- or, more commonly, squeeze --- of the ears and sinuses is quite likely the most common problem among divers.
This case is interesting because it doesn't fit the classical symptoms of dental barotrauma or odontalgia.
Generally it is associated with a living tooth having some decay or having a poorly fitting or leaking filling rather than a root canaled tooth with no nerve.
www.scuba-doc.com /RarestBT.html   (2556 words)

 Middle Ear Barotrauma
Barotrauma is a very common problem among individuals who swim, snorkel, and scuba dive.
Barotrauma due to decent is when the pressure increases and the middle ear or sinuses are “squeezed” under pressure.
Usually in barotrauma the pressure is followed by sudden pain and onset to the ear.
www.surviveoutdoors.com /reference/barotrauma.asp   (415 words)

 Statements of Principles — Sinus barotrauma
The diagnosis of sinus barotrauma can be accepted by the Repatriation Commission when it is confirmed by a general medical practitioner or specialist as the final diagnosis or on advice by a Departmental Medical Officer.
Sinus barotrauma is an injury to the cranial sinuses [usually the frontal sinus, either alone or in combination with the maxillary antrum] resulting from the creation of abnormal pressure differences between the sinus itself and the external atmosphere.
This may arise in conditions of elevated external pressure as with divers and caisson workers, or with decreased external pressure as with aviators.
www.dva.gov.au /pensions/statemnt/s015.htm   (730 words)

 Barotrauma of the Middle and Inner Ear
The differential diagnosis of the disorders related to barotrauma are damage to the middle and inner ear, inner ear decompression sickness, and alternobaric vertigo.
Middle ear barotrauma, also known as aerotitis media, is due to an inability to equilibrate to ambient pressure changes.
Patients who are more susceptible to aural barotrauma, either due to lifestyle, upper respiratory infections, or after ear surgery, should take extra precautions to guard against eustachian tube function during air travel or underwater sports or simply avoid these activities when the risks of barotrauma are the greatest.
www.bcm.edu /oto/grand/32395.html   (2954 words)

 ZCO: Prevention of Middle Ear Barotrauma   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
This means that it is possible (and desirable) for an individual to pre-pressurize the middle ear and to inflate the Eustachian tube prior to descent.
The first dive in a swimming pool is often the cause of significant barotrauma due to a combination of poor technique, student distraction and other factors such as buoyancy control.
By far the most common reason for middle ear barotrauma however is inadequate pressurization of the middle ears due to a lack of basic understanding of the mechanisms involved.
www.mundofree.com /zco/barotrauma.html   (2964 words)

 DAN Divers Alert Network : Scanning for Blebs
Pulmonary barotrauma is a condition that usually happens at the end of a dive.
Pulmonary barotrauma can be caused by breath-holding during ascent, by a rapid ascent or by certain lung diseases.
Lung diseases that can cause an increased risk of pulmonary barotrauma include those in which there is obstruction to gas flow, such as asthma that has not responded fully to treatment, and lung scarring or inflammation (such as sarcoidosis, eosinophilic granuloma or interstitial fibrosis).
www.diversalertnetwork.org /medical/articles/article.asp?articleid=40   (516 words)

 Airway Pressures and Early Barotrauma in Patients with Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome -- ...
Airway Pressures and Early Barotrauma in Patients with Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome -- Eisner et al.
Airway Pressures and Early Barotrauma in Patients with Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
The determinants of barotrauma in mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome
ajrccm.atsjournals.org /cgi/content/abstract/165/7/978   (429 words)

 Barotrauma and Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Beneficial effects of the prone position on the incidence of barotrauma in oleic acid-induced lung injury under continuous positive pressure ventilation.
Differential effects of oxygen and barotrauma on lung injury in the neonatal piglet.
Barotrauma associated with high-frequency jet ventilation for hypoxic salvage.
www.umdnj.edu /rspthweb/bibs/barotrau.htm   (1885 words)

 References to Perilymph fistulas, inner ear barotrauma
A case describing an isolated mid-frequency hearing loss as a result of inner ear barotrauma is presented.
Since the diver was participating in evaluation of experimental decompression tables, differentiation had to be made between barotrauma and inner ear decompression sickness.
Inner ear barotrauma and so called labyrinthine window rupture were considered to be one of the diseases needed to differentiate from low tone sudden deafness without reference to mono-attack type or recurrent type.
www.scuba-doc.com /perilymph.htm   (593 words)

 Military Medicine: Role of Radiology in Dive-Related Disorders, The   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Pulmonary barotrauma most commonly manifests as pulmonary overinflation syndrome, in which, during ascent, expanding gas is trapped in parts of the lung as a result of obstruction or breath-holding; alveoli subsequently rupture.
Overall, Harker et al.10 found that 52% of pulmonary barotrauma patients had pulmonary infiltrates, 32% had pneumomediastinum, 26% had subcutaneous air, 10% had intravascular air, 6% had pneumocardium, and 6% had pneumothorax.
Reuter et al.11 found that, for nearly one-half of patients with pulmonary barotrauma, CT detected underlying pulmonary blebs or cysts that were not detected with plain film X-rays.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3912/is_200501/ai_n9478283   (1321 words)

 British Thoracic Society guidelines on respiratory aspects of fitness for diving -- 58 (1): 3 -- Thorax
Barotrauma is the consequence of compression or expansion of
Fatal pulmonary barotrauma due to obstruction of the central circulation with air.
Recurrent pulmonary barotrauma in scuba diving and the risks of future exposures: a case report.
thorax.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/58/1/3   (6852 words)

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