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Topic: Basic theories of science

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In the News (Tue 19 Mar 19)

 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Theories and sociology of the history of science
The sociology and philosophy of science, as well as the entire field of science studies, have in the 20th century been preoccupied with the question of large-scale patterns and trends in the development of science, and asking questions about how science "works" both in a philosophical and practical sense.
In academics, science studies (sometimes seen as science and technology studies) is an umbrella term for a number of approaches devoted to studying science, and as a discipline its participants often come from a wide variety of disciplines, usually history of science, sociology of science, philosophy of science, sociology of...
Popper's model of science is one in which scientific progress is achieved through a falsification of incorrect theories and the adoption instead of theories which are progressively closer to truth.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Theories-and-sociology-of-the-history-of-science   (5828 words)

Science is first and foremost a set of logical and empirical methods which provide for the systematic observation of empirical phenomena in order to understand them.
Science consists of several specific sciences, such as biology, physics, chemistry, geology, and astronomy, which are defined by the type and range of empirical phenomena they investigate.
Theories are structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts." In Popper's words: "Theories are nets cast to catch what we call 'the world': to rationalize, to explain, and to master it.
www.skepdic.com /science.html   (2277 words)

  ScienceDaily: Physics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Physics is the science of the natural world dealing with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces.
UC Riverside Researchers' Discovery Of Electrostatic Spin Topples Century-old Theory (April 3, 2003) -- In a discovery that is likely to impact fields as diverse as atomic physics, chemistry and nanotechnology, researchers have identified a new physical phenomenon, electrostatic rotation, that, in the...
Physics -- Physics is the science of the natural world dealing with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces.
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/physics   (1512 words)

 Cygo Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Atomic theory, for example, implies that a granite boulder which appears as heavy, hard, solid, grey, etc. is actually a combination of subatomic particles with none of these properties, moving very rapidly in an area consisting mostly of empty space.
Science is practiced in university and other scientific institutes; as such it is a solid vocation in academia, but has also been practiced by amateur s, who typically engage in the observation al part of science.
Studies of anthropology, history, psychology, and sociology are sometimes called "soft sciences." Proponents of this division use the arguments that the "soft sciences" do not use the scientific method, admit anecdotal evidence, or are not mathematical, all adding up to a "lack of rigor " in their methods.
cygo.com /research/a.php?title=Science   (1361 words)

 Nature of Science, Theories, & Evolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Science teachers teach about science concepts in their classrooms, but rarely do they take time to help students understand what science is and what it is not.
Science presumes that the objects and events in the universe occur in consistent patterns that are comprehensible through careful, systematic study.
Science is limited to explaining natural phenomena through the use of empirical evidence; therefore it cannot provide answers to personal or religious beliefs, superstitions, myths or ultimate explanations (see ways of knowing).
users.aristotle.net /~asta/science.htm   (4850 words)

 Karl Popper (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
In a critical sense, Popper's theory of demarcation is based upon his perception of the logical asymmetry which holds between verification and falsification: it is logically impossible to conclusively verify a universal proposition by reference to experience (as Hume saw clearly), but a single counter-instance conclusively falsifies the corresponding universal law.
Scientific theories may, and do, arise genetically in many different ways, and the manner in which a particular scientist comes to formulate a particular theory may be of biographical interest, but it is of no consequence as far as the philosophy of science is concerned.
Science, or to be precise, the working scientist, is interested, in Popper's view, in theories with a high informative content, because such theories possess a high predictive power and are consequently highly testable.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/popper   (8080 words)

 Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary - Science
According to empiricism, "scientific" theories are objective, empirically verifiable, and "predictive" — they predict empirical results that can be checked and possibly contradicted.
Philosopher Roy Bhaskar [1] has shown that the practice of scientific experiments presumes a "layered" ontology in which empirical reality is only the most evident layer, but there must also be actual and real layers.
The developments of quantum mechanics in the early 20th century showed that observations are not independent of interactions, and the implications of wave-particle duality have challenged the traditional notion of "objectivity" in science.
www.fact-archive.com /encyclopedia/Science   (2073 words)

 Unified Theories
First, it is to find the most basic theory at the trunk that it is possible to formulate at this time.
Similarly, a secure foundation for a science of religion should be based not on scriptures but on immediate religious insights that we ourselves could verify given the prerequisite training and psychical apparatus.
A science, whether mathematical or physical or spiritual, is a living tradition that has its foundation in a community of practitioners who have been trained to see the truths of that science and who train the next generation to see the truths.
www.integralscience.org /theories.html   (3916 words)

 Science Fair Projects - Basic theories of science
These are some of the basic theories of science, which are now generally accepted as part of the basic knowledge that should be known by all children as part of their education.
Science kits, science lessons, science toys, maths toys, hobby kits, science games and books - these are some of many products that can help give your kid an edge in their science fair projects, and develop a tremendous interest in the study of science.
Science Fair Projects for students of all ages
www.all-science-fair-projects.com /science_fair_projects_encyclopedia/Basic_theories_of_science   (206 words)

Science is first and foremost a set of logical and empirical methods which provide for the systematic observation of empirical phenomena in order to understand them.
Science consists of several specific sciences, such as biology, physics, chemistry, geology, and astronomy, which are defined by the type and range of empirical phenomena they investigate.
Theories are structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts." In Popper's words: "Theories are nets cast to catch what we call 'the world': to rationalize, to explain, and to master it.
skepdic.com /science.html   (2277 words)

 Open Directory - Science: Physics: Alternative: Unified Theories   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Theory of Analytical Space-Time - A unified theory of quantum mechanics and relativity.
The Theory of Positivist Mechanics - This theory proposed a framework by which the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics may be derived from classical (general relativistic) principles, thus providing a unification of GR and QM.
Unified Field Theory - A new attempt to establish a unified theory of the classical fields of gravitation and electromagnetism which complies with the geometric paradigm of the theory of relativity of Albert Einstein.
dmoz.org /Science/Physics/Alternative/Unified_Theories   (1068 words)

Another effect of the Creationist assault on science education is a threat to the supply of qualified science teachers.
But it is well known to scientists that no theory (with the possible exception of quantum electrodynamics) explains all the facts in its domain; one has to pick the best working hypothesis and try to refute or improve it.
Moreover, some physical scientists and engineers do not accept that theories in biology have the same status as those in their own field, because biological theories are not subject to rigorous tests.
www.asa3.org /ASA/topics/Bible-Science/APSB11-2000Brush.html   (1505 words)

 Science and Theories Lecture
As process, science is used to refer to the activities and workings of scientists or scientific institutions--to all the experimenting, observing, reading, reasoning, computering, organizing research projects, and all the other things we have come to associate with the business of science.
Science is also used to refer to a result of these activities or processes, to the product of scientific activities--that is, to a corpus of statements purporting to describe one or another aspect of the universe and embodying what counts as our scientific knowledge.
While the hammers and nails and semantic differentials used by scientists may differ from science to science, all of science is characterized by a common logic of justification in its acceptance or rejection of hypotheses or theories.
zimmer.csufresno.edu /~johnca/spch100/science.htm   (3736 words)

 John McCarthy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
The Mutilated Checkerboard in Set Theory was presented at the QED meeting in Warsaw in 1995 July.
Approximate objects and approximate theories is in the Proceedings of KR-2000.
The theory is that if http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc has to be changed (which is not planned) then OCLC will redirect the reference to the new URL, assuming I have provided one.
www-formal.stanford.edu /jmc   (3035 words)

 Office of Science Program Descriptions
Disciplinary areas where basic research is supported include materials physics, condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, biomolecular materials, x-ray, neutron, and electron scattering sciences, and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials.
Emphasis is placed on basic discovery in the chemical sciences, and on the scientific underpinning of new sources of energy and improved processes for using existing energy resources.
Included in the theory program are the activities that are aimed at providing information services on critical nuclear data and have as a goal the compilation and dissemination of an accurate and complete nuclear data information base that is readily accessible and user oriented.
www.science.doe.gov /production/grants/progdesc.html   (4163 words)

 SHW, Religion vs Science   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
Since it is a method to produce theories, it only makes sense to call a theory of science true or false but not science itself.
Theories may come and go with experimental results but the methodologies of science are going to stay the same.
When one speaks of a theory in science, one means, "a plausible or scientifically acceptable general principle or body of principles offered to explain phenomena (Merriam-Webster)".
www.nd.edu /~jquinn/humanism/science.htm   (11698 words)

 Historical Notes: Mathematics in science
Roger Bacon nevertheless wrote in 1267 that "mathematics is the door and key to the sciences", and by the 1500s it was often believed that for science to be meaningful it must somehow follow the systematic character of mathematics.
But despite the vast range of phenomena in nature that have never successfully been described in mathematical terms, it has become quite universally assumed that, as David Hilbert put it in 1900, "mathematics is the foundation of all exact knowledge of natural phenomena".
There continue to be theories in science that are not explicitly mathematical - examples being continental drift and evolution by natural selection - but, as for example Alfred Whitehead stated in 1911, it is generally believed that "all science as it grows toward perfection becomes mathematical in its ideas".
www.wolframscience.com /reference/notes/859a   (401 words)

 Einstein's Wife . The Science . The 1905 Theories | PBS
Unless, according to the dominant theory in 1905, the physicists were measuring the speed of light.
It is called the "special" theory to set it apart from his "general" theory of 1916, which factored in gravity and acceleration.
In a logical extension of the Special Theory, Einstein linked energy (E), mass (m) and the speed of light (c), in a way that implied a little bit of matter could be converted into a large amount of energy.
www.pbs.org /opb/einsteinswife/science/1905.htm   (484 words)

 Loren Haarsma --- Christian faith and science
Although science still has a long way to go in answering that question, advances within the last several years have shed new light on how the potential for life could have been built into the chemistry of the early earth.
The basic theories and equations of science —— the "laws of nature" —— don't explicitly refer to God, miracles, or the supernatural.
Some folks claim that this is because the natural sciences are "methodologically naturalistic." The methods and results of the natural sciences are increasingly being used to study human behavior.
www.calvin.edu /~lhaarsma/scifaith.html   (2251 words)

 Out to debunk: China's 'science police' - SciDev.Net
He suggests that the low level of scientific literacy in Chinese society, and a general lack of scepticism among the public, are partly to blame for the spread of pseudoscience.
According to the theory, each region of an embryo has its own corresponding region in the whole organism, and the shape and size of an organism's organs – such as the leaf of a tree, or a human hand – are related to the species' overall size and structure.
Fang admits that his scientific expertise outside biology may be limited, but basic science theories and logics learnt in colleges or even in high schools, along with the awareness of academic disciplines, have been enough to help him debunk pseudoscience.
www.scidev.net /content/features/eng/out-to-debunk-chinas-science-police.cfm   (1482 words)

 Newly Compiled Practical English-Chinese Library of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Science of Prescriptions
This book aims to introduce systematically the basic knowledge of Science of prescriptions so that those who are studying Traditional Chinese Medicine home and abroad can have a general idea of the essential formulating principles and specific application of the prescriptions as well as the typical prescriptions commonly used in clinic.
It is meant to lay a foundation for further using syndrome differentiation and treatment in accordance with the TCM theories.
Basic theories of science of prescriptions are presented in the General Introduction, while Specific discussions mainly focuses on the source, ingredients, directions, actions, clinical application, elucidation, cautions of 152 typical prescriptions commonly used in clinical practice under 16 categories.
www.cgcmall.com /Science_of_Prescriptions_p/b00newly4.htm   (588 words)

 Handbook of Occupational Groups and Families, GS-1500 Definitions
This work includes research on basic mathematical principles, methods, procedures, techniques or relationships; the development of mathematical methods in the solution of a variety of scientific, engineering, economic and military problems, where the exactitude of the relationships, the rigor and economy of mathematical operations, and the logical necessity of the results are the controlling considerations.
This series includes all classes of positions the primary duties of which are to advise on, administer, or perform professional work requiring the design, development and adaptation of mathematical methods and techniques to statistical processes, or research in the basic theories and science of statistics.
This series includes all classes of positions the duties of which are to administer or perform professional work, or to provide professional consultation in the application of statistical theories, techniques and methods to the gathering and/or interpretation of quantified information.
www.opm.gov /fedclass/text/gs-1500.htm   (442 words)

 Basic Principles of Theistic Science
Following these general principles, we look detail at the discrete degrees in creation, in a top-down approach where we start from the theistic principles, and derive details of spiritual, mental and physical levels of processes, along with their dynamic interrelations.
This derivation is at the heart of theistic science.
As a consequence of the principles whereby discrete degrees are generated, we find that there are correspondences of similar functions in distinct degrees.
www.theisticscience.org /Basic.html   (227 words)

 An Introduction to Basic Statistics | Background
As theories become more thoroughly tested and are found to have very specific explanatory power in a broad range of circumstances, they sometimes become known as laws.
In any case, whether in confirming or disproving scientific theories, experimental science is challenging and full of pitfalls and surprises.  Being a research scientist requires years of training, finely honed experimental skills, skepticism, high integrity, and a willingness to let go of cherished hypotheses when these do not receive experimental support and verification by colleagues.
Among the other graphing tools used by a physicist are the linearization techniques which produce a straight line on a graph of the experimental data.  An example is a variable that changes exponentially with respect to another variable.
www.ferris.edu /htmls/colleges/artsands/Biology/ResearchScience/SIBackground.cfm   (269 words)

 New Theories in Physics and Astronomy
A quantum theory of time and space that defines distance as equivalent to a period of time (D=cT) and is more accurate that special relativity.
Study on basic theory in physics has got a great breakthrough, a new theory on Space-time is born.
A unified field theory which completes Einsteins theory by calculating the energy tensor, and Quantum mechanics arises as a constraint.
www.physlink.com /Education/NewTheories.cfm   (566 words)

 Modes of Inquiry   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
recognize some of the issues in the life sciences that influence society, and have acquired familiarity with some of the technical language and basic theories of science that inform personal and public decision making.
recognize some of the issues in the physical sciences that influence society, and have acquired familiarity with some of the technical language and basic theories of science that inform personal and public decision making.
The Social Scientific Mode of Inquiry is designed to facilitate the ability to make more informed decisions about social issues, thus advancing the goal of citizenship and leadership in its broadest meaning in the context of families, groups, communities, societies, and/or the global system in general.
www.truman.edu /pages/262.asp   (1091 words)

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