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Topic: Batrachotoxin

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  Batrachotoxin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Batrachotoxins are extremely potent cardiotoxic and neurotoxic steroidal alkaloids found in certain species of frogs (poison dart frog), Melyridae beetles and birds (Pitohui, Ifrita kowaldi).
Batrachotoxin is more potent than curare (another arrow poison used by South American indians and derived from plants of the genera Strychnos and Curarea), and about ten times more potent than tetrodotoxin, from the puffer fish.
Batrachotoxin in the PNS produces increased permeability (selective and irreversible) of the resting cell membrane to sodium ions, without changing potassium or calcium concentration.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Batrachotoxin   (1124 words)

 Neurotoxin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Examples of neurotoxins include tetrodotoxin, batrachotoxin and components of the venom in bees, scorpions, spiders and snakes.
Toxins taken in from the environment are described as exogenous and include gases (eg carbon monoxide), metals (such as mercury), liquids (ethanol) and an endless list of solids.
A potent neurotoxin such as batrachotoxin affects the nervous system by causing depolarization of nerve and muscle fibres due to increased sodium ion permeability of the excitable cell membrane.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Neurotoxin   (278 words)

Batrachotoxin is thought to hold the channel open by preventing both fast and slow inactivation mechanisms of the sodium ion channel.
Batrachotoxin binds to the alpha sub unit of the sodium channel.
It is possible that the binding of Batrachotoxin to the IVS6 region alters the voltage sensor on the sodium ion channel thereby affecting both activation and inactivation.
chemweb.calpoly.edu /chem/bailey/377/PapersW04/Sarah   (1097 words)

 Poison dart frog - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Even a very small amount of the batrachotoxin found in the skins of Phyllobates terribilis and at least two other species of Phyllobates frogs - on the order of just 40 micrograms - can be fatal.
Certain tribes in South America, such as the Noanamá Chocó and Emberá Chocó indians of western Colombia, dip the tips of their blowgun darts in the poison found on the skin of Phyllobates of 3 species.
Poison darts made from either fresh or fermented batrachotoxin are enough to drop monkeys and birds in their tracks since nerve paralysis is almost instantaneous.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Poison_dart_frog   (1087 words)

 ASA Newsletter - Dart Poison Frogs and Toxins
The LD value of batrachotoxin in mice (subcutaneously) is 0.2 µg/kg, with minimal lethal doses from 0.01 to 0.02 µg/kg).
Batrachotoxin and homobatrachotoxin are among the most potent of all naturally occurring nonprotein poisons.
Commonly pumiliotoxins are 100 to 1000 times less toxic than batrachotoxins, but their chemical structures are simple enough to be suitable for chemical syntheses in laboratory.
www.asanltr.com /ASANews-99/995frogs.htm   (1714 words)

The major classes of dendrobatid alkaloids batrachotoxin decahydroquinolines, the histrionicotoxins, indolizidines, the pumiliotoxins, pyrrolizidines, quinolizidines, and tetrodotoxin.
Batrachotoxin, first isolated from Dendrobates pumilo among, is one of a group of potent lipid- soluble neurotoxins which binds voltage-sensitive sodium channels (Casebolt and Brown 1993).
Batrachotoxin is the most powerful animal venom known, being 250 times more powerful than strychnine and is present in extreme amounts in Phyllobates terribilus (Daly, Myers et al.
www.kingsnake.com /toxinology/old/amphibians/amphworld.html   (2334 words)

 Final: Poison Frogs of the Neotropics
Batrachotoxin belongs to a class of chemicals that are known as lipophilic alkaloids (Daly, 1995).
Batrachotoxin enters the body generally through the mucosal membranes of the mouth when an animal attempts to eat a Phyllobates frog.
It is theorized that this toxin causes an increase in the permeability of the nerve axons to sodium ions (Daly, 1995).
jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu /fieldcourses01/PapersCostaRicaArticles/Final.PoisonFrogsoftheNeo.html   (3249 words)

 Batrachotoxin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
An amount of 2-200 µg of batrachotoxin when ingested by humans is considered fatal [7].
It alters the electrochemical gradient of the membrane causing cell signaling breakdowns.
Michio Kurosu and Yoshito Kishi "A Novel Example for Optical Resolution of Racemic Ketones Originating from Batrachotoxin Synthesis." Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University.
mason.gmu.edu /~mwinkle2/350_projects/batrachotoxin.htm   (600 words)

The batrachotoxin increases the permeability of the outer membrane of nerve and muscle cells to sodium ions.
Whether the beetles make the batrachotoxin themselves or obtain it from their diet is not at present known.
It would be unusual for a beetle to synthesise steroid molecules like batrachotoxin; it may be that the beetle gets it from small arthropods it eats, or maybe from plants.
www.chm.bris.ac.uk /motm/batrachotoxin/batrav.htm   (921 words)

 Terrifically Toxic Dendrobatids
LD of batrachotoxin in mice (subcutaneous injection) is 0.2µg/kg and minimal lethal doses range from 0.01 to 0.02 µg/kg.
Because it is so potent, one wonders how the South American natives can use the skin secretions of the most toxic frogs to kill their own food and still be alive and faring well after dinner.
Batrachotoxin is employed in neurology research, aiding in the study of local anesthetic and anticonvulsant interactions.
www.ansci.cornell.edu /courses/as625/2005term/Elaine/Dendrobates.htm   (2055 words)

 Amphibian Neurotoxins
The major dendrobatid alkaloids are batrachotoxin, decahydroquinolines, histrionicotoxins, indolizidines, pumiliotoxins, pyrrolizidines, quinolizidines and tetrodotoxin.
Batrachotoxin is another member of this group of potent lipid-soluble neurotoxins that bind voltage-sensitive sodium channels.
Batrachotoxin is the most powerful animal venom known, being 250 times more powerful than strychnine and is present in high concentrations in Phyllobates terribilus accounting for the extreme toxicity of this species.
www.kingsnake.com /toxinology/amphibian_neurotoxin.html   (1879 words)

 ASA Newsletter - Article Natural Neurotoxin Review
Batrachotoxins (BTX) are steroidal alkaloids released from the skin granular glands of tropical frogs from the genus Phyllobates [21].
Batrachotoxins bind to the sodium ion channels of nerve axons and muscle cells.
At higher doses, e.g., 1 µg, death occurs in mice within one minute.The LD value of batrachotoxin in mice (subcutaneously) is 0.2 µg/kg, with minimal lethal doses from 0.01 to 0.02 µg/kg.
www.asanltr.com /newsletter/02-2/articles/Neurotoxins.htm   (5318 words)

 The Seattle Times: Nation & World: Search to find frog poison ends in Papua New Guinea
The poison has been used for centuries by indigenous Colombians to coat the points of their tiny blow darts, allowing them to bring down large prey — as well as humans — with relative ease.
Called batrachotoxin, the lethal agent is more powerful than curare and 10 times as deadly as the tetrodotoxin from the puffer fish.
The discovery is of more-than-academic interest because batrachotoxin — from the Greek "batrachos," or frog — is used widely in studying the function of sodium channels, gates in the cellular membrane that are implicated in a variety of diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.
seattletimes.nwsource.com /html/nationworld/2002084521_poison07.html   (438 words)

 use of batrachotoxin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Phyllobates terribilis produces 27 times more batrachotoxin than its close relatives and is 20 fold more toxic.(2) One freshly caught frog has up to 1900 µg of toxin.
An Emberá Chocó of Colombia using a blowgun tohunt.The darts he is using are covered with batrachotoxin.
Poison darts are prepared by the Chocó Indians by first impaling a frog on a piece of wood.(6) By some accounts the frog is then held over or roasted alive over a fire until the frog cries in pain.
chemweb.calpoly.edu /chem/bailey/377/PapersF2000/Caroline/uses.html   (229 words)

 The Batrachotoxin Receptor on the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel is Guarded by the Channel Activation Gate -- Li et al. ...
The Batrachotoxin Receptor on the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel is Guarded by the Channel Activation Gate -- Li et al.
Brown GB (1988) Batrachotoxin: a window on the allosteric nature of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel.
Khodorov BI and Revenko SV (1979) Further analysis of the mechanisms of action of batrachotoxin on the membrane of myelinated nerve.
molpharm.aspetjournals.org /cgi/content/full/61/4/905   (4981 words)

 Dendrobates azureus (Hoogmoed, 1969) Blue Poison Frog
Batrachotoxin is found in many of the poison frogs of South and Central America.
A.00001 gram dose of batrachotoxin is enough to kill an adult human.
Batrachotoxins effect the permeability of selective ions, resulting in depolarization of the nerves and muscles, arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation, and possible cardiac arrest.
www.livingunderworld.org /anura/database/dendrobatidae/dendrobates/azureus   (2557 words)

 Batrachotoxin home
Batrachotoxin is an alkaloidal steroid released through colorless or milky secretions from the granular glands (located on the back and behind the ears) of frogs from the genus Phyllobates.
It is interesting to note that the "poison dart" (or "poison arrow") frog does not produce batrachotoxin itself.
It is believed that the frog gets its poison from eating ants or some other insect in their native habitat.(10) The insects obtain the poison from a plant source.
chemweb.calpoly.edu /chem/bailey/377/PapersF2000/Caroline   (437 words)

 Poison Dart Frogs
Batrachotoxin is a steroidal alkaloid secreted from skin glands and is deadly to other small animals.
Dendrobates tinctorius, a strikingly beautiful poison dart frog native to tropical rain forests of the Guianas in the northeastern shoulder of South America.
Dendrobates frogs produce a poison called pumiliotoxin, which is not as deadly as the batrachotoxin produced by Phyllobates frogs.
waynesword.palomar.edu /dartfrog.htm   (508 words)

 Nat' Academies Press, Chemical Ecology: The Chemistry of Biotic Interaction (1995)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Batrachotoxins are unique steroidal alkaloids, which were unknown elsewhere in nature until the recent discovery of homobatrachotoxin at low levels in skin and feathers of a Papua New Guinean bird of the genus Pitohui (9).
In the dendrobatid frogs, three major alkaloids are present—namely, batrachotoxin, homobatrachotoxin, and a much less toxic possible precursor, batrachotoxinin A. The latter, when fed to nontoxic captive-raised P.
Batrachotoxins depolarize nerve and muscle by specific opening of sodium channels; the sodium channels of the Phyllobates species are insensitive to the action of batrachotoxin (22).
www.nap.edu /books/0309052815/html/23.html   (773 words)

 Batrachotoxin Changes the Properties of the Muscarinic Receptor in Rat Brain and Heart: Possible Interaction(s) between ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Batrachotoxin Changes the Properties of the Muscarinic Receptor in Rat Brain and Heart: Possible Interaction(s) between Muscarinic Receptors and Sodium Channels -- Cohen-Armon et al.
Batrachotoxin Changes the Properties of the Muscarinic Receptor in Rat Brain and Heart: Possible Interaction(s) between Muscarinic Receptors and Sodium Channels
The effects of Na -channel activator batrachotoxin (BTX) on the binding properties of muscarinic receptors in homogenates of rat brain and heart were studied.
intl.pnas.org /cgi/content/abstract/82/10/3524   (285 words)

 ECOCLUB.com Ecotourism News
As frogs of this species grown in captivity are entirely harmless, it may mean that the high toxicity of our friend is due to its consuming an unknown mysterious small insect or other arthropod and that must be surely the most poisonous creature of the planet.
Once a dart is poisoned, the dart remains lethal for up to two years, and is used to catch small prey such as monkeys.
Medical research is being done with the alkaloid toxin, batrachotoxin, that P.terribilis produces to develop muscle relaxants, heart stimulants, and anaesthetics.
ecoclub.com /news/40/quiz.html   (280 words)

 Department of Biological Sciences - University at Albany - State University of New York
And Wang, G. A mutation in segment I-S6 alters the C-type inactivation of sodium channels.
Wang, G. K., Quan, C., Seaver, M. and Wang, S-Y. Modificaiton of wild-type and batrachotoxin resistant muscle µ1 Na+ channels by veratridine.
Residues in Na+ channel D3-S6 segment modulate both batrachotoxin and local anesthetic affinities.
www.albany.edu /faculty/sywang/publications.html   (680 words)

 Re: Info needed on VENOMOUS bird?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Homobatrachotoxin is similar to batrachotoxin, the >toxic principle of the Central American poison arrow frog, Phyllobates >aurotaenia.
Batrachotoxin and homobatrachotoxin act on the >voltage-sensitive sodium channels of excitable tissues: nervous >tissue, cardiac and skeletal muscle; and the neuromuscular junction.
>Voltage-sensitive sodium channel binding of batrachotoxin and >homobatrachotoxin leads to depolarization of cell membranes due to >increased sodium influx.
www.talkaboutpets.com /group/rec.birds/messages/160941.html   (425 words)

 Toxic Frogs, Birds May Get Their Poison From Beetles   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
But the animals share one thing in common: They use batrachotoxin, a rare neurotoxin that is 250 times more potent than strychnine.
Researchers believe the creatures use the poison, which laces their skin and/or feathers, as a type of biodefense that protects the animals from predators and parasites.
Batrachotoxin has been known to Western scientists since the mid-1960s, when chemist John Daly and colleagues at the United States National Institutes of Health first identified it in the skin of Colombian poison-dart frogs (Phyllobates spp.).
news.nationalgeographic.com /news/2004/11/1109_041109_toxic_beetles.html   (605 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
I am working on a two in one research project titled as the total synthesis of Batrachotoxin by the Pd-mediated coupling.
Batrachotoxin (1) is a steroidal alkaloid that was isolated from the muscles of back of the tiny and brightly coloured frogs of western Colombia origin
It causes cardiac arrest at very small microgram scale and known to be the most toxic of the alkaloids isolated.The cis-junction at AB, stable ketal linkage between C3-C9 and the presence of the 1,4-oxazepane ring at the CD ring junction makes the batrachotoxin (1) a novel steroidal alkaloid.
www.sussex.ac.uk /Users/kapx7/Members/Current_Members/Abdul_Rauf_Raza/Abdul_Rauf_RazaR.html   (245 words)

 NIDDK's Daly Delivers NIH Director's Lecture, Jan. 21 - January 6, 2004 NIH Record - National Institutes of Health (NIH)
In 1963, when his lab chief Witkop needed someone to collect poison dart frogs in western Colombia and investigate the nature of the toxins in such frogs, Daly proved to be the perfect choice.
The batrachotoxins in the extracts he brought back were shown to have unique structures and to be specific and potent activators of sodium channels responsible for nerve conduction.
Batrachotoxin and a radioactive analogue (batrachotoxinin-A benzoate) developed by Daly's group have been used in hundreds of studies to better understand the function of sodium channels and how they are affected by other agents.
www.nih.gov /news/NIH-Record/01_06_2004/story04.htm   (746 words)

 Critter Chemistry - Birds And Frogs: An Alkaloid Connection   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The finding suggests that chemical defenses among birds might be more widespread than previously thought and raises questions about the origin and ecological roles of the batrachotoxins.
The discovery of the alkaloids in Ifrita kowaldi birds was reported by John P. Dumbacher, a researcher at the National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C., and chemists John W. Daly and Thomas F. Spande of the National Institutes of Health (Proc.
It's a lot like tasting hot chili peppers or touching a 9-volt battery." He says the natives of New Guinea knew the birds were poisonous, calling them trash birds because they are useless as food.
pubs.acs.org /cen/critter/birds.html   (638 words)

 ADW: Phyllobates terribilis: Information
terribilis is the toxicity of the batrachotoxin that it produces.
Two-tenths of a microgram of batrachotoxin is lethal in the human blood stream and each adult P.
Researchers are trying to develop muscle relaxants, heart stimulants, and anesthetics from the batrachotoxin.
animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu /site/accounts/information/Phyllobates_terribilis.html   (707 words)

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