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Topic: Berkeley sockets

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In the News (Tue 21 May 19)

  Understanding Sockets in Unix, NT, and Java
Sockets were added to the Microsoft Windows world in the form of the Winsock API, and to the Java world as Socket and ServerSocket objects in the java.net package.
The socket descriptor sd1 and the socket address structure sas1 are declared in the same manner as in the server program, which illustrates the similarity between the Windows implementation of sockets and the Unix implementation.
Sockets do not need to be connected in order to transmit data, which is transmitted in discrete packets called datagrams.
www.ibm.com /developerworks/linux/library/j-sockets/understanding-sockets.html   (5304 words)

 Berkeley sockets - CompWisdom   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The Berkeley socket interface is an API that allows communications between hosts or between processes on one computer, using the concept of a socket.
Berkeley description: A write to an ordinary file, the creation of a directory or symbolic link, or the creation of a directory entry failed because the user's quota of disk blocks was exhausted, or the allocation of an inode for a newly created file failed because the user's quota of inodes was exhausted.
The point of sockets is to provide a way to get information from one place to another via a computer network (which could use any of a hundred protocols) in a way that doesn't require that you rewrite your program every time it gets ported to a different platform.
www.compwisdom.com /topics/Berkeley-sockets   (881 words)

 Socket Programming HOWTO
Sockets are used nearly everywhere, but are one of the most severely misunderstood technologies around.
I will try to clear up the mystery of what a socket is, as well as some hints on how to work with blocking and non-blocking sockets.
Client sockets are normally only used for one exchange (or a small set of sequential exchanges).
www.amk.ca /python/howto/sockets   (2909 words)

 Definition of Berkeley sockets
Berkeley sockets (also known as the BSD socket API) originated with the 4.2BSD system (released in 1983) as an API, covered under the BSD license, for development of sockets.
Socket takes three arguments: domain, which specifies the address family of the socket that is created, type, which is one of SOCK_STREAM(TCP), SOCK_DGRAM(UDP), or SOCK_RAW (RAW), and protocol, which is usually set to 0 to represent the default protocol for the specified domain and type.
For these sockets, connect takes on a special meaning: The default target for sending and receiving data will be set to the given address, allowing the use of functions such as send() and recv() on connectionless sockets.
www.wordiq.com /definition/Berkeley_sockets   (747 words)

 Windows Sockets
Socket descriptors are not presumed to correspond to regular file handles, and file operations such as read(), write(), and close() cannot be assumed to work correctly when applied to socket descriptors..
In a multithreaded environment the sockets interface is basically the same, but the author of a multithreaded application must be aware that it is the responsibility of the application, not the Windows Sockets implementation, to synchronize access to a socket between threads.
The default behavior within the Berkeley sockets model is for a socket to operate in a blocking mode unless the programmer explicitly requests that operations be treated as non-blocking.
www.ibiblio.org /winsock/winsock-1.1/winsock.html   (15259 words)

 C++ Sockets Library: Unix & Windows networking made easy
This is a GPL licensed C++ class library wrapping the berkeley sockets C API, and therefore works on most unixes and also win32.
The socket class, by itself, has all the functions needed for address translation (hostname to ip, ip to hostname etc).
To be notified about the latest changes and additions to the C++ sockets library, subscribe to the project at the C++ sockets library freshmeat.net project page.
www.alhem.net /Sockets   (420 words)

 Programming IP Sockets on Linux, Part One
Sockets cannot be used to access lower (or higher) network layers; for example, a socket application does not know whether it is running over ethernet, token ring, or a dialup connection.
In both cases, you first create the socket; in the TCP case only, you next establish a connection to the server; next you send some data to the server; then receive data back; perhaps the sending and receiving alternates for a while; finally, in the TCP case, you close the connection.
The socket that is passed in to the handler function is one that already connected to the requesting client.
gnosis.cx /publish/programming/sockets.html   (3179 words)

 Internet socket - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The concept of a socket is an entity that implements an API, regardless of the implementation.
In contrast with the use of TCP connections directly, using sockets makes a distinction between client and server, and it is able to implement a queue of clients over a given server socket.
Sockets usually are implemented by a library (as Berkeley sockets or Winsock).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Internet_socket   (301 words)

 Toward a better understanding of sockets
The Sockets API - also called the Berkeley Sockets Interface - was developed at the University of California at Berkeley for the 4.1c release of BSD Unix in the early 1980s (by the by, BSD stands for Berkeley Software Distribution).
The concept of sockets is straightforward: To send a message to a machine is not enough - you need to be able to send the message to a specific software process, an end point for the communication.
Knowing the client's socket allows the results of each request to be returned to the correct client.
www.networkworld.com /archive/1999b/0726gearhead.html   (737 words)

 The Sockets Paradigm   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
First introduced in the Berkeley UNIX Software Distribution in the early 1980s, the concept of sockets was originally designed as a method of interprocess communication.
A large subset of the Berkeley sockets library is available in WinSock with identical function names and parameters.
Bear in mind that the concept of a socket is purely an abstraction used in the WinSock API.
www.sockaddr.com /TheSocketsParadigm.html   (505 words)

September 10, 2001 (Computerworld) Born at the University of California, Berkeley, in the 1980s, sockets first appeared in the Unix world as the Berkeley Sockets Interface, a programming device designed to help far-flung networked computers exchange information.
As software engineer Jim Frost explains in his Web treatise "Windows Sockets: A Quick and Dirty Primer," sockets are the computer programming world's equivalent to a telephone, where devices that have their own numerical addresses become the vehicles for two-way communication.
"The socket is still there, mind you, making the connection between the user and the Web application, but the nitty-gritty details of the socket tend to be hidden under higher layers so that most people don't have to deal with them.
www.computerworld.com /printthis/2001/0,4814,63614,00.html   (656 words)

 WinSock API
Portions of the Windows Sockets specification are derived from material which is Copyright © 1982-1986 by the Regents of the University of California.
Windows Sockets is an independent specification which was created and exists for the benefit of application developers and network vendors and, indirectly, computer users.
Windows Sockets Version 1.1 follows the guidelines and structure laid out by version 1.0, making changes only where absolutely necessary as indicated by the experiences of a number of companies that created Windows Sockets implementations based on the version 1.0 specification.
burks.brighton.ac.uk /burks/pcinfo/progdocs/winsock/winsock1.htm   (970 words)

 ONDotnet.com -- Using .NET Sockets
Therefore, to send a message from a socket in one application to another socket at the other end of a connection, you need to know the machine's IP address and the application's port number.
This class is an implementation of the Sockets API, which is also known as the Berkeley sockets interface.
The Sockets API was developed in the early 80s at the University at Berkeley for the 4.1c release of Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) Unix.
www.ondotnet.com /pub/a/dotnet/2002/10/21/sockets.htm   (1713 words)

 Windows Sockets Network Programming: Optional Features
For datagram sockets, you'd have to redesign your application protocol to use smaller datagrams.
In implementations that support the IP_TTL socket option (which we describe next) you could alter the IP time to live before sending the ICMP echo, and read the destination address from the ICMP error packet response and trace the route of the datagram.
While nothing in the Windows Sockets API prevents an implementation from using regular file handles to identify sockets, nothing requires it either." In other words, you cannot assume that a socket is equivalent to a file handle.
www.sockets.com /ch16.htm   (5794 words)

 GRC | Denial of Service with Windows XP     (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
This means that while Windows' Raw Sockets can be readily used for their intended and safe purpose of generating valid ICMP ping and traceroute packets, application programs are effectively cut off from direct "lower-level" access to the underlying physical Internet.
With Microsoft's traditionally-limited Raw Sockets support, Windows applications were UNABLE to "forge" or "spoof" the machine's actual IP address to hide the source of any malicious traffic they might generate.
In the hands of a clueful hacker, fully-supported Raw Sockets is the enabling factor for the creation of a series of "Ultimate Weapons" against which the fundamentally trusting architecture of the global Internet currently has no effective defense.
www.grc.com /dos/winxp.htm   (8555 words)

 Berkeley sockets notes
The third argument, protocol, is used to specify a specific layer-4 protocol if the combination of the domain and type arguments results in some ambiguity as to which layer-4 protocol should actually be used.
The protocol specifies a particular protocol to be used with the socket.
Use bind(3) to bind the source address data structure to the socket handle (the return value of the socket(3) call).
www.lightconsulting.com /~thalakan/socket-notes.html   (1792 words)

 XII  Généralités sur les sockets de Berkeley
Comme pour un fichier, chaque socket active est identifiée par un petit entier appelé descripteur de socket.
Le bon usage du descripteur de socket partagé entre les deux processus incombe donc à la responsabilité du programmeur.
Si un processus ayant ouvert des sockets vient à s'interrompre pour une raison quelconque, en interne la socket est fermée et si plus aucun processus n'a de descripteur ouvert sur elle, le noyau la supprime.
www.laissus.fr /cours/node18.html   (2653 words)

 Berkeley sockets - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Berkeley socket interface, an API, allows communications between hosts or between processes on one computer, using the concept of a internet socket.
can be called again at any time with this socket, until it is closed.
Certain types of sockets are connectionless, most commonly user datagram protocol sockets.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Berkeley_sockets   (1453 words)

 UNIX Programming   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
One of these things, at least for most people, is the BSD socket concept.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss interprocess communication in the context of Berkeley UNIX.
Special emphasis will be given to those system calls concerned with the creation, management, and use of sockets.
www-users.cs.umn.edu /~bentlema/unix   (180 words)

 Application Programming Interface API
Sockets and TLI provide pretty much the same functionality (access to TCP and UDP) and are mutually exclusive, though it is possible to write conditionally-compiled code to support either.
In terms of sockets, this means that multiple active sockets can be created from a single passive socket.
Berkeley Sockets remains the API of choice for almost all UNIX-based Internet code.
www.freesoft.org /CIE/Topics/3.htm   (877 words)

 High-Performance Communications   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The Fast Sockets work has been the subject of my master's thesis, a poster at the Second NOW Workshop at ASPLOS VII, and an accepted paper in USENIX '97.
Building a Better Byte Stream is a long (70-page) examination of how to build a fast byte stream and how Fast Sockets and Fast Streams were built.
High-Performance Local-Area Communication With Fast Sockets is our contribution to USENIX '97.
now.cs.berkeley.edu /Fastcomm/fastcomm.html   (537 words)

 NETBOOK - Q & A on AT&T TLI vs. Berkeley Sockets
Q and A on AT&T TLI vs. Berkeley Sockets
A: Yes: as I said, the application program does not have a ``choice'' unless there are two platforms available (i.e., one is choosing the computer and operating system).
You should be aware, however, that the use of sockets does not guaranttee an application can be ported without change.
www.netbook.cs.purdue.edu /othrpags/qanda179.htm   (199 words)

 MPE/iX Network Programming Examples
Many people seem to believe that you must use C and Berkeley Sockets, but you can also use NetIPC Intrinsics and other programming languages.
In fact, the Berkeley Sockets API is common in the Unix world and due to its parameter passing mainly useful for C programmers who compile and link with the Posix interfaces and libraries of MPE/iX.
Java is very convenient for network programming (among various other things), so you'd probably be surprised to compare Berkeley Sockets, NetIPC and java.net examples side by side.
www.editcorp.com /Personal/Lars_Appel/SockSamp   (255 words)

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