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Topic: Berlin Crisis of 1949


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  Berlin Blockade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The crisis abated after the Soviet Union did not act to stop American, British and French humanitarian airlifts of food and other provisions to the Western-held sectors of Berlin; referred to as Operation Vittles.
The major Berlin airfields involved were Tempelhof in the American Sector, Gatow and the Havel river in the British and Tegel (built by army engineers in 49 days with the help of Berlin volunteers) in the French.
Tensions in the Berlin Air Safety Center (BASC) – a four-power organization manned by personnel from France, Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union – reached an understandable high during the Airlift, though the success of the campaign was in large part due to the coordination carried out within the BASC.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Berlin_Blockade   (1394 words)

  
 Berlin Wall - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Accordingly, General Lucius D. Clay, who was deeply respected by Berliners after commanding the American effort during the Berlin Airlift (1948–49), and was known to have a firm attitude towards the Soviets, was sent to Berlin with ambassadorial rank as Kennedy's special advisor.
The ecstatic East Berliners were soon greeted by West Berliners on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere, and the bars near the wall spontaneously gave out free beer.
Upon arrival in Berlin, the couple realized their plans to secure large portions of the wall would be costly, as 4-foot-wide sections were selling at a cost of $60,000 to $200,000.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Berlin_wall   (4490 words)

  
 Cold War I: Berlin Crisis - Timeline - 1948-1949
March 18, 1949: The Allies organize NATO, a 12-nation alliance aimed to protect its members against the Soviet Union and its allies.
April 16, 1949: The "Easter Parade" takes place on this 294th day of the Airlift: 13,000 tons of coal, food, and supplies are flown to Berlin, averaging one plane every 61.8 seconds.
September 30, 1949: Berlin Airlift officially ends after a total of 277,264 flights and 1.5 million tons of aid.
www.opb.org /education/coldwar/berlincrisis/timeline/1948.html   (545 words)

  
 Deutsche Mark
The Deutsche Mark was introduced in 1948 by the Western powers once the post-war division of Germany into East and West seemed permanent.
The move, intended to protect West Germany from inflation, angered the Russian authorities in East Berlin, who regarded it as a threat and promptly cut off all transport (road,rail and canal) links from West Germany to West Berlin.
This lead to the Berlin Crisis of 1949[?].
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/de/Deutschmark.html   (213 words)

  
 German-American Relations - Hillenbrandt - Berlin Crisis
Viewed against the broader spectrum of the entire Cold War, the Berlin Crisis of 1958-1962 may now seem just one of a series of confrontations between the two superpowers and their allies.
As the crisis went on, it became more and more obvious that full German involvement in three-power diplomacy and contingency planning was essential short of actual German presence at Western talks with the Soviets.
Although many have seen the Berlin crisis as essentially over in the aftermath of Soviet abandonment of its initiative in Cuba, harassment of Allied access to Berlin actually continued until early September of 1963.
usa.usembassy.de /etexts/ga5-hillenbrandt.htm   (1426 words)

  
 USA USSR Berlin Blockade 1948-1949
The Berlin blockade crisis began with continuing Soviet protests over a US policy of promoting the economic recovery of Germany and, by February of 1948, plans for a West German state.
The publication of these plans in June of that year, followed two weeks later by the introduction of a new Western currency into the three Western sectors, were the precipitants for the blockade instituted by the USSR the day after the introduction of the new Deutschmark in the Western zones.
The crisis intensified over the summer and early fall as the Soviets "buzzed" US transport planes in the air corridors over East Germany, and both sides engaged in several military demonstrations of their resolve.
www.onwar.com /aced/data/bravo/berlin1948.htm   (383 words)

  
 The East German communists and the origins of the Berlin blockade crisis
A 1946 report from the Berlin SPD found that "for a food supply averaging a calorie count of 1,640 per inhabitant...3,448,000 kilograms of food are necessary each day." Of this amount, Berlin itself produced only 2 percent.
Prior to the Berlin blockade, Walter Ulbricht, the real power behind the SED, often spoke of "economic planning." It is not clear precisely what the SED deputy chairman meant by the phrase, but he certainly did not mean East German reconstruction or self-determination.
Berlin's physical and administrative isolation, therefore, gave the Kremlin ultimate control of all land and water access to the city.
www.mtholyoke.edu /acad/intrel/penna.htm   (7143 words)

  
 WHKMLA : History of Berlin, 1949-1969
East Berlin was socialist, the government of the GDR had its seat here although East Berlin was not formally GDR territory.
Berlin's separate status was expressed in the fact that the BUNDESWEHR, the FRG army since 1955, did not draft any residents of West-Berlin (until unification); in fact, a number of ingenious West German youngsters avoided military service by moving to Berlin.
The situation was economically disadvantageous; the FRG government attempted to balance it by subsidizing Berlin, by recognizing Berlin investments as deductable from taxable income.
www.zum.de /whkmla/region/germany/berlin194969.html   (687 words)

  
 A Concise Encyclopedia of the European Union --B--
The youngest of Europe's great cities, Berlin was the historical capital of Germany, a position to which it was reinstated a year ahead of schedule in 1999 when the government began its move from West Germany's post-war capital, Bonn.
In 1961 the communist government built the Berlin Wall across the centre of the city to prevent the exodus of refugees from the East.
After serving in the Bundestag from 1949 to 1957, he was mayor of West Berlin during the Berlin crisis of 1961, when the Wall was built almost overnight.
www.euro-know.org /dictionary/b.html   (3876 words)

  
 Fergie's Tech Blog: 12 May 1949: Berlin Blockade Lifted
On May 12, 1949, an early crisis of the Cold War comes to an end when the Soviet Union lifts its 11-month blockade against West Berlin.
On May 12, 1949, the Soviets abandoned the blockade, and the first British and American convoys drove though 110 miles of Soviet Germany to reach West Berlin.
The Berlin airlift continued until September 30, in an effort to build up a year's supply of essential goods for West Berlin in the event of another Soviet blockade.
fergdawg.blogspot.com /2006/05/12-may-1949-berlin-blockade-lifted.html   (212 words)

  
 AN ACT CONCERNING THE DEFINITIONS OF "VETERAN" AND "SERVICE IN TIME OF WAR".
But veterans of the Berlin Crisis appear to be already eligible for benefits because they served during the Vietnam Era (February 28, 1961 to July 1, 1975), which is a defined period of war under existing law for purposes of wartime service benefits.
A 1999 law named the Berlin Airlift as a period of war, but the dates specified were for the Berlin Crisis, instead of the Berlin Airlift.
Neither the Berlin Airlift nor the Berlin Crisis is included in the federal law.
www.cga.ct.gov /2005/fc/2005HB-05890-R000323-FC.htm   (2072 words)

  
 [No title]
OUTCOME: In September 1949 the Soviets tested their first atomic bomb, so this was the last crisis in which the U.S.A. had a monopoly of nuclear weapons.
Each wished a reasonable solution on Berlin, but their moderate positions were heavily opposed by belligerent Democrats in the U.S.A. and hard-liners in Moscow, with Mao in China calling for wars of national liberation and accusing Khruschev of "appeasement".
CRISIS EVENTS: 1961 April and June: Kennedy meets Khruschev in Vienna over the German issue (see BERLIN I, Crisis #3) and the possibility of a new blockade of Berlin.
www.math.yorku.ca /Who/Faculty/Muldoon/sfp/crises.html   (8483 words)

  
 European History/Glossary - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks
Berlin Crisis (1948-1949) - The Soviet blockade of West Berlin during the Cold War; abated after the Soviet Union did not act to stop American, British and French airlifts of food and other provisions to the Western-held sectors of Berlin
Congress of Berlin - Prompted in 1878 by Otto von Bismarck to revise the Treaty of San Stefano.
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) - Started on October 16, 1962, when U.S. reconnaissance was shown to U.S. President John F. Kennedy which revealed evidence for Soviet nuclear missile installations on the island, and lasted for 13 days until October 28, 1962, when Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev announced that the installations would be dismantled.
en.wikibooks.org /wiki/European_History:Glossary   (6904 words)

  
 Cold War I: Berlin Crisis - Introduction
"The Berlin Crisis" episodes examine the first major confrontation between Western Allies and the Soviet Union following World War II when, without warning in June 1948, the Soviet Union cut off all communication between Berlin and the West.
Outline of major events in Europe from 1945 to 1949 that led up to and followed the Berlin Crisis.
List of terms related to the Berlin Crisis and the politics of the Cold War.
www.opb.org /education/coldwar/berlincrisis   (175 words)

  
 Amazon.com: Airbridge to Berlin: The Berlin Crisis of 1948, Its Origins and Aftermath: Books: Robert E. Griffin,D. M. ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
This work presents the Berlin Blockade as a titanic struggle between two blocks of nations with divergent ideologies that nearly plunged the world into another major war.
The most important contribution of "Airbridge to Berlin," however, is the more than 300 fl and white photographs that illustrate the volume.
The lives and hardships of the Berliners as well as the relationships formed between the pilots and the people give the book a realistic touch.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0891413294?v=glance   (756 words)

  
 H-Net Review: Brian C. Etheridge on To Save a City: The Berlin Airlift, 1948-1949
Major General William H. Tunner, the architect of the Berlin Airlift of 1948-1949, described his philosophy on the airlift in these oft-quoted words: "The actual operation of a successful airlift is about as glamorous as drops of water on stone.
Having framed the Berlin Blockade as part of Stalin's effort to preserve and enhance Soviet influence in Germany, Miller then moves onto the meat of his narrative, the Airlift itself.
Tunner's philosophy was vindicated in the famous Easter Parade of April 1949, during which the Airlift transported almost 13,000 tons of cargo in a twenty-four-hour period.
www.h-net.org /reviews/showrev.cgi?path=265241063753524   (1369 words)

  
 The American Experience | Race for the Superbomb | Berlin Blockade
The blockade of Berlin was the first serious crisis of the Cold War.
The Soviet leadership responded to the Western allies' currency reforms by installing their own new currency in East Berlin just 24 hours before the West mark was to go into circulation.
In May 1949, Stalin had little choice but to lift the blockade.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/amex/bomb/peopleevents/pandeAMEX49.html   (338 words)

  
 47th Bomb Wing
The 47th Bombardment Wing, Light was established on 28 Jul 1947, and inactivated on 2 Oct 1949.
The unit was activated on 12 Mar 1951, and redesignated 47th Bombardment Wing, Tactical, on 1 Oct 1955.
The USAF deployed to RAF Sculthrope during the Berlin Crisis in 1949 and then later, in 1952, it became home for the 47th Bombardment Wing, who were to stay for a decade.
www.globalsecurity.org /wmd/agency/47bw.htm   (206 words)

  
 Berlin Airlift (1948-1949)  Information Resource Centre, Canadian Forces College/Centre d'information ...
Airbridge to Berlin L the Berlin Crisis of 1948, its origin and aftermath.
Berlin the balance, 1945-1949 : the blockade, the airlift, the first major battle of the Cold War.
Berlin Airlift : the most dramatic rescue operation of the 20th century.
wps.cfc.forces.gc.ca /en/bibliographies/bib/view.php?bibId=78   (1094 words)

  
 WHKMLA : History of Berlin, 1945-1949
Stalin was especially infuriated about the introduction of the new DM in the western sectors of Berlin, carried out without consultation of the USSR.
West Berlin, (half) a city, over 2 million inhabitants suddenly found their supply lines cut, most importantly the supply of food and fuel.
In 1949, after 11 months of bad press, Stalin gave in and ordered the streets, railway lines and canals leading to Berlin to be reopened.
www.zum.de /whkmla/region/germany/ger4549berlin.html   (966 words)

  
 Amazon.com: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Berlin-Cuba Crisis, 1961-1964: Books: John C Ausland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
It details, for example, the Soviet efforts to interfere with air access, the Berlin role in the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the Soviet attempt to control the movement of convoys to West Berlin.
Ausland's book is a revealing account of the Kennedy years of the Berlin crisis by a member of the Berlin Task Force.
A valuable aspect of the book is the documentary annexation that edifies the most serious and formative crisis of the Cold War and the most sensitive aspects of Berlin contingency planning.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/8200226352?v=glance   (762 words)

  
 Amazon.de:  City Under Siege: The Berlin Blockade Andairlift, 1948-1949: English Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
As the world watched, Berliners survived on the airlifted assistance and proved their determination to fight communism.
This book is a seamless review of the role Berlin played during the critical years that ran from the end of World War II until the fall of the Berlin Wall.
As the Soviets closed the surface routes to Berlin, a hasty effort to supply the city by air was made by the area commanders.
www.amazon.de /exec/obidos/ASIN/1574882643   (1142 words)

  
 internet culture
In simulation, identity can be fluid and multiple, a signifier no longer clearly points to a thing that is signified, and understanding is less likely to proceed through analysis than by navigation through virtual space.
Agriculture is now motorized food industry -- in essence the same as the manufacturing of corpses in gas chambers and extermination camps, the same as blockading and starving of nations [it was the year of the Berlin blockade], the same as the manufacture of hydrogen bombs.
Bernstein understands this grotesque passage as a natural expression of Heidegger's reaction against the the ``correct'' definition of technology as a neutral instrument which can be used for benign ends of increased food production or the malignant end of extermination of human beings.
www.brandeis.edu /pubs/jove/HTML/V6/iculture.html   (8643 words)

  
 The Cold War conjures up all sorts of images, from 1950s horror films to backyard bomb shelters, and the Cuban Missile ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Crisis in Greece and Turkey and the Truman Doctrine speech (1947): The Truman Doctrine was considered to be the outline of Containment and a declaration of the Cold War
Berlin Crisis (1948-1949): The Soviets blocked the only land entrance to
Russians gain the atomic bomb (1949): The explosion of a Soviet nuclear weapon signals and end to the
www.citruscollege.com /DE/solheim/hist108-1/ColdWar.htm   (616 words)

  
 murph503valprol
In that period the West had been found by its Communist rivals to be lacking in resolve.
Though some backbone had been exhibited during the Berlin Crisis of 1949-50, and the Cuban Missile crisis of 1962, the Russians were bolstered in their determination to test the resolve of their rivals by the West's inability to prop up the weak Chiang Kai-shek regime in China.
The North Korean invasion of South Korea in late June,1950, and the North Vietnamese intervention in South Vietnam on a massive scale in the mid 1960's were the ultimate test of the West by the Russians and their Communist allies.
www.homestead.com /ourpipedreams/murph503valprol.html   (612 words)

  
 how ghostly were the 1920s in Japan?
Instead of bringing the Japanese society back to the pre-imperial vernacular condition, as we shall see later, an abstract universalism thrived in twenties discourses and the traditional cosmology was put into a deep crisis - even though this cosmology was an important component for maintaining an origin-projection schema that was now in only temporary decay.
I have chosen the time period between 1919 and 1935 in Japan, since the decade of the 1920s evinces - at least apparently - a rupture with the preceding and following periods.
Nevertheless, in the journalistic texts on social problems written by critics of this period, we cannot find traces of acknowledgement that their reality was an inevitable historical crisis.
www.stanford.edu /group/SHR/5-supp/text/ishii.html   (11467 words)

  
 USS General E.T. Collins - US Navy - Korean War Project
Grandfather conducted logistics training of pierside operations for Army junior officers and senior enlisted personnel at Camp Kilmer, NJ, during the Berlin Crisis, 1948-1949.
This was a planned training program conducted to prepare ourselves for operating at European ports just in case the Berlin Blockade were to escalate into a full-blown war with the Soviet Army.
The trip from San Francisco to Yokahama, Japan was Jan 28-Feb 12, 1949, on the way to a tour of duty that lasted 32+ months.
www.koreanwar.org /html/units/navy/uss_collins.htm   (1571 words)

  
 Staff Report: Bibliography
The American Occupation of Germany: Politics and Military, 1945 - 1949.
Germany 1947 - 1949: The Story in Documents.
Annual Report of the Secretary of the Treasury on the State of theFinances.
www.holocaustassets.gov /PlunderRestitution.html/html/Bibliography.html   (2599 words)

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