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Topic: Beryllium

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  Beryllium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Beryllium oxide is useful for many applications that require an excellent heat conductor, with high strength and hardness, with a very high melting point, and that acts as an electrical insulator.
Although the use of beryllium compounds in fluorescent lighting tubes was discontinued in 1949, potential for exposure to beryllium exists in the nuclear and aerospace industries and in the refining of beryllium metal and melting of beryllium-containing alloys, the manufacturing of electronic devices, and the handling of other beryllium-containing material.
Beryllium and its compounds should be handled with great care and special precautions must be taken when carrying out any activity which could result in the release of beryllium dust (lung cancer is a possible result of prolonged exposure to beryllium laden dust).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Beryllium   (1711 words)

 Beryllium copper - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The addition of beryllium allows this alloy to be heat-treated into being a very strong and durable metal and also gives the alloy a high electrical conductivity.
The hardening process requires rapid cooling of the annealed metal, resulting in a solid state solution of beryllium in copper, which is then kept at 200-460 °C for at least a hour, facilitating precipitation of metastable beryllide crystals in the copper matrix, resulting in increase of the alloy strength.
Beryllium copper is also frequently used in the manufacture of professional-quality percussion instruments, especially tambourine and triangle, where it is prized for its clear tone and strong resonance.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Beryllium_copper   (552 words)

 Beryllium - MSN Encarta
Beryllium, one of the alkaline earth metals, ranks about 51st in natural abundance among the elements in Earth's crust.
Beryllium compounds are generally white (or colorless in solution) and show great similarity in chemical properties to the corresponding compounds of aluminum.
Beryllium and its oxide, beryllia, are also used as a moderator, or so-called blanket, around the core of a nuclear reactor because of the tendency of beryllium to slow down or capture neutrons (see Nuclear Energy).
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761560126   (453 words)

 Beryllium   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
At ordinary temperatures beryllium resists oxidation in air, although its ability to scratch glass is probably due to the formation of a thin layer of the oxide.
Beryllium is used as an alloying agent in producing beryllium copper which is extensively used for springs, electrical contacts, spot-welding electrodes, and nonsparking tools.
Beryllium and its compounds should not be tasted to verify the sweetish nature of beryllium (as did early experimenters).
www.scescape.net /~woods/elements/beryllium.html   (428 words)

 Beryllium: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In the field of X-ray lithography beryllium is being used for the reproduction of microscopic integrated circuit[Follow this hyperlink for a summary of this subject]s.
Berylliosis is a chronic lung disease caused by prolonged exposure to beryllium, a chemical irritant to the lungs....
Beryllium and its compounds should be handled with great care and special precautions must be taken when carrying out any activity which could result in the release of beryllium dust (lung cancer[Click link for more facts about this topic] is a possible result of prolonged exposure to beryllium laden dust).
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/b/be/beryllium.htm   (5517 words)

Beryllium is concentrated in silicate minerals relative to sulfides.
Beryllium in root, stem, and leaf tissues of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L Md-609) plants grown in McMurtrey's nutrient solution with addition of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/l Be were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis using m/l 246 of beryllium trifluoroacetylacetonate chelates.
Beryllium was detected in 5.4% of the samples and concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 1.22 mg/l with a mean value of 0.19 ug/l.
www.speclab.com /elements/beryllium.htm   (1907 words)

 Safety and Health Topics: Beryllium
Beryllium, atomic number 4, is a brittle, steel-gray metal found as a component of coal, oil, certain rock minerals, volcanic dust, and soil.
Elemental beryllium is the second lightest of all metals and is used in a wide variety of applications.
In addition, beryllium is amazingly versatile as a metal alloy where it is used in dental appliances, golf clubs, non-sparking tools, wheel chairs, and electronic gadgets.
www.osha.gov /SLTC/beryllium   (128 words)

 ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Beryllium   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Beryllium is a hard, grayish metal naturally found in mineral rocks, coal, soil, and volcanic dust.
Beryllium compounds are commercially mined, and the beryllium is purified for use in nuclear weapons and reactors, aircraft and space vehicle structures, instruments, x-ray machines, and mirrors.
Beryllium alloys are used in automobiles, computers, sports equipment (golf clubs and bicycle frames), and dental bridges.
atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080 /tfacts4.html   (1079 words)

Beryllium was used as a neutron reflector to reduce the size of reactor cores.
Beryllium and beryllium oxide in any forms are quite expensive, and this fact limits their use.
Beryllium copper and similar uses of the metal, or of beryllia, are not hazardous.
www.du.edu /~jcalvert/phys/beryl.htm   (1945 words)

Some beryllium combines with a protein and is deposited in the liver, spleen and kidneys, but the beryllium when bound with a biological protein, a hapten, can result in the chronic form of the disease which is believed to be a delayed hypersensitivity immune response.
Examples of the chronic side of beryllium disease are, a girl, who appeared heal thy after not working in a beryllium plant for two years, showed x-rays changes in her lungs and in three to four weeks was gasping of air and cyanotic.
The obvious effect of beryllium on the respiratory system, primarily the lungs, is well document but classifying of beryllium as a clear carcinogen is encountering basically the same trials and tribulations that were encountered in establishing the direct correlation of beryllium to the acute and chronic pulmonary diseases.
www.nyu.edu /classes/jaeger/beryllium.htm   (5257 words)

 Beryllium - MIT EHS
Beryllium metal and its alloys are used in a wide variety of industrial products because they are light, resistant to heat, stress and strain.
Chronic beryllium disease and pulmonary berylliosis are detected through x-ray changes, granulomas and a decrease in the ability of the lungs to transport oxygen.
Acute beryllium disease is a result of the inhalation of soluble beryllium compounds.
web.mit.edu /environment/ehs/beryllium.html   (772 words)

 It's Elemental - The Element Beryllium
Beryllium is alloyed with copper (2% beryllium, 98% copper) to form a wear resistant material, known as beryllium bronze, used in gyroscopes and other devices where wear resistance is important.
Beryllium oxide (BeO), a compound of beryllium, is used in the nuclear industry and in ceramics.
Beryllium was once known as glucinum, which means sweet, since beryllium and many of its compounds have a sugary taste.
education.jlab.org /itselemental/ele004.html   (278 words)

Beryllium powder can be hot pressed into blocks or billet form and can be thermo-mechanically processed to extrude billet and cross-rolled sheet.
Beryllium parts are generally made by machining from blocks.
Beryllium is used for an alloying agent for copper production, extensively used in springs, electrical contacts, spot-welding electrodes and non-sparking tools.
www.azom.com /details.asp?ArticleID=591   (276 words)

 EPA Ground Water & Drinking Water > breadcrumb? > Technical Factsheet on: BERYLLIUM
Beryllium metal is used as a hardener in alloys; in space vehicles, navigation and optical equipment, and missile fuel.
Beryllium is concentrated in silicate minerals relative to sulfides and in feldspar minerals relative to ferromagnesium minerals.
Beryllium content of the ashes and wastewater from a power plant suggest that secondary long term beryllium pollution emerges from the slag and ash dumps.
www.epa.gov /ogwdw000/dwh/t-ioc/berylliu.html   (647 words)

 BERYLLIUM - Online Information article about BERYLLIUM
Pettersson, and appears to increase rapidly with increasing temperature, the values obtained being o•3973 at 20.2° C., 0.4481 at 73.2° C. and 0.5819 at 256.8° C. Beryllium compounds are almost wholly prepared from beryl.
Glucinum (q.v.), from -Avails., sweet); they are readily precipitated by alkaline sulphides with formation of the white hydroxide, and may be distinguished from salts of all other metals by the solubility of the oxide in ammonium carbonate.
Beryllium is estimated quantitatively by precipitation with ammonia, and ignition to oxide.
encyclopedia.jrank.org /BER_BLA/BERYLLIUM.html   (1142 words)

Beryllium is found in some 30 mineral species, the most important of which are bertrandite, beryl, chrysoberyl, and phenacite.
Beryllium is used as an alloying agent in producing beryllium copper, which is extensively used for springs, electrical contacts, spot-welding electrodes, and non-sparking tools.
Because beryllium is relatively transparent to X-rays, ultra-thin Be-foil is finding use in X-ray lithography for reproduction of micro-miniature integrated circuits.
www.radiochemistry.org /periodictable/elements/4.html   (437 words)

 Beryllium   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Beryllium, Be, is an Alkaline Earth element, found in Group IIa of the periodic table.
Beryllium and its compounds are highly toxic and must be handled with caution.
Beryllium is not very abundant but occurs in several minerals.
www.ucc.ie /ucc/depts/chem/dolchem/html/elem/elem004.html   (136 words)

 USGS Minerals Information: Beryllium
Beryllium (Be) is one of the lightest of all metals and has one of the highest melting points of any light metal.
Beryllium metal is used principally in aerospace and defense applications because of its stiffness, light weight, and dimensional stability over a wide temperature range.
Beryllium oxide is an excellent heat conductor, with high strength and hardness, and acts as an electrical insulator in some applications.
minerals.usgs.gov /minerals/pubs/commodity/beryllium   (183 words)

 Beryllium   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Beryllium alloys are used in electrical connectors and relays, springs, precision instruments, aircraft engine parts, nonsparking tools, submarine cable housings and pivots, wheels, and pinions.
The beryllium compounds are beryllium chloride _ BeCl2, beryllium fluoride _ BeF2, beryllium oxide _ BeO, beryllium hydroxide _ Be(OH)2, beryllium phosphate _ Be3(PO4)2 3H20, beryllium nitrate _ Be(NO3)2, beryllium sulfate _ BeSO4, and beryllium carbonate Be(CO3)2 Be(OH)2.
Beryllium and its compounds are listed as toxic chemicals under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986; estimates of releases of beryllium and its compounds into air, water or land must be reported annually and entered into the national Toxic Release Inventory (TRI).
www.nsc.org /xroads/chemicals_htm/Beryllium.htm   (1253 words)

Microgram for microgram, beryllium is one of the most toxic elements on the periodic table.
The difference: John was actively milling, sawing, sanding, and polishing beryllium parts for nuclear weapons at Rocky Flats, in Golden, Colo. He later became known as "the index case" for an epidemic of beryllium disease in U.S. industry.
But when it does, the immune cells that are combating beryllium particles produce collateral damage to the lungs, lymph nodes, skin, and other organs where the cells detect beryllium.
pubs.acs.org /cen/80th/beryllium.html   (879 words)

 EPA Ground Water & Drinking Water > breadcrumb? > Consumer Factsheet on: BERYLLIUM
Beryllium is a metal found in natural deposits as ores containing other elements, and in some precious stones such as emeralds and aquamarine.
The greatest use of beryllium is in making metal alloys for nuclear reactors and the aerospace industry.
Erosion or runoff of beryllium compounds into surface waters is not likely to be in a soluble form.
www.epa.gov /safewater/contaminants/dw_contamfs/berylliu.html   (870 words)

 Beryllium Network: Beryllium Dangers to Workers and Their Families
Beryllium compounds are used in ceramics for electronics, in dental bridges, and in some sports equipment.
Exposure to beryllium in the workplace may lead to various diseases including chronic beryllium disease, which causes a painful scarring of the lung tissue.
Whether you are a beryllium worker, a victim of secondary exposure, or a family member of a beryllium worker, you’ll find that this website can help you.
www.chronicberylliumdisease.com   (205 words)

 What Is Beryllium ?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
First discovered more than two centuries ago, beryllium is a naturally occurring metallic element found in rocks, coal and oil, even the soil in your backyard.
Beryllium was not widely used in industry until the 1940s and 1950s.
Beryllium is also a staple material in Apache helicopters, fighter aircraft and tanks, surveillance satellites, and aircraft landing gear components.
www.befacts.com /beryl   (459 words)

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