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  Bessemer process - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
BESSEMER PROCESS [Bessemer process] bĕs´emer [for Sir Henry Bessemer ], industrial process for the manufacture of steel from molten pig iron.
The principle involved is that of oxidation of the impurities in the iron by the oxygen of air that is blown through the molten iron; the heat of oxidation raises the temperature of the mass and keeps it molten during operation.
The process is carried on in a large container called the Bessemer converter, which is made of steel and has a lining of silica and clay or of dolomite.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-bessemr-pro.html   (0 words)

 Bessemer process - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron.
The process is a development of a practice known in China as early as the 200s.
The Bessemer process was so fast (20 minutes or less for a heat) that it allowed little time for chemical analysis or adjustment of the alloying elements in the steel.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Bessemer_process   (1003 words)

 Chapter 12 The Bessemer Process
Bessemer and Longsdon for the sum of £32,500, or £5500 more than they were sold for to those gentlemen who had ventured to speculate on the success of my invention.
My purpose was not to work my process as a monopoly, but simply to force the trade to adopt it by underselling them in their own market, which the extremely low cost of production would enable me to do, while still retaining a very high rate of profit on all that was produced.
Thus were established the first Bessemer Steel Works, and in less than twelve months from its commencement, we had built a dozen melting furnaces and erected the steam and tilt hammers, blast furnaces, and converting apparatus, suitable for carrying on the new manufacture.
www.history.rochester.edu /ehp-book/shb/hb12.htm   (0 words)

 Inventor Henry Bessemer Biography
The process of refining molten iron with blasts of air was accomplished by the British inventor Sir Henry Bessemer who developed the Bessemer furnace, or converter, in 1855.
This process of refining molten iron with blasts of air was accomplished by the Bessemer furnace, or converter.
Bessemer's process was ten times faster than the previous methods and used no fuel once the charge had been melted.
www.ideafinder.com /history/inventors/bessemer.htm   (0 words)

 Steel-making processes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
In both the Acid Bessemer and Basic Bessemer (or Thomas) processes molten pig iron is refined by blowing air through it in an egg-shaped vessel, known as a converter, of 15-25 tonnes capacity.
The Huntsman crucible process has been superseded by the high frequency induction furnace in which the heat is generated in the metal itself by eddy currents induced by a magnetic field set up by an alternating current, which passes round water-cooled coils surrounding the crucible.
The Basic Open Hearth process was used for the bulk of the cheaper grades of steel, but there is a growing tendency to replace the OH furnace by large arc furnaces using a single slag process especially for melting scrap and coupled with vacuum degassing in some cases.
www.key-to-steel.com /ViewArticle.asp?ID=2   (0 words)

 Henry Bessemer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bessemer's atten tion was drawn to the problem of steel manufacture in the course of an attempt to improve the construction of guns.
Bessemer died in March 1898 in Denmark Hill, London.
Among Bessemer's numerous other inventions, not one of which attained a tithe of the success or importance of the steel process, were movable dies for embossed stamps, sugar machinery, and a ship which was to save her passengers from the miseries of mal de mer.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Henry_Bessemer   (0 words)

 Sir Henry Bessemer | Inventor & Engineer
Bessemer's secret formula was used to adorn much of the gilded decoration of his time, and brought him great wealth.
Bessemer's industrial process was similar to a Chinese method to refine iron into steel, developed in the second century BCE.
Among the many honors of Bessemer's life were a Knighthood by the British crown for devising a counterfeit-proof official stamp (seal) for the British government, and the Fellowship of the Royal Society.
www.lucidcafe.com /library/96jan/bessemer.html   (0 words)

 Henry Bessemer Biography | World of Invention
Bessemer had produced his steel from phosphorus-free ores, and was therefore limited by the selection of ores.
The Bessemer process was the most important development in the steel industry because it allowed steel to become, with iron, the foundation of modern industry.
The open-hearth steelmaking process developed by Charles William Siemens and his brother, Ernst Werner von Siemens, and Pierre-Émile Martin surpassed the Bessemer process at the turn of the twentieth century in terms of total steel output.
www.bookrags.com /biography/henry-bessemer-woi   (0 words)

 The Making of Wire
Amazingly, Bessemer's process used no fuel, actually increased the temperature of the molten metal, and was fast in nature.
The idea for the Bessemer Process announced in 1856, was actually formulated in 1847 by William Kelley of Eddyville, Kentucky.
After Bessemer applied for patents on the process in 1856, Kelley also made application and was able to prove prior claim by reason of his converter built in 1847 at Jamestown.
www.barbwiremuseum.com /makingwire.htm   (0 words)

 Lemelson-MIT Program
The first to develop a process for mass-producing steel inexpensively, this son of an engineer was a prolific and diverse inventor throughout his life.
Bessemer, who was mostly self-educated, made his first fortune with an idea for using brass as a paint additive to produce a bronze-colored powder that could be used for d√ącor in place of gold.
When Napoleon himself expressed interest during a dinner with Bessemer in Paris, he was encouraged, but first he needed to come up with a way to mass produce structural steel that he could use to create sturdier gun barrels to support these heavy shells.
web.mit.edu /invent/iow/bessemer.html   (0 words)

 Coleford People - Robert Mushet
Bessemer was baffled at the failure of his invention, the cause of which he did not recognise or understand.
Bessemer was under attack from the Iron-masters who had taken out licences, scorn and ridicule were poured upon him and eminent chemists derided his process.
Instead of them taking advantage of Mushet's process, the process was allowed to slumber and when on the required payment of the third year's patent stamp duty of £50 fell due they omitted to pay it or give notice to Mushet of their intention.
www.fweb.org.uk /dean/towns/colefordproject/people/mushet.html   (0 words)

 New Jersey Scuba Diver - Artifacts & Shipwrecks - Iron, Steel & Rust
About 95% of this iron is processed further to make steel, often by the open-hearth process or the Bessemer process, but more recently in the United States and other countries by the basic oxygen process or by an electric arc furnace.
The principle involved in the Bessemer process (for Sir Henry Bessemer) is that of oxidation of the impurities in pig iron by the oxygen of air that is blown through the molten iron; the heat of oxidation raises the temperature of the mass and keeps it molten during operation.
Rusting is essentially a process of oxidation in which iron combines with water and oxygen to form rust, the reddish-brown crust that forms on the surface of the iron.
www.njscuba.net /artifacts/matl_ferrous.html   (0 words)

 Invent Now | Hall of Fame | Search | Inventor Profile
Bessemer’s interest in steel came from an idea he had during the Crimean War to make a new type of artillery.
An egg-shaped vat held molten iron, and cold air was blown into perforations in the bottom to remove the carbon and other impurities in the iron.
Vital in propelling the Industrial Revolution, the Bessemer converter ceased being used in the mid-1900s.
www.invent.org /hall_of_fame/183.html   (0 words)

 Metallurgical Terms
In the acid Bessemer process, the lining is of ganister and the phosphorus content of the pig iron remains unaltered.
The basic Bessemer process is known on the Continent as the Thomas Process.
A process of softening by heating hot-rolled sheet in the open furnace to a temperature within the transformation range and cooling in air; the formation of a bluish oxide on the surface is incidental.
www.sunilsteel.com /mt_b.htm   (0 words)

 The Hindu : Henry Bessemer (1813-1898): Pioneer in making steel
HENRY BESSEMER was born (January 19, 1813) in a family of French stock; his father moved to England with the outbreak of the French Revolution.
The basis of Bessemer's invention is the ingenious idea for removing carbon from iron simply by blowing a blast of air through the molten metal.
Bessemer retired at the early age of 56 but continued with his inventions: a new method for making lead pencils and composing- type graphite; machinery for sugar refining; a form of iron strong enough to meet the high gas pressures in rifles; the first method for stamping deeds which was adopted by the British Government.
www.hinduonnet.com /thehindu/2000/04/20/stories/08200004.htm   (0 words)

 Sir Henry Bessemer — FactMonster.com
In the United States the Bessemer process was patented in 1857, but Bessemer's priority right there was challenged by William Kelly, and in the end the battle between the two interests was settled by a consolidation of the rival companies.
Bessemer received many honors for his signal achievement and was knighted in 1879.
Bessemer process - Bessemer process [for Sir Henry Bessemer], industrial process for the manufacture of steel from...
www.factmonster.com /ce6/people/A0921491.html   (0 words)

 Steelmaking, Then and Now - Western Reserve Historical Society   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The Bessemer Converter was an egg-shaped metallic container; molten iron ore was poured into the converter, it was tilted back, and hot air was blown into the converter through ports (tuyeres, pronounced tweers) on the bottom of the convert.
This process was adopted right after the Civil War, and was used into the 1940s, though by that time it had been supplanted by another technology, the Open Hearth Furnace, which offered greater quality control in the process.
Whatever the process (Bessemer/Open Hearth/BOF), when the steel was judged to be ready, the oven/vessel in question was tapped, and the molten steel was poured out into a giant bucket, which held the steel temporarily, until it could be poured into molds, and cooled into solid ingots.
www.wrhs.org /crawford/template.asp?id=437   (0 words)

Bessemer has made during his career have been more promising." "Bessemerizing" was understood by his peers as a social as well as technical achievement.
While Bessemer had achieved modest success as a mechanical inventor, it was a military problem that led him to the manufacture of iron.
In the event a compromise was arranged between Bessemer and the principals of Ebbw Vale, Abraham Darby and Joseph Robinson.
www.tc.umn.edu /~tmisa/NOS/1.2_invent.html   (0 words)

 Alloy, Metal Terminology (B)
A steel making process wherein oxygen of the highest purity is blown onto the surface of a bath of molten iron contained in a basic lined and ladle shaped vessel.
A process of softening ferrous alloys in the form of hot rolled sheet, by heating in the open furnace to a temperature within the transformation range and then cooling in air.
A process of annealing usually carried out in a controlled furnace atmosphere so that surface oxidation is reduced to a minimum and the surface remains relatively bright.
www.metal-mart.com /Dictionary/dictletb.htm   (0 words)

 The American Experience/Carnegie/Steel Mill Tour
By the first quarter of 1877 ET had produced 14,940 tons of rails and billets and was the leading producer of steel rails in the country.
Bessemer, the quintessential inventor and the son of an engineer, produced his first invention at the age of seventeen--embossed stamps for use on title deeds.
When Andrew Carnegie saw the potential of the Bessemer, he realized the inevitability of the age of steel and moved quickly to bring the technology to America.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/amex/carnegie/milltour   (0 words)

 Henry Bessemer, Sir Biography | Encyclopedia of World Biography
The English inventor Sir Henry Bessemer (1813-1898) was a pioneer in the manufacture of inexpensive steel through his development of the steelmaking process which bears his name.
Bessemer patented the process in 1856 and described it in a paper, "Manufacture of Malleable Iron and Steel without Fuel." Attracted by the promise of economy in time, labor, and fuel, many wrought-iron producers tried the process; all reported total failure to produce any useful material.
Bessemer was knighted in 1879; he died in London on March 15, 1898.
www.bookrags.com /biography/henry-bessemer-sir   (0 words)

Process took place in a Cementation Furnace and produced a bar that had a high carbon content on the surface and a low Carbon content in the centre.
Process was superseded by Bessemer Process but crucible melting did not stop until after World War II.
The Process was sometime known as 'Pig Boiling' as the iron tended to bubble as the carbon was removed.
www.topforge.co.uk /Glossary.htm   (0 words)

 Invent Now | Hall of Fame | Induction | 2002 Inductees | Bessemer Steel Process
It was made only through a costly and arduous process by artisans who created small batches out of pig iron, and was used mainly to make tools and weapons.
For the steel manufacturing process he pioneered, Henry Bessemer will be honored posthumously by being inducted this year into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
Bessemer's process took only 20 minutes from start to finish, raising annual steel production enormously and reducing cost dramatically.
www.invent.org /hall_of_fame/1_3_0_induction_bessemer.asp   (0 words)

 The Processes or Iron and Steel Making
The key to the process is the removal of the oxygen from the iron ore at the same time as separating as many of the other impurities as possible.
A blast furnace works on a continuous process lasting weeks, months, or in modern times, years and it will be assumed that the furnace is in the middle of a campaign and so the lighting the furnace (blowing in) can be ignored.
The Bessemer Converters increased in size from 5 tons to 30 tons, but the process was quickly rivalled by the Siemens process and was finally superceded in the U.K. in 1974 by the use of the 'Basic Oxygen Steelmaking' Process.
www.topforge.co.uk /Processes.htm   (0 words)

 Steel Manufacturing
Along came a man by the name Henry Bessemer who would invent a new way to produce steel using the blast method called the Bessemer process, “the most important technique for making steel in the nineteenth century.” (Misa 1995) He first came across this while melting gun metal down.
For this he built a four-foot tall, open-mouthed cylinder with openings, or tuyères, to blow air into the metal from the bottom.” (Misa 1995) “Acceptance of the process was slow at first, so that by 1870 the annual output of Bessemer steel in the United States was a mere 42,000 tons.
The principal application of Bessemer steel in the 19th century was for the manufacture of railroad rails, which proved far more durable than iron rails.
www.bsu.edu /web/acmaassel/steel.html   (0 words)

 No. 762: Kelly's Converter
Here William Kelly, 1811-1888, discovered the steel making method later known as the Bessemer process which made it possible for [us] to pass from the iron age to the steel age.
Meanwhile, Henry Bessemer had patented an air-blowing process in 1855 -- two years ahead of Kelly.
Bessemer's process had three features: He held the temperature of the melt by burning out the carbon.
www.uh.edu /engines/epi762.htm   (0 words)

 steel - when? - History Forum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
My memory tells me that the Bessemer process for making steel wasn't developed until the 1800s, so I'm not sure what would have been called steel in 1415.
Bessemer only had a patent of a particular type of Process for making a cretain type of steel.
The Bessemer process started in 1856, to be replaced by the open-hearth method after 1890.
www.simaqianstudio.com /forum/index.php?showtopic=665   (0 words)

 Bessemer Process - Search Results - MSN Encarta   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Bessemer Process - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Process Philosophy, a speculative world view which asserts that basic reality is constantly in a process of flux and change.
Process Theology, type of modern Christian theology based upon process philosophy, in which reality is understood to be characterized by event,...
uk.encarta.msn.com /Bessemer_Process.html   (0 words)

 US recession and technology
The Bessemer process is a good example of what I mean.
This revolutionary steel making process was invented in 1854 in Britain and within a short time massive investments were made in the process.
This made it preferable to operate with the obsolete Bessemer process until it was time to replace it or until the alternative method fell far enough in price to justify investing in it.
www.brookesnews.com /030112technologyrecession.html   (0 words)

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