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Topic: Bilateralism

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In the News (Sat 16 Feb 19)

  Bilateralism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bilateralism is a term referring to political and cultural relations between two states.
The alternatives to bilateral relations are multilateral relations, which involve many guns states, and unilateralism, when one state acts on its own.
A similar reaction against bilateral trade agreements occurred after the Great Depression, when it was argued that such agreements helped to produce a cycle of rising tariffs that deepened the economic downturn.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Bilateralism   (290 words)

 Asian Development Outlook 2006 - Routes for Asia's Trade - ADB.org
Therefore, it is essential that the dynamics of bilateralism are guided in such a way that they support, rather than contradict, the openness that to date has been a hallmark of Asia's trade expansion and integration.
Bilateral agreements with developed countries that already have negligible protection, such as Japan, would under GATT Article XXIV require the virtual elimination of tariffs and indirectly pit protectionist interests in developing countries against international competition.
Bilateralism also runs the risk of establishing hub-and-spoke systems that marginalize small trading spokes and concentrate gains in the larger hub countries, unless governments make conscious efforts to link the spokes.
www.adb.org /Documents/books/ado/2006/part030600.asp   (1126 words)

 Cancun: A Good Idea at the Time - Social and Economic Policy - Global Policy Forum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The bigger concern is that the rich nations, particularly the United States and the European Union member countries, whose agricultural subsidies were the rock on which the talks foundered, will use their failure as a pretext simply to dim the lights at the WTO until they ultimately go out.
To the dismay of some of his advisers, the FT said, Lamy has questioned whether the EU should remain committed to multilateralism, of which the FT says it has long claimed to be the foremost champion in trade and other areas of international relations.
Bilateral agreements are cause for concern, analysts say, because they regard them as a potential threat to global multilateral trade in that they are trade-diverting.
www.globalpolicy.org /socecon/bwi-wto/wto/2003/1112bilateralism.htm   (2409 words)

 The Hindu : Bilateralism the casualty
Contrasting this bilateral chill were close intimate contacts by each of the two countries with the U.S..
At some stage — sooner than later — mutual contacts would need to be re-established and bilateralism, the casualty of the current crisis, would have to be the currency for this purpose.
Bilateralism will get a fillip if the two sides undertake mutually reinforcing steps — and if, apart from other things, the snapped rail and air links are restored.
www.hindu.com /2002/06/09/stories/2002060900570900.htm   (966 words)

 Bilateralism biography .ms (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab1.isi.jhu.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Bilateralism is a term referring to trade or political relations between two states.
The first rejection of bilateralism as dangerous came after the First World War when many thought that the complex series of bilateral treaties had made war all but inevitable.
A similar reaction against bilateral trade agreements occurred after the Great Depression, where it was argued that they helped produce a cycle of rising tariffs that deepened the downturn.
www.biography.ms.cob-web.org:8888 /Bilateral_diplomacy.html   (197 words)

 Asian Development Outlook 2006 - Routes for Asia's Trade - ADB.org
At another level, bilateralism could jeopardize multilateralism as countries refocus their energies on reaching reciprocal deals with their trading partners, to the exclusion of others.
Whether bilateralism turns out to be a building block or a stumbling block to trade will ultimately depend on the underlying motivations and ambitions of the countries concerned, and how these shape individual agreements.
Bilateralism leads to a point where large countries (hubs) have multiple FTAs with smaller trading partners (spokes), but the spokes tend not to liberalize among themselves.
www.adb.org /documents/books/ado/2006/part030400.asp   (5617 words)

 Bilateralism and multilateralism in official development assistance policies
I examine in detail the motives of bilateral aid allocation decisions, as they are revealed by data on bilateral aid commitments.
Perhaps more surprisingly, the bilateralism effect is adverse to the Sub-Saharan African region, in spite of its strong post-colonial ties with European donors, because trade linkages play actually a greater role than political ties.
A consequence of the major role played by trade linkages is that the bilateralism effect is not necessarily adverse to aid selectivity, given that major trading partners are also on average open and relatively well performing economies.
ideas.repec.org /p/mse/wpsorb/bla04104.html   (443 words)

 POLLINATORS ENCOURAGE BILATERALISM -- 314 (5797): 231c -- Science
The first flowers had radial symmetry, but the more complex bilateral form has evolved in many species, suggesting that it is favored by natural selection.
Statistical analysis revealed that the flowers with bilateral symmetry were more popular with the beetles.
The bilaterals were also more fit, producing more seeds and progeny over the 2-year study, the team reports in The American Naturalist this month.
www.sciencemag.org /cgi/content/summary/314/5797/231c   (333 words)

 Cancun: A boost for bilateralism
Because, as against a multilateral framework based on rules and regulations for all, Cancun's failure is a boost to bilateralism.
Forget that what it is promising is that instead of the 5.2 per cent cut in emissions from its 1990 levels as demanded by the Kyoto Protocol, it will increase its emissions by over 30 per cent by 2012 -- the agreement period.
They ensure, again and again, that developing countries are left with no choice but to accept the bilateral fare the US offers.
www.rediff.com /money/2003/sep/30guest.htm   (698 words)

 Bilateralism: Pakistan's sleight of hand
On the face of it, Pakistan's engagement on a bilateral track with India was a sign of its failure to internationalise the Kashmir issue and its acceptance of the Indian position.
But to be able to junk the bilateral track, Pakistan will have to show to the world that it is just not working, something which it cannot do at present simply because in the eyes of the world the bilateral track is proceeding smoothly.
hello,i think bilateral talks between pakistan and india is a mutual interest of both countries.kashmir is a core issue between pakistan and india,by solving this...
in.rediff.com /news/2005/nov/28guest1.htm   (1454 words)

 Bilateralism has last chance on Kashmir: No deal with PPP, says Musharraf -DAWN - Top Stories; 07 December, 2004 (via ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
LONDON, Dec 6: President General Pervez Musharraf said on Monday that bilateralism had a last chance for finding a peaceful solution to the Kashmir issue.
The most important quality was the courage to be shown by the leadership of the two countries to solve the issue, he said.
Gen Musharraf said when he talked of bilateralism to address this issue he, in fact, was showing flexibility.
www.dawn.com.cob-web.org:8888 /2004/12/07/top2.htm   (777 words)

 Bilateralism And The Kashmir Dispute
Karachi: Bilateralism is always sought by the stronger power, mediation by the weak.
So why should we be dismayed when Manmohan Singh said on November 17 'no redrawing of the international border and no redrawing of boundaries on the basis of religion'.
The small print of the Shimla Accord largely unnoticed at the time - bilateralism, - sets the goal post for India on Kashmir: no change in India's sovereign status on Kashmir.
www.jammu-kashmir.com /archives/archives2005/kashmir20050102a.html   (1514 words)

 ISN Security Watch - Israel ponders bilateralism, nine killed   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
An Israeli military investigation into the deadly incident looks set to find that a Hamas bomb, rather then an Israeli artillery shell, was responsible for the death of the family, according to the Jerusalem Post.
Under the alternative plan, which is currently being prepared by the Prime Minister's Office and Foreign Ministry, Israel would propose the formation of a Palestinian state with provisional borders in the Gaza Strip and 90 per cent of the West Bank.
The primary Israeli concession under the bilateral draft plan is to equate the Israeli withdrawal with Phase II of the road map agreements, effectively skipping over Phase I which calls for the dismantlement of armed Palestinian militant groups.
www.isn.ethz.ch /news/sw/details.cfm?id=16173   (675 words)

 Oxfam - Trade - Bilateralism in Intellectual Property   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
This paper examines the way in which bilateral trade negotiations (Bilateral Investment Treaties and Bilateral Intellectual Property Agreements) are being used by the USA and others to build more extensive protection for intellectual property than that set out in the WTO TRIPS Agreement.
In some cases, these bilateral negotiations are forcing developing countries into TRIPS-compliance ahead of the timetable agreed in 1995.
The paper ends with a reminder of the benefits of multilateralism in trade and the dangers of bilateralism.
www.oxfam.org.uk /what_we_do/issues/trade/bilateralism_ip.htm   (302 words)

 Musharraf calls for mediation: Bilateralism on Kashmir has failed -DAWN - Top Stories; February 6, 2002
Addressing a joint sitting of the AJK Legislative Assembly and the AJK Council, he said: “We call upon the international community, particularly the influential countries, to play an active role in resolving Kashmir dispute because this is essential for lasting peace and harmony in the region.”
The session was held to mark the Kashmir Solidarity Day which was observed throughout Pakistan and Kashmir.
The term of bilateralism, the president said, was brought into negotiations by India as a farce to avoid confronting the issue.
www.dawn.com /2002/02/06/top1.htm   (1177 words)

 Bilateralism and Convertibility 433-(55/42)
Fund policies and attitude on bilateral arrangements which involve the use of exchange restrictions and represent limitations on a multilateral system of payments are an integral part of its policy on restrictions.
Moreover, the persistence of bilateralism may impede the attainment and maintenance of convertibility.
This whole problem is one not only for countries which maintain bilateral arrangements but also for other countries whose domestic and foreign economic policies may adversely affect the balance of payments of other members.
www.imf.org /external/pubs/ft/sd/index.asp?decision=433-(55/42)   (409 words)

 MedFriendly.com: Bilateralism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Bilateralism is a condition is which two sides are the same in size, shape, or some other characteristic.
Bilateralism comes from the Latin word "bis" meaning "two," and the Latin word "latus" meaning "side." Put the words together and you have "two side."
You may not reprint or redisplay this material for commercial use without the express written consent of MedFriendly.com.
www.medfriendly.com /bilateralism.html   (101 words)

 TRADE-THAILAND: Bilateralism Takes Back Seat After WTO Advance
BANGKOK, Aug 3 (IPS) - The recent breakthrough at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) is fuelling calls for the Thai government to abandon its plans for bilateral trade deals in favour of the multilateral trade agenda that the WTO offers.
This appeal, which has voices ranging from academics, activists and grassroots groups behind it, is part of a sustained campaign that has been underway here to oppose Bangkok's desire to sign free trade agreements (FTS) with a host of countries.
Bangkok has identified at least eight countries to strike bilateral free trade deals with, but there are signs that the list could get longer.
www.aegis.com /news/ips/2004/IP040803.html   (992 words)

 The Political Economy of Bilateralism and Multilateralism: Institutional Choice in Trade and Taxation (via CobWeb/3.1 ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Given the two regimes’ similar economic rationales this difference between bilateralism in international double tax avoidance and multilateralism in the trade regime poses an empirical puzzle.
This description shows that the regimes are quite similar in the bargaining stage, both exhibiting a mix of bilateral and multilateral bargaining.
However, while agreement is multilateral in the trade regime it is bilateral in taxation.
ideas.repec.org.cob-web.org:8888 /p/pra/mprapa/325.html   (439 words)

U.S. threats of resort to bilateralism, if it could not have its way in getting GATT to be involved in new activities like "trade in services", was sharply criticised Monday by the chairman of the Contracting Parties, Amb.
Opening the 40th annual meeting of the CPs, Ewerlof said bilateralism as an alternative to multilateralism was a medicine worse than the illness, and was like a patient "avoiding the search for fundamental cure and looking instead for a witch-doctor".-
Ewerlof added: "while I understand to an extent, the evident feeling of frustration, the medicine sounds very much worse than the illness - or to be more medically apt: some of the patients seem to be avoiding the search for a fundamental cure and are looking instead for a witch-doctor".-
www.sunsonline.org /trade/process/during/8485/country/11280184.htm   (890 words)

 Trade, bilateralism put border row behind-India-NEWS-The Times of India   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
There may not be an obvious answer, but the Sino-Indian agreements signed on Monday reflect deep fears on either side that any difference could create unforeseen hurdles in the future when the two Asian giants would be racing to be the world's new super powers.
Of all those fears, the troubled borders are what the two sides are most afraid of, at least for now.
That is why the Special Representatives of the two sides, National Security Advisor MK Narayanan and Chinese Vice-Foreign Minister Dai Bingguo, have begun their "Political Parameters and Guiding Principles" saying that the differences "on the boundary question should not be allowed to affect the overall development of bilateral relations.
timesofindia.indiatimes.com /articleshow/1074827.cms   (210 words)

 Bilateralism failed on Baglihar: Pak - Deccan Herald   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
In a move that could have a bearing on the Indo-Pak peace process, Pakistan on Tuesday announced its decision to seek World Bank arbitration in the dispute over the Baglihar hydro-power project being constructed in Jammu and Kashmir, contending that bilateralism has failed to settle the issue.
Mr Khan also ruled out any further bilateral negotiations on the issue, saying Pakistan would agree to it only if the work on the project is suspended.
However, he said the entire dialogue process with India, including the meeting of the two Prime Ministers in Dhaka and the visit of External Affairs Minister K Natwar Singh to Islamabad in February would go ahead.
www.deccanherald.com /deccanherald/jan192005/n33.asp   (547 words)

 Article or Op-Ed
Therefore, for bilateralism to have any chance there must be a realisation that what occurs in the Palestinian election on January 25 will have an impact on the Israeli election on March 28.
It might be noted that when suicide bombs have gone off, Likud has won (as shown by the elections of 1988, 1996, 2001, 2003); when bombs have not gone off, it has lost (1992, 1999).
Beyond the Rafah agreements there are a number of ways in which the international community can not only influence the elections towards bilateralism but also improve the quality of life for both Palestinians and Israelis.
www.washingtoninstitute.org /templateC06.php?CID=881   (1107 words)

 The rise of bilateralism: Should we worry?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The North-South Institute cordially invites you to a roundtable on the impact of bilateral trade treaties on developing countries.
In recent years, a growing number of bilateral trade agreements have been signed between industrial and developing countries.
Some are comprehensive free trade agreements, others focus on specific issues such as protection for foreign investment.
www.nsi-ins.ca /english/events/bilateralism.asp   (168 words)

 SSRN-Back to Bilateralism? Pendulum Swings in International Intellectual Property Protection by Ruth Okediji
This article briefly presents an account of bilateralism in international economic relations - encompassing intellectual property regulation - that suggests that the TRIPS Agreement should never have been understood as a crowning point of international intellectual property regulation.
The article explores the implications of this possible reformulation of the theory and place of the TRIPS Agreement in international intellectual property law and policy.
The author argues that the new bilateralism, while similar in form, serves a different agenda from the old bilateralism which relied principally on commercial agreements as a means to stabilize, formalize and advance interests ostensibly mutual to the contracting parties.
papers.ssrn.com /sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=764725   (286 words)

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