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# Topic: Bilateral symmetry

###### In the News (Tue 21 May 13)

 Learn more about Symmetry in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07) Symmetry is a characteristic of geometrical shapes, equations and other objects; we say that such an object is symmetric with respect to a given operation if this operation, when applied to the object, does not appear to change it. Symmetry is used in the design of the overall floor plan of buildings as well as the design of individual building elements such as doors, windows, floors, frieze work, and ornamentation; many facades adhere to bilateral symmetry. Symmetry is also an important consideration in the formation of scales and chords, traditional or tonal music being made up of non-symmetrical groups of pitches, such as the diatonic scale or the major chord. www.onlineencyclopedia.org /s/sy/symmetry.html   (1201 words)

 AllRefer.com - symmetry, biological (Zoology: General) - Encyclopedia Radial, or line, symmetry, as exemplified by a cone or a disk that is symmetrical about a central axis, is especially suitable for sessile or floating animals. Radial symmetry is seen in sessile organisms such as the sea anemone, floating organisms such as jellyfish, and slow-moving organisms such as sea stars, or starfish. Bilateral symmetry is most suitable for actively moving organisms, as it permits streamlining, and is the most common symmetry among animals. reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/S/symmetryb.html   (463 words)

 Reflection symmetry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Reflection symmetry, mirror symmetry, mirror-image symmetry, or bilateral symmetry is symmetry with respect to reflection. The axis of symmetry of a two-dimensional figure is a line such that, if a perpendicular is constructed, any two points lying on the perpendicular at equal distances from the axis of symmetry are identical. The triangles with this symmetry are isosceles, the quadrilaterals with this symmetry are the geometric kites and the isosceles trapezoids. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Plane_of_symmetry   (362 words)

 Symmetry in Architecture by Kim Williams, Architect Bilateral symmetry is present also not only on the scale of a single building, but on an urban scale. The first is an example of "orthodox" bilateral symmetry, where the facade is divided into two equal halves; but in the second, the axis of symmetry that divides the facade into two equal and independent halves creates a dualism. The reason for the change in symmetries is that, when we enter into the rotunda we leave behind the zone of the terrestrial, represented by the horizontal axis, and experience the zone of the celestial, symbolized by the vertical axis. members.tripod.com /vismath/kim   (4294 words)

 Answer Key for 1404 Test   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07) Radial symmetry is an adaptation to a sessile (attached) or sedentary (slow-moving) lifestyle. Bilateral symmetry, on the other hand, is an adaptation to an active lifestyle, one wherein the organism actively moves through its environment. A cue to the secondary nature of this radial symmetry is the observation that the single madreporite on the aboral surface is not centrally located, as it would be in true radial symmetry. www2.tltc.ttu.edu /dini/key3(1404)03.htm   (979 words)

 Bi-lateral symmetry vs. asymmetry ...more   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07) Bilateral symmetry requires that the left and right halves of the body start out as mirror images of each other -- later developmental accommodations to body size may result in slight differences between these two halves, but every unpaired organ in the body (eg, heart, liver, stomach, etc) starts its development as a midline structure. There may ultimately be a good functional explanation why bilateral symmetry was successful, but I must remind everyone that this choice (and the developmental constraint that results from it) occurred when life was limited to microscopic creatures. Symmetry is one of the most powerful concepts in nature and in mathematics, because is greatly simplifies both physical systems and their mathematical descriptions. isb.ri.ccf.org /biomch-l/archives/biomch-l-2001-05/00086.html   (982 words)

 Bilateral Symmetry Perception   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07) He identified three types of symmetry perception for amorphic shapes (rotational, bilateral and translational) and he pointed out that bilateral symmetry is the strongest of the three. It is strongly influenced by the near-axis deviation from bilateral symmetry. Bilateral symmetry can be detected in extra foveal vision and in the retinal periphery, but with reduced performances (Barlow and Reeves 1979), (Saarinen 1987). www.ensc.sfu.ca /people/grad/brassard/personal/THESIS/node45.html   (1281 words)

 Mathematics: Discovering Symmetry in Math, Art & Nature   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07) To deepen studentsâ€™ concepts of symmetry, this lesson will connect studentsâ€™ ideas about symmetry to written letters, famous works of art, and natural objects both in their environment and in the southwestern United States. The examples are identified as transitional, rotational, and bilateral symmetry with 80% accuracy. The examples are identified as transitional, rotational, and bilateral symmetry with 90% accuracy. www.pastatestandards.org /curriculum/math/grade4/symmetry.htm   (1136 words)

 UNM - Quantum Spring 2000 - "Mirror, Mirror on the Wall..."   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07) Consequently, bilateral symmetry can be seen as a health certification, and as such, a logical reason for females to select males as mates, at least in the case of scorpion flies. In collaboration with Karl Grammer of the University of Vienna, Thornhill examined facial attractiveness and bilateral symmetry. The faces were then measured as to their bilateral symmetry on seven different facial features: the placement of their pupils, innermost eye corners, outermost eye corners, cheekbones, and the outer edges of the nose, mouth, and jawbone. www.unm.edu /~quantum/quantum_spring_2000/mirror.html   (1210 words)

 THE EFFECT OF FATIGUE INDUCED ASYMMETRY ON THE EXPRESSION OF MAXIMUM SIMULTANEOUS MUSCULAR FORCE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07) Among the majority of subjects, the magnitude of the bilateral deficit of the non-dominant leg appeared to be unaffected by dominant leg fatigue. It was therefore suggested that the bilateral deficit phenomenon was more strongly related to central mechanisms associated with the perception or sense of bilateral symmetry than to peripheral mechanisms associated with the equilibration of the absolute magnitudes of bilateral force. It is therefore concluded that the bilateral deficit phenomenon is more strongly related to central mechanisms associated with the perception of bilateral symmetry than to peripheral mechanisms associated with the equilibration of the absolute magnitudes of bilateral force. www.asb-biomech.org /onlineabs/abstracts97/147   (1105 words)

 Bilateral Symmetry Detection in Computer Vision   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07) Jenkins (1983) noted that bilateral symmetry is defined by two characteristics: virtual lines connecting symmetrically positioned elements oriented uniformly, and the collinearity of the midpoints. The bulk of the research on bilateral/skew symmetry detection in images have been done in the field of computer vision (see Table B.1) where the approaches are purely computational. A quantitive estimate of the lebel of bilateral symmetry, www.ensc.sfu.ca /people/grad/brassard/personal/THESIS/node178.html   (654 words)

 Symmetry around a Point in the Plane Symmetry is the set of mathematical rules that describe the shape of an object. Rotation symmetry without reflection is often used in graphic design to portray the idea of speed, power, or dynamic action. For example, we say people have bilateral symmetry even though they may have a mole on one side of their face but not the other. www.uwgb.edu /dutchs/SYMMETRY/2DPTGRP.HTM   (1498 words)

 bilateral symmetry - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about bilateral symmetry   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07) Usually the terms agreed result in balanced trade and are favoured by countries with limited foreign exchange reserves. Bilateral agreements were common among the USSR and Eastern bloc countries, both between themselves and with the rest of the world. This was partly because their currencies were inconvertible and partly because bilateralism enabled them to make estimates of international trade in their economic plans. encyclopedia.farlex.com /bilateral+symmetry   (144 words)

 Measuring Bilateral Symmetry in Digital Images (ResearchIndex) Abstract: An important example of bilateral symmetry in nature is the approximate bilateral symmetry exhibited by humans. This paper presents a method for detecting the dominant plane of bilateral symmetry in an image of arbitrary dimension and subsequently measuring the degree of bilateral symmetry in the image. 23 the detection of the axes of symmetry of symmetric and almos.. citeseer.ist.psu.edu /317851.html   (322 words)

 Symmetry Lesson - I "Symmetry" is a recognition of the matching-ness of the parts of a shape. For instance, the human body is said to have "bilateral" (two-sided) symmetry, because the left and right halves of the body mirror each other, as you can see in the image to the left. A point of symmetry is a point that represents a "center" of sorts for the figure. www.purplemath.com /modules/symmetry.htm   (506 words)

 How is bilateral symmetry of human faces used for recognition of novel views. How is bilateral symmetry of human faces used for recognition of novel views. The role of bilateral symmetry in face recognition is investigated in two psychophysical experiments using a Same/Different paradigm. Performance drops dramatically if the symmetry between the intensity patterns of the learning and the testing view is disturbed by an asymmetric illumination, although the symmetry between the spatial arrangement of high- level features is retained. www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de /de/publication.html?publ=263   (158 words)

 Journal of Vision - Temporal characteristics of bilateral symmetry perception: Predominant effect of visible ... A bilaterally symmetric dot pattern (40 dots for 13ms) was followed by a random dot mask (160 dots for 160 ms) with various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Results showed that symmetry detection required 50 ms to be completed, during which had to be free from physical stimulation. This result strongly supports that symmetry perception depends on visible persistence of stimulus elements and does not require a common onset/offset of the elements. www.journalofvision.org /3/9/748   (337 words)

 Palmer- Biological Asymmetry Main Minute deviations from bilateral symmetry also provide an attractive tool for quantifying developmental precision: if the genetic underpinning of the right and left sides is the same, then differences between them tell us how accurately the genotype translates into the phenotype. Random asymmetries suggest that symmetry is 'broken' during development by effects of the external environment. Fixed asymmetry, however, suggests that symmetry is 'broken' during development by pre-existing internal asymmetries in biological molecules or the cytoplasm of cell. www.biology.ualberta.ca /palmer.hp/asym/asymmetry.htm   (493 words)

 Transformations If a figure does not have a visible sense then it is said to have bilateral symmetry. This sort of symmetry is called bilateral symmetry. The letter N is symmetrical under a half turn around the midpoint of its diagonal stroke. plato.acadiau.ca /courses/educ/reid/Geometry/Symmetry/Transformations.html   (484 words)

 Symmetry   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07) Symmetry is when a figure has two sides that are mirror images of one another. One is bilateral symmetry in which an object has two sides that are mirror images of each other. An equilateral triangle would be a geometric example of bilateral symmetry. www.mcwdn.org /Geometry/Symmetry.html   (163 words)

 Rotational and Reflectional Symmetry   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07) In rotational and reflectional symmetry, there is a central point that is the center of rotation and the point of intersection of the reflection mirrors. Symmetry: The center is the building in the middle of the courtyard, and the mirrors each contain a vertex. Symmetry: The center of this seemingly D6 or (*6) wheel pattern is the middle of the city. jwilson.coe.uga.edu /EMT668/EMT668.Folders.F97/Nipper/MATH7210/SymmArch/RotRef/RotRef.html   (178 words)

 NCTM : Illuminations : Page Two - Relationships Between Reflections and Symmetry The mirror line that leaves the shape unchanged is called the line of symmetry of the shape and the reflection transformation is a symmetry of the shape. Bilateral symmetry is very common in nature; for example, the human body and many kinds of leaves have bilateral symmetry. Artists often use bilateral symmetry to give balance and harmony to their work. illuminations.nctm.org /print_lesson.aspx?id=471   (588 words)

 Re: Can you explain the difference between bilateral, radial, and asymmetry? Bilateral symmetry is where one side is the mirror image of the other. For example, the letters M and T have bilateral symmetry - you can imagine replacing either the right or left side with a mirror, and it will still look like an M or a T. We humans and other mammals have bilateral symmetry. Radial symmetry is where the similar parts are arranged around a central axis, like spokes from a wheel or such - or like the letter O. A starfish has radial symmetry. www.madsci.org /posts/archives/nov99/942375660.Gb.r.html   (142 words)

 Detection of bilateral symmetry   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07) Bilateral symmetry is ubiquitous in nature and important for many processes, including mate choice. Given the biological significance of bilateral symmetry, surprisingly little is known about its perception in complex naturalistic stimuli. Human performance is best when the axis of symmetry in such stimuli is vertical, but there are no studies testing whether this effect might also be apparent with more complex images, or with the low levels of asymmetry characteristic of most organisms. galliform.bhs.mq.edu.au /Symmetry_stimuli.html   (374 words)

 Group Theory At its heart is the fact that the Set of Operations associated with the Symmetry Elements of a molecule constitute a mathematical set called a Group. Each of these Symmetry Operations is associated with a Symmetry Element which is a point, a line, or a plane about which the operation is performed such that the molecule's orientation and position before and after the operation are indistinguishable. The possible Symmetry Operations associated with a molecule are determined by the Symmetry Elements possessed by that molecule. www.science.siu.edu /chemistry/tyrrell/group_theory/sym1.html   (487 words)

 Robotics Institute: Automatic Extraction of the Central Symmetry Plane from Neuroradiology Images This symmetry is reflected in CT and MR images depicting axial and coronal slices of the brain. Though the internal structure of a pathologic brain may depart from its normal bilateral symmetry, the ideal imaginary bilateral symmetry plane remains invariant. We have developed a simple yet effective algorithm for extracting the axis of bilateral symmetry from each axial brain slice and combining results from multiple brain slices to determine the central plane of bilateral symmetry from the 3D head. www.ri.cmu.edu /pubs/pub_432.html   (349 words)

 The origins of axial patterning in the metazoa: how old is bilateral symmetry?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07) ABSTRACT Bilateral symmetry is a hallmark of the Bilateria. It is widely thought that bilateral symmetry evolved in the common ancestor of the Bilateria. Taken together, these result imply that bilateral symmetry had already evolved before the Cnidaria diverged from the Bilateria. www.ijdb.ehu.es /abstract.03078/a523.htm   (199 words)

 symmetry, biological on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07) Bilateral symmetry and the competitive standard attained in elite and sub-elite sport. Breaking the reflectional symmetry of interlimb coordination dynamics. Changes in Movement Symmetry Associated With Strengthening and Fatigue of Agonist and Antagonist Muscles. www.encyclopedia.com /html/s1/symmetryb.asp   (696 words)

 CB751: Bilateral symmetry and evolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07) Bilateral symmetry evolved more than five hundred million years ago. Bilateral symmetry is implemented by signalling molecules that give identical domains on left and right. A person's left eye (normally) is exposed to the same development signals as their right eye, so the two eyes grow alike. www.talkorigins.org /indexcc/CB/CB751.html   (158 words)

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