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Topic: Biological


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In the News (Sat 20 Apr 19)

  
  Biological scientists
Because biological scientists doing applied research and product development in private industry may be required to describe their research plans or results to nonscientists who are in a position to veto or approve their ideas, they must understand the potential cost of their work and its impact on business.
Biological scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing.
Employment of biological scientists is projected to grow about as fast as average for all occupations over the 2004-14 period, as biotechnological research and development continues to drive job growth.
www.bls.gov /oco/ocos047.htm   (3160 words)

  
  Biological warfare - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war.
As a strategic weapon, biological warfare is again militarily problematic, because unless it is used to poison enemy civilian towns, it is difficult to prevent the attack from spreading, either to allies or to the attacker, and a biological warfare attack invites immediate massive retaliation, usually in the same form.
The primary civil defense against biological weaponry is to wash one's hands whenever one moves to a different building or set of people, and avoid touching door knobs, walls, the ground and one's mouth and nose.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Biological_warfare   (2221 words)

  
 Biology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
While biology is unlike physics in that it does not usually describe biological systems in terms of objects which obey immutable physical laws described by mathematics, it is nevertheless characterized by several major principles and concepts which include: universality, evolution, diversity, continuity, homeostasis and interactions.
Indeed, it is one of the reasons that biological organisms exhibit the striking similarity of units and processes discussed in the previous section.
The first broad group consists of disciplines that study the basic structures of living systems: cells, genes etc., a second grouping considers the operation of these structures at the level of tissues, organs and bodies; a third grouping considers organisms and their histories; a final constellation of disciplines focuses on the interactions.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Biology   (2557 words)

  
 Biological Altruism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
This biological notion of altruism is not identical to the everyday concept.
Indeed, some of the most interesting examples of biological altruism are found among creatures that are (presumably) not capable of conscious thought at all, e.g.
Biological altruism is defined in terms of fitness consequences, not motivating intentions.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/altruism-biological   (5863 words)

  
 BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS: Malignant Biology
A "biological chemical weapon" is produced by cultivating an organism and extracting from it or its spent medium the toxic material.
She is "absolutely convinced" that a major biological arsenal could be built with $10,000 worth of equipment in a room 15 feet by 15.
Biological weapon are characterized by the following: Their target system; The nature of the biological weapon; and Whether it is a natural product or one that has been produced by genetic engineering.
www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 /hurlbert/micro101/pages/101biologicalweapons.html   (9526 words)

  
 Biological Control
Biological control agents of plant diseases are most often referred to as antagonists.
There are three broad and somewhat overlapping types of biological control: conservation, classical biological control (introduction of natural enemies to a new locale), and augmentation.
The reasons for failure are often not known, but may include the release of too few individuals, poor adaptation of the natural enemy to environmental conditions at the release location, and lack of synchrony between the life cycle of the natural enemy and host pest.
www.nysaes.cornell.edu /ent/biocontrol/info/biocont.html   (1829 words)

  
 Biological Weapons Convention
Biological and chemical weapons have generally been associated with each other in the public mind, and the extensive use of poison gas in World War I (resulting in over a million casualties and over 100,000 deaths) led to the Geneva Protocol of 1925 prohibiting the use of both poison gas and bacteriological methods in warfare.
In the postwar negotiations on general disarmament, biological and chemical weapons were usually considered together with nuclear and conventional weapons.
Under the terms of the convention, the parties undertake not to develop, produce, stockpile, or acquire biological agents or toxins "of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, and other peaceful purposes," as well as weapons and means of delivery.
www.state.gov /t/ac/trt/4718.htm   (2791 words)

  
 Biological Weapons Program - Iraq Special Weapons
The Commission was compelled to cast a wider net in the biological field because of Iraq's incomplete disclosure of the full extent of its past biological warfare activities.
Iraq requested that its biological weapons Full, Final and Complete Disclosure of September 1997 be assessed, again, by international experts during a special meeting for that purpose which was held in Baghdad in July 1998.
What is still unknown is whether all of the R400 bombs were biological agent-filled or some were filled with chemical warfare agents; whether 157 R400 bombs was the total number of such bombs filled with biological warfare agents; and how many such bombs were produced for biological agent filling.
www.globalsecurity.org /wmd/world/iraq/bw-unscom.htm   (3668 words)

  
 EPA - About Biological Indicators
Biological integrity is commonly defined as "the ability to support and maintain a balanced, integrated, and adaptive community of organisms having a species composition, diversity and functional organization comparable to those of natural habitats within a region" (Karr, J. and D. Dudley.
Biological integrity is equated with pristine conditions, or those conditions with no or minimal disturbance.
The reference condition is commonly associated with biological integrity, and the threshold is some proportion of the reference condition
www.epa.gov /bioindicators/html/about.html   (368 words)

  
 FEMA: Are You Ready?
Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can kill or incapacitate people, livestock, and crops.
Biological agents can be dispersed by spraying them into the air, by infecting animals that carry the disease to humans, and by contaminating food and water.
In the event of a biological attack, public health officials may not immediately be able to provide information on what you should do.
www.fema.gov /areyouready/biological_threats.shtm   (812 words)

  
 Defending Against Invisible Killers -- Biological Agents
On Oct. 1, 1998, he became deputy for counter proliferation and chemical and biological defense to the director of defense research and engineering and the undersecretary of defense for acquisition and technology.
Biological warfare encompasses "a mixed bag of bacterial agents, viruses and toxins," Wade explained.
Lumping all biological warfare agents together as a class is almost as dangerous as comparing biological and chemical agents directly, they can be very different, he said.
www.defenselink.mil /specials/chembio   (1553 words)

  
 Biological quantum dots go live (March 2003) - Physics World - PhysicsWeb
However, it is the hydrophobic nature of this outer shell that prevents quantum dots from being used in aqueous biological environments.
The fluorescence quantum yield - the ratio of the amount of light emitted from a sample to that absorbed by the sample - of the quantum-dot micelles in water was 24%, a value very similar to the original quantum dots.
Having successfully kept the quantum dots away from water, the team went on to chemically alter the surface of the micelle to allow it to act as glue onto which biological macromolecules could be attached.
physicsweb.org /article/world/16/3/3   (1467 words)

  
 EWM Biocontrol Research
Biological control (biocontrol) is the use of parasitoid, predator, pathogen, antagonist or competitor populations to suppress a pest population (Van Driesche and Bellows 1996).
The aim in biological control of weeds is not to eliminate the pest (and thus the control agent), but to suppress the pestpopulation to levels that are no longer a nuisance.
Biological control has been used successfully for at least four genera of floating and emergent aquatic macrophytes, but work on submersed macrophytes such as Eurasian watermilfoil is recent and not yet operational.
www.fw.umn.edu /research/milfoil/milfoilbc/bcresearch.html   (947 words)

  
 Biological Weapons Program - Iraq Special Weapons
It is also reasonable to assume that, given that biological weapons were considered as strategic weapons and were actually deployed, detailed thought must have been given to the doctrine of operational use for these weapons of mass destruction.
It was anticipated that the biological weapons research would be productionoriented and thus, in addition to laboratory-scale equipment, a pilot plant in the form of one 150-litre fermenter was purchased by Muthanna.
Early in 1988, efforts began in the weaponization of biological warfare agents and some of the senior scientists involved in the biological weapons program at TRC were sent to Iraq's munitions factories to familiarize themselves with this aspect.
www.fas.org /nuke/guide/iraq/bw/program.htm   (3016 words)

  
 Mitretek Systems :: Chemical/Biological Defense   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26)
As the worldwide threat from biological weapon use by hostile military and terrorist groups grows, Mitretek is playing a larger role in assisting federal agencies in developing defenses against these weapons.
In the area of assessing the potential for nefarious use of biological organisms or materials, Mitretek has internally developed a process for modeling scenarios of bioweapon development that would identify triggering criteria to use in the detection and interdiction of such development before the intended nefarious event.
We are assisting in all phases of plan development, including the overall concept; short, intermediate, and long-term implementation; and the assessment of available technologies to deal with biological threats, including technical, operational, and cost risk factors for individual technologies as well their viability for implementation.
www.mitretek.org /home.nsf/HomelandSecurity/ChemBioDefense   (3133 words)

  
 Biological Weapons Information - Federation of American Scientists
Biological weapons (BWs) deliver toxins and microorganisms, such as viruses and bacteria, so as to deliberately inflict disease among people, animals, and agriculture.
Biological attacks can result in destruction of crops, temporarily discomforting a small community, killing large numbers of people, or other outcomes.
Although developing and using biological weapons once required support by nations, recent advances in biotechnology have made it easier to develop dangerous viruses, bacteria, and toxins with fewer resources.
www.fas.org /biosecurity/resource/bioweapons.htm   (1270 words)

  
 All the Virology on the WWW - Biological Weapons and Warfare
The Federation of American Scientists Chemical and Biological Arms Control Program covers all aspects of chemical and biological weapons and their control, but concentrates, at present, on efforts to prevent the development and use of biological weapons (BW) and the further proliferation of BW programs.
The Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute is a nonprofit corporation established to promote the goals of arms control and nonproliferation, with a special, although not exclusive focus on the elimination of chemical and biological weapons.
The Biological Weapons Convention requires Parties not to develop, produce, stockpile, or acquire biological agents or toxins "of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, and other peaceful purposes," as well as weapons and means of delivery.
www.virology.net /garryfavwebbw.html   (2268 words)

  
 Biological Therapy - National Cancer Institute
Biological therapy and chemotherapy are both treatments that fight cancer.
Biological therapy may be given once a day or a couple of times a day.
Doctors are studying biological therapy in clinical trials--research studies that test new cancer treatments.
www.cancer.gov /cancerinfo/biologicaltherapy   (913 words)

  
 Biologics Information | Business.com
Producer of biological cultures including algae, animal viruses and antisera, DNA probes, bacteria, cell lines, fungi, hybridomas, oncogenes, phages, plant tissue cultures, plant viruses and antisera, plasmids, protozoa, seeds and yeasts.
Manufacturer of synthetic biologically active peptides and reagents for antibodies and research immunoassay kits for peptide radioimmunoassay and localization studies; and synthetic deoxynucleotides and reagents for genetic research.
Manufacturer of chromatographic media for the isolation and purification of biological materials such as enzymes, proteins and vaccines and HPLC colums for pharmaceuticals and biotechnology analysis.
rd.business.com /index.asp?epm=s.1&bdcq=biological&bdcr=1&bdcu=http://www.business.com/directory/pharmaceuticals_and_biotechnology/biologics/index.asp?partner=2662601&bdcp=&partner=2662601&bdcs=nwuuid-2662601-E67660F2-7392-C32C-5096-9F9BB6D51A21-ym   (4835 words)

  
 NTI: Country Overviews: Iraq : Biological Chonology
According to the document, these two biological supply houses shipped 17 types of biological agents to Iraq in the 1980s, among which were anthrax and bacteria needed to make botulinum toxin.
Chemical and biological sampling of two intact filled bombs showed the presence of B. anthracis and also high levels of manganese and formic acid, which are consistent with Iraq's claims of chemical inactivation with potassium permanganate and formaldehyde.
Regarding biological weapons, Duelfer says that the ISG has new information on Iraq's dual-use facilities and research projects and their potential to be quickly converted to weapons programs.
www.nti.org /e_research/profiles/Iraq/Biological/3889_3894.html   (4022 words)

  
 Iraq's Biological Weapon Program
The activities undertaken in 1989 and 1990, which included field testing of aerial bombs, rockets and other munitions, the expansion of research and agent production, and the acquisition of additional facilities (Al Manal), have never been fully understood, and the inspectors were unable to draw conclusions about the full extent and scope of Iraq's program.
UN inspectors were certain that Iraq did not account for all the biological agents that it made before the first Gulf War, and that it produced anthrax on an industrial-scale.
Thus, some observers concluded that Iraq's biological weapon capability still existed and was an active threat prior to the second Gulf War.
www.iraqwatch.org /profiles/biological.html   (3603 words)

  
 frontline: plague war
Today, there are at least ten nations in the world with the ability to produce biological weapons.
Cheap and now technologically possible to produce and refine into weapons of mass destruction, biological warfare has the potential to do as much damage to civilian populations as nuclear weapons.
FRONTLINE presents new evidence culled from scientists, intelligence agencies, and policymakers to examine the threat biological warfare poses to world security and the responses the U.S. is frantically developing.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/plague   (76 words)

  
 Biological Motion
Perception of a biological organism engaged in an activity must entail global integration of these motion signals over space and time - perception of such animation sequences is literally the creation of motion information (in the same sense that perception of an object in a random-dot stereogram is the creation of binocular disparity information).
Shown below are two frames (not successive in the animation) from a "normal" biological sequence (in this case, the actor is throwing an object) and two frames (nonsuccessive) from a phase-scrambled sequence created from the "throwing" animation.
Johansson G (1973) Visual perception of biological motion and a model for its analysis.
www.psy.vanderbilt.edu /faculty/blake/BM/BioMot.html   (513 words)

  
 The Henry L. Stimson Center - Biological Weapons Proliferation Concerns
China began an offensive biological weapons program during the 1950s and there are suspicions that this work continues to this day, even though China signed the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention in 1984.
Iran joined the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention in 1973, but is thought to have begun an offensive biological weapons program during the 1980s Iran-Iraq War.
Taiwan, which joined the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention in 1973, is said not to have biological weapons, but it continues to manifest an active interest in conducting biological research of a military-applied nature.
www.stimson.org /cbw?sn=CB2001121274   (1071 words)

  
 CNN.com - Source: Fear of bioweapons grounded flights - Feb. 2, 2004
CNN's Elaine Quijano reports that fears of a biological attack were possibly behind flight cancellations.
The specter of a biological attack was raised Sunday as a possible reason that a handful of transatlantic and domestic flights were canceled this weekend.
One federal law enforcement source told CNN that the U.S.-bound flights were grounded mainly out of fears that terrorists would use the planes as "air taxis" to deliver biological, chemical or radioactive weapons material to cities in the United States.
www.cnn.com /2004/US/02/01/flights.canceled   (716 words)

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