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Topic: Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention


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In the News (Fri 19 Jul 19)

  
  Biological Weapons Convention
Biological and chemical weapons have generally been associated with each other in the public mind, and the extensive use of poison gas in World War I (resulting in over a million casualties and over 100,000 deaths) led to the Geneva Protocol of 1925 prohibiting the use of both poison gas and bacteriological methods in warfare.
A draft convention proposed in the General Assembly by the Soviet Union and its allies on September 19 dealt with both chemical and biological weapons.
Nothing in the convention is to be interpreted as lessening the obligations imposed by the Geneva Protocol, and the parties undertake to pursue negotiations for a ban on chemical weapons.
www.state.gov /t/ac/trt/4718.htm   (2811 words)

  
  Biological Weapons Convention - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It currently commits the 169 states that are party to it to prohibit the development, production, and stockpiling of biological and toxin weapons.
It is not the objects themselves (biological agents or toxins), but rather certain purposes for which they may be employed which are prohibited; similar to Art.II, 1 in the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).
Early in 2001, however, the Bush administration, after conducting a review of policy on biological weapons, decided that the proposed protocol did not suit the national interests of the United States, claiming that it would interfere with legitimate commercial and biodefense activity — unlike most arms control agreements, the BWC also applies to private parties.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Biological_and_Toxin_Weapons_Convention   (444 words)

  
 Investigating Disease Outbreaks under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The convention was the first treaty to outlaw the development and possession of an entire category of weapons, and the first to outlaw any weapon of mass destruction.
Article VI of the convention provides that states parties that suspect another state party of noncompliance may submit a complaint to the U.N. Security Council, and all states parties are obliged to cooperate fully with any investigation that the security council may initiate.
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction, opened for signature at Washington, London, and Moscow April 10, 1972; entered into force March 26, 1975.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/eid/vol6no6/wheelis.htm   (3505 words)

  
 The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention of 1972
The BWC thus supplements the prohibition on use of biological weapons contained in the 1925 Geneva Protocol.
Article X requires that states parties facilitate the exchange of equipment, materials and scientific and technological information for the use of biological agents and toxins for peaceful purposes, and also that the Convention shall be implemented in a way that does not hamper the economic or technological development of states parties.
In order to "strengthen the effectiveness and improve the implementation" of the Convention, the AHG was mandated to "consider appropriate measures, including possible verification measures, and draft proposals [...] to be included, as appropriate, in a legally binding instrument, to be submitted for the consideration of the States Parties".
fas-www.harvard.edu /~hsp/biologic.html   (642 words)

  
 United Nations Office at Geneva | Disarmament | The Biological Weapons Convention
The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, commonly known as the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) or Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC), opened for signature in 1972 and entered into force in 1975.
It effectively prohibits the development, production, acquisition, transfer, retention, stockpiling and use of biological and toxin weapons and is a key element in the international community’s efforts to address the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
Article II To destroy or divert to peaceful purposes biological weapons and associated resources prior to joining.
www.unog.ch /80256EE600585943/(httpPages)/04FBBDD6315AC720C1257180004B1B2F?OpenDocument   (313 words)

  
 BTWC: The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention
The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (BTWC) was simultaneously opened for signature in Moscow, Washington and London on 10 April 1972 and entered into force on 26 March 1975.
The BTWC was the first comprehensive disarmament treaty, having as its primary purpose the destruction of existing stockpiles of biological weapons (BW) and the prevention of their proliferation.
However, the non-proliferation objective of the Convention must be reconciled with the obligation, under Article X, to facilitate the transfer of scientific and technological equipment and know-how for peaceful purposes, and to refrain from any activity which would hinder or restrict the legitimate economic and technological development of States Parties.
cbw.sipri.se /btwc/btwc.htm   (484 words)

  
 terrorismfiles.org : Biological Weapons and Bioterrorism
Biological weapons are any infectious agent such as a bacteria or virus when used intentionally to inflict harm upon others.
Biological warfare agents include both living microorganisms (bacteria, protozoa, rickettsia, viruses, and fungi), and toxins (chemicals) produced by microorganisms, plants, or animals.
Chemical weapons, for all their horrors, become less lethal as they are dispersed and diluted.
www.terrorismfiles.org /weapons/biological_weapons.html   (484 words)

  
 All the Virology on the WWW - Biological Weapons and Warfare
The Federation of American Scientists Chemical and Biological Arms Control Program covers all aspects of chemical and biological weapons and their control, but concentrates, at present, on efforts to prevent the development and use of biological weapons (BW) and the further proliferation of BW programs.
The Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute is a nonprofit corporation established to promote the goals of arms control and nonproliferation, with a special, although not exclusive focus on the elimination of chemical and biological weapons.
The Biological Weapons Convention requires Parties not to develop, produce, stockpile, or acquire biological agents or toxins "of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, and other peaceful purposes," as well as weapons and means of delivery.
www.virology.net /garryfavwebbw.html   (2268 words)

  
 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC)
The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) was negotiated in the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva.
Proliferation in the area of biological and toxin warfare continues to be seen as a security problem.
South Africa successfully argued at the 1994 Special Conference of States Party to the Convention that the concept of "alleged use" should be included in the mandate of the Ad Hoc Group, which is currently considering a possible verification protocol for the BTWC.
www.dfa.gov.za /foreign/Multilateral/inter/treaties/btwc.htm   (386 words)

  
 Iraq Watch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
It is argued that this breaches the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, which the UK signed in 1972 and ratified in 1975.
The supply of those arms was in breach of the biological and toxic weapons convention, but I am told that such conventions are not meant to be applied to the nations of the west—according to the United States, anyway.
The biological materials exported from the US to Iraq were quite sufficient to fuel a biological weapons programme, as a starter culture can be scaled up to any quantity…The transfer was clearly illegal in terms of the Convention.
www.iraqwatch.org /perspectives/Sussexreport.htm   (6906 words)

  
 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention - DTI
The use of biological weapons was banned in international law by the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and this prohibition was extended by the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) which was opened for signature in 1972 and entered into force in 1975.
The United Kingdom is a Co-Depository Government of the Convention, along with the Russian Federation and the United States.
Unlike the Chemical Weapons Convention, the BTWC has no provisions, such as an inspection regime, to verify compliance.
www.dti.gov.uk /europeandtrade/non-proliferation/chemical-biological/btwc/page26597.html   (311 words)

  
 The biological and toxin weapons convention — an analysis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The biological and toxin weapons convention — an analysis
Your e-mail address, and that of your recipient(s), will be used only to let the recipient(s) know who sent the link and in the case of transmission errors.
The information will not be used for any other purpose.
www.eurekalert.org /emailrelease.php?file=bc-tba081701.php   (59 words)

  
 Biological Weapons Treaties   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The Convention was opened for signature in 1972 after the U.S. and the Soviet Union reached agreement on the text of the Convention.
Note: Biological Agents, defined in the treaty as microbial or other biological agents, are naturally occurring microorganisms (virus, bacteria, fungus) or toxins that can cause death or disease in a targeted population.
Toxins, also not defined by the treaty, are substances that act like chemical agents but ordinarily are produced by biological or microbic processes.
www.nawcwpns.navy.mil /~treaty/BWC.html   (734 words)

  
 Stimson - Biological Weapons Proliferation Concerns
China began an offensive biological weapons program during the 1950s and there are suspicions that this work continues to this day, even though China signed the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention in 1984.
Iran joined the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention in 1973, but is thought to have begun an offensive biological weapons program during the 1980s Iran-Iraq War.
Taiwan, which joined the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention in 1973, is said not to have biological weapons, but it continues to manifest an active interest in conducting biological research of a military-applied nature.
www.stimson.org /cbw/?sn=CB2001121274   (1074 words)

  
 Disarmament Diplomacy: - The Emerging Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention
Of great relevance to the AHG was the recently completed Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) which included verification provisions based upon three pillars: mandatory declarations, on-site inspections to verify the accuracy of such declarations, challenge inspections for concerns related to non-compliance.
Although the AHG noted the existing provisions of Article V of the Convention, the ability to conduct investigations of alleged use of biological weapons was considered to be a central pillar of any system of mechanisms to strengthen the Convention.
Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union on the Negotiations of a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC).
www.acronym.org.uk /35btwc.htm   (2692 words)

  
 First Meeting of Experts of States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, Geneva, 18 – 29 August 2003   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
A generation after the signing of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, the world has changed greatly, as have the technologies and degree of risk posed by new developments in the life sciences.
In addition, to the extent that the use of biological weapons amounts to "violence to life and person, in particular murder, cruel treatment and torture" (see e.g.
Use of biological weapons amounting to such "grave breaches" would thus require the assertion of universal jurisdiction.
www.icrc.org /web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/5QKDPF?OpenDocument&View=defaultBody&style=custo_print   (1673 words)

  
 House of Commons - Foreign Affairs - Minutes of Evidence
Strengthening the biological and toxin weapons convention: countering the threat from biological weapons, Dr Vivienne Nathanson, British Medical Association 6 July 2002.
Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention: countering the threat from Biological Weapons Cm 5484 April 2002 Response of the Mountbatten Centre for International Studies University of Southampton, 27 August 2002.
The use of biological weapons in not specifically a crime under the ICC Statute at present.
www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk /pa/cm200203/cmselect/cmfaff/150/2102208.htm   (931 words)

  
 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention States Parties Annual Meeting
Such a buttressing of the Convention is sorely needed, given the many challenges we face.
Since the tragic events of 9/11 and the subsequent BW incidents in the United States, the international security situation requires our unstinting efforts to improve the effectiveness of our mechanisms, institutions and to do so in the spirit of full cooperation.
We are looking to put our already extensive legislative and administrative machinery to work in the service of the important goal of ensuring BTWC compliance and biosafety, security and control.
www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca /arms/meyer2-en.asp   (771 words)

  
 Strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention: 20-21 September 1997, Geneva, Switzerland
The workshop was given a detailed overview of UNSCOM's monitoring of the Iraqi biological weapons programme during 1996 and 1997 and informed of the main measures used by the commission for the verification of Iraqi disclosures.
Moreover, in the overall array of treaties and statutes currently in force and under negotiation (such as the so-called "bombing" convention and the statute of the projected International Criminal Court), there are large gaps in the criminalization of activities by individuals.
The draft international convention prepared by the Harvard Sussex Program is intended to reinforce existing legal instruments and harmonise their provisions and prohibitions by introducing the concept of individual responsibility and establishing a universal jurisdiction.
www.pugwash.org /reports/cbw/cbw1.htm   (3407 words)

  
 NOVA Online | Bioterror | Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention
Note: Following is the full text of what is commonly referred to as the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.
(2) This Convention shall be implemented in a manner designed to avoid hampering the economic or technological development of States Parties to the Convention or international cooperation in the field of peaceful bacteriological (biological) activities, including the international exchange of bacteriological (biological) agents and toxins and equipment
This Convention, the English, Russian, French, Spanish and Chinese texts of which are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Depositary Governments.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/nova/bioterror/bwc.html   (1441 words)

  
 BTWC: Text of the Convention
Nothing in this Convention shall be interpreted as in any way limiting or detracting from the obligations assumed by any State under the Protocolfor the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, signed at Geneva on June 17, 1925.
(6) This Convention shall be registered by the Depositary Governments pursuant sto Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
This Convention, the English, Russian, French, Spanish and Chinese texts of which are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Depositary Governments.
www.opbw.org /convention/conv.html   (1163 words)

  
 Stimson - Signatories and Ratifications of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention
Stimson - Signatories and Ratifications of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention
Signatories and Ratifications of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention
The authorities on Taiwan state they will continue to abide by the provisions of the Convention, and the United States regards them as bound by its obligations.
www.stimson.org /cbw/?sn=cb2001121271   (174 words)

  
 BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
During the two decades since the BWC entered into force, there have been increasing concerns about biological weapons proliferation and the ability of the Convention to deter it.
Nevertheless, the Group found that some measures, either singly or in combination, have the potential to strengthen the Convention by helping to differentiate between prohibited and permitted activities and thus to reduce ambiguities about compliance.
bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, and fungi) an toxins (poisonous chemicals synthesized by living organisms), which could be used against humans, crops, or livestock to cause massive casualties or economic damage as a means of warfare or terrorism.
dosfan.lib.uic.edu /acda/factshee/wmd/bw/bcc-spec.htm   (495 words)

  
 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC): Potential Implications for Biotechnology Conference Vienna
Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC): Potential Implications for Biotechnology Conference Vienna
The current negotiations in Geneva to develop a legally binding instrument to strengthen the 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention are likely to result in an international declaration and inspection regime.
Institutions involved in the current negotiations to strengthen the BTWC
www.boku.ac.at /iam/efb/btwc.htm   (1636 words)

  
 CNS - Chemical and Biological Weapons Resource Page
In December 2005, the CNS launched a new series of seminars devoted to chemical and biological weapons (CBW) issues.
Serving legitimate functions in biological research and in specialized chemical industry, osmium tetroxide's suitability as a terrorist agent - a dual use compound - is limited, despite the characterizations of it generating "chemical fallout."
The use of ricin, a deadly toxin derived from the castor bean, marks the second case in three years where someone has sent mail containing a toxic substance to the offices of the country's most senior lawmakers.
cns.miis.edu /research/cbw   (1646 words)

  
 The Evolution of Biological Disarmament: CBW 19
In this volume the evolution of the disarmament regime of the 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) is described from 1980, when the first BTWC Review Conference was held, until 1998.
The strength of the BTWC regime is assessed in the light of its evolution through the review process and its changing contexts, including Russia’s admission that it had inherited an offensive biological weapon programme.
Annexe A. The 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention
editors.sipri.se /pubs/cbw19.html   (480 words)

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