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Topic: Biological fuel cell


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  Fuel cell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Typical reactants used in a fuel cell are hydrogen on the anode side and oxygen on the cathode side (a hydrogen cell).
Fuel cells are often considered to be very attractive in modern applications for their high efficiency and ideally emission-free use, in contrast to currently more common fuels such as methane or natural gas that generate carbon dioxide.
Fuel cells cannot store energy like a battery, but in some applications, like stand-alone power plants based on discontinuous sources (solar, wind power), they are combined with electrolyzers and storage systems to form an energy storage system.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fuel_cell   (2309 words)

  
 Fuel cell
Fuel cells are also attractive in some applications for their high efficiency and low pollution.
Fuel cells are electrochemical devices, so they are not constrained by the maximum thermal (Carnot) efficiency as combustion engines are.
But fuel cells did not see practical application until the 1960s, where they were used in the U.S. space program to supply electricity and drinking water (hydrogen and oxygen being readily available from the spacecraft tanks).
www.nebulasearch.com /encyclopedia/article/Fuel_cell.html   (2297 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The biological fuel cell of the invention may comprise, consist essentially of, or consist of an anode and an anode enzyme in electrical communication and a cathode and a cathode enzyme in electrical communication.
The biological fuel cell 100 may comprise anode 102, having disposed thereon an anode enzyme, and cathode 104, having disposed thereon a cathode enzyme, at least a portion of the anode and cathode enzymes being substantially immobilized on anode 102 and cathode 104.
During the operation of biological fuel cell 100, the anode reductant is electrooxidized at anode electrocatalyst layer 106 and the cathode oxidant is electroreduced at cathode electrocatalyst layer 108.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=03/106966.031224&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (10542 words)

  
 IAGS Glossary
In a PEM fuel cell, the electrolyte allows the transport of positively charged hydrogen ions (protons) from the anode, where they are produced, to the cathode where they react with oxygen molecules and electrons to produce water.
The principal components of a fuel cell are catalytically activated electrodes for the fuel (anode) and the oxidant (cathode) and an electrolyte to conduct ions between the two electrodes.
A type of fuel cell in which the exchange of protons (H+) from the anode to the cathode via a membrane is involved in the chemical reaction producing electricity.
www.iags.org /glossary1.htm   (4498 words)

  
 Fuel cell   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Fuel cells run on hydrogen, a fuel which can be made by any individual or nation which has a supply of water and electricity, which means there is little chance of monopolization or price fixing.
UTX's UTC Fuel Cells subsidiary http://www.utcfuelcells.com/fuelcells/index.shtm continues to be the sole supplier of fuel cells to NASA for use in space vehicles and is also developing fuel cells for cars and buses.
Fuel cells are very useful as power sources in remote locations, such as spacecraft, remote weather stations, and in certain military applications.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/F/Fuel-cell.htm   (2093 words)

  
 Fuel cell takes on batteries
Fuel cells are a different story, theoretically capable of storing vastly more energy.
Hockaday is confident he can make a fuel cell that would power 100 hours worth of conversation and could be refueled simply by adding a wee dram of grain or wood alcohol.
While Hockaday's existing fuel cell makes only about 1 milliwatt (one-thousandth of a watt), he says in six months of "brute-force engineering" he'll boost that to the 300 milliwatts needed by a cellular phone on standby.
whyfiles.org /shorties/fuel_cell.html   (740 words)

  
 The Progressive Investor: An information service of SustainableBusiness.com
Since the fuel cell industry is so young and is just about to move from being all research and development to the first stage of commercialization, numerous companies are staking claims as pioneers in the field.
A fuel cell is a device in which hydrogen and oxygen are converted into water, producing electricity and heat in the process.
In fuel cells, you can invest in companies based on their technology (ie., methanol fuel cells), the market they serve (small devices, powering buildings, or vehicles) and where the company is in the overall value chain (ie., component supplier, fuel cell manufacturer).
www.sustainablebusiness.com /progressiveinvestor/MicroFuelCellsReport_Issue15.htm   (5254 words)

  
 ABSTRACT
The driving force of a biological fuel cell is the redox reaction of a carbohydrate substrate such as glucose and methanol using a microorganism or an enzyme as catalyst.
In contrast to chemical fuel cells, the biological fuel cells have mild reaction conditions (ambient temperature, normal pressure, and neutral pH) and platinum is not needed.
The 6-year study of microbial fuel cells has shown that the theory works in practice, device is stable during long runs (over one month), and that efficiency in relation to volume increases as the anode volume decreases.
www.automation.hut.fi /research/bio/sfc00pos.htm   (1470 words)

  
 HNEI > R&D > Fuel Cells > Fuel Cell R&D
Biocarbon fuel cells developed under the initial phase of HEET resulted in the generation of about 400 mV (open-circuit), but power output was limited because of mechanical design considerations.
In the benthic fuel cell, methane gas serves as the primary carbon source for anaerobic consortia of archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the sea floor sediment that produce sulfide, which is oxidized at the anode of the fuel cell.
A study is underway to test the power output of the biological fuel cell in a simulated benthic environment and the effect of the fuel cell on anaerobic methane oxidation.
www.hnei.hawaii.edu /fuelrd.asp   (401 words)

  
 New Scientist Small visions, grand designs - Features   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Also on the way are electronic devices that tell cells to make specific hormones when your body needs them, and electricity generators that assemble themselves inside a cell and then tap into the cell's own energy source for the power to run.
Montemagno believes that when cells can be engineered and instructed to produce drugs, his nanomotors could be used to collect and store the drug molecules.
Because of that, his fuel cell only operates in a solution more acidic than the conditions found in the body, and he is not yet claiming to have a fuel cell ready for implantation.
www.newscientist.com /channel/mech-tech/nanotechnology/mg17223114.200   (2590 words)

  
 Biofuelcell
Biological fuel cell is a device that realizes the conversion of biochemical energy into electrical energy.
In the current study, we are going to study the small enzyme fuel cell and try to apply the enzymatic fuel cell for small electronic devices like mobile phone.
On the other hand, the size of the biological fuel cell is important factor for the efficient energy conversion from chemical to electrical energy.
www.automation.hut.fi /research/bio/biofuel.htm   (734 words)

  
 Enzymatic fuel cell (US6500571)
Provided is a fuel cell comprising a first compartment, a second compartment and a barrier separating the first and second compartments, wherein the barrier comprises a proton transporting moiety.
A fuel cell comprising a first compartment, a second compartment and a barrier separating the first and second compartments, wherein the barrier includes an embedded proton transporting protein effective to transport protons from the first compartment to the second compartment.
Fuel cell comprising a device for detecting the concentration of methanol
www.delphion.com /details?pn=US06500571__   (907 words)

  
 Clarkson University - Center for the Environment - Directors and Affiliated Faculty   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The biological fuel cell will be based on the cells energy generation.
This would allow the fuel cell to be used in the body, with the body regenerating the fuel itself.
The fuel cell would also allow for rapid screening of environmental toxins and their effects on biological energy production by measuring the voltage and current of the fuel cell in the presence of the toxins.
www.clarkson.edu /cem/faculty/meuller.html   (660 words)

  
 New fuel cell opens way for artificial hearts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Tokyo - A Japanese research team has developed a fuel cell that runs on blood without using toxic substances, opening the way for use in artificial hearts and other organs.
The biological fuel cell uses glucose, a sugar in blood, with a non-toxic substance used to draw electrons from glucose, said the team led by Matsuhiko Nishizawa, bio-engineering professor at the graduate school of state-run Tohoku University.
The newly developed cell in the size of a tiny coin is able to generate 0,2 milliwatts of electricity, enough to power a device that measures blood sugar level and transmits data elsewhere, the group said.
www.infowars.com /articles/science/new_fuel_cell_artificial_hearts.htm   (175 words)

  
 Aljazeera.Net - Fuel cell to run on blood   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
A Japanese research team has developed a fuel cell that runs on blood without using toxic substances, opening the way for use in artificial hearts and other organs.
The biological fuel cell uses glucose, a sugar in blood, with a non-toxic substance used to draw electrons from glucose, said the team led by Matsuhiko Nishizawa, bio-engineering professor at the graduate school of state-run
The newly developed cell is able to generate 0.2 milliwatts of electricity, enough to power a device that measures blood sugar level and transmits data elsewhere, the group said.
english.aljazeera.net /NR/exeres/035681B8-F0D0-4259-BFD4-275078C1F1E0.htm   (205 words)

  
 WorldChanging: Another World Is Here: New Fuel Cell Runs on Blood
The biological fuel cell relies glucose, a sugar in blood, with a non-toxic substance to draw electrons from glucose.
While most other bio-fuel cells under study use a metal complex, the new electron mediator is based on Vitamin K3, already present in the body, it is thus safer and could in the future generate power from blood as an implant-type fuel cell.
The newly developed cell is the size of a tiny coin and can generate 0,2 milliwatts of electricity, enough to power a device that measures blood sugar level and transmits data elsewhere.
www.worldchanging.com /archives/002745.html   (166 words)

  
 Fuel Cells - Seeds of a New Industrial Revolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Fuel cells are significantly more energy efficient than combustion-based power generation technologies.
When fuel cells are used to generate electricity and heat (co-generation), they can reach efficiencies of up to 85 percent.
Vehicles using electric motors powered by hydrogen fuel cells are much more energy efficient, utilizing 40-60 percent of the fuel's energy.
www.energycooperation.org /fuelcells.htm   (892 words)

  
 International Clearinghouse for Hydrogen Based Commerce - AIR & SPACE PROPULSION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Huff further commented that: "Pioneering advanced fuel cell technology will put us in an advanced position among others, in fact, we will be the first to employ this technology to the rigid airship.
These contracts have facilitated the demonstration of regenerative fuel cell operation as well as the ability to electrolyze water to generate hydrogen and oxygen gases at pressures exceeding 3,000 psi.
The goal of this 2-year, $749,999 contract is to demonstrate a multi-kilowatt-capable closed-loop hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell and is a continuation of work completed in Phase I of this project.
www.ch2bc.org /index3.htm   (4008 words)

  
 FuturePundit: Fuel Cell Uses Blood As Energy Source
An implantable fuel cell uses glucose from blood to generate a weak electric current.
The fuel cell has the size of a small coin and can generate 0.2 milliwatts of electric power.
Contrast the size of this fuel cell (a small coin) with the size of the body's energy generators, the mitochondria.
www.futurepundit.com /archives/002776.html   (435 words)

  
 HNEI > R&D > Ocean Resources > Methane Hydrates
A biological benthic fuel cell for long-term, low-level (of the order of 1 watt) subsea electrical power generation is being developed.
Sediment bacteria that play the key roles in the operation of the biological fuel cell are being cultured for analysis.
An engineering design study will be performed to assess underwater solid oxide fuels cells, employing methane hydrates as the energy source, for higher level in situ power generation applications.
www.hnei.hawaii.edu /ocean.research.asp   (686 words)

  
 What's Next In Science & Technology - Fuel Cell Runs On Blood
A Japanese research team at Tohoku University has developed a fuel cell that runs on blood without using toxic substances, opening the way for use in artificial hearts and other organs.
The biological fuel cell uses glucose, a sugar in blood, with a non-toxic substance used to draw electrons from glucose.
The newly developed cell in the size of a tiny coin is able to generate 0,2 milliwatts of electricity, enough to power a device that measures blood sugar level and transmits data elsewhere.
www.whatsnextnetwork.com /technology/index.php/2005/07/15/fuel_cell_runs_on_blood   (236 words)

  
 Fuel Cell Technology News: BIOLOGICAL: OSU Produces Plankton Power@ HighBeam Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
During the past two years, scientists have successfully tapped the chemical reactions from decomposing organic matter on the ocean floor to create fuel cells that provide low levels of electrical power for many months.
Oregon State University (Newport, OR; Tel: 541-737-0788) researchers announced that they have taken that development one step farther by harnessing the same power-producing decomposition activity from plankton taken from the upper water column.
The above preview is from Fuel Cell Technology News, August 1, 2004.
www.highbeam.com /library/doc0.asp?DOCID=1P1:98606022&refid=ip_encyclopedia_hf   (205 words)

  
 Biological fuel cell and method (US6294281)
    A fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with anode enzyme disposed on the anode and cathode enzyme is disposed on the cathode.
The anode is configured and arranged to electrooxidize an anode reductant in the presence of the anode enzyme.
Palmore, G. et al., "Electro-enzymatic reduction of dioxygen to water in the cathode compartment of a biofuel cell", Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol.
www.delphion.com /details?pn=US06294281__   (471 words)

  
 CLARKSON UNIVERSITY
This talk will cover two areas:  the development of a biological fuel cell and its applications as well as several applications for hydrophilic polymers.
A biological fuel cell uses the enzymes involved in the energy generation of a cell in the setup of a fuel cell.
  Therefore, this biological fuel cell can be used as energy source for medical sensors in the body.
www.clarkson.edu /projects/chemistry/seminars/muellerabstract.htm   (272 words)

  
 Projects   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The effects of global warming and the depletion of the fossil fuels have led to an enormous amount of research in the field of alternative electricity production methods.
This principle allows for a biological fuel cell process set-up: bio-oxidisable material (BOD) is converted into carbon dioxide, protons and electrons in the anodic compartment by electrochemically active bacteria, while in the cathode compartment oxygen combines electrochemically with protons and electrons to form water.
Because the Gibbs energy of the BOD is not converted into heat first (as with fossil fuel combustion), but directly into electricity, the Carnot cycle is avoided and high energy yields can be achieved (up to 70%).
www.wetsus.nl /eng/Themes5a.htm   (236 words)

  
 FuturePundit: Cyborg Tech Archives
The electrical signals that the cells fire at one another are picked up by the electrodes which then send the amplified signal into a computer.
The team uses networks of cultured rodent brain cells as the Hybrot's brain, and has essentially given the cultured neural networks a body in the form of a mobile robot.
From their subretinal location, these artificial “photoelectric” signals from the ASR microchip are in a position to induce biological visual signals in the remaining functional retinal cells which may be processed and sent via the optic nerve to the brain.
www.futurepundit.com /archives/cat_cyborg_tech.html   (7255 words)

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