Biological pigment - Factbites
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Topic: Biological pigment

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In the News (Mon 22 Jul 19)

 Marine Ecology Progress Series: MEPS 180:51-64
ABSTRACT: Depth profiles of chlorophyll a (chl a), its degradation products, and accessory pigment markers from 5 sites with differing sediment properties highlighted the role of physical and biological processes in re-distributing microalgal biomass both horizontally and vertically around the Molenplaat tidal flat.
During the late autumn-winter, chl a biomass and pigment diversity decreased considerably, coincident with reduced biological activity and increased physical mixing.
An increase in relative contributions of accessory pigments both at the surface and in deeper layers between spring and autumn suggest that silty sites are a sink for sedimenting algae from the water column during this time. /abstracts/meps/v180/p51-64.html

 Pigment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A distinction is usually made between a pigment, which is insoluble, and a dye, which is either a liquid, or is soluble.
In biology, pigment is any material resulting in color in plant or animal cells which is the result of selective absorption.
There is a well-defined dividing line between pigments and dyes: a pigment is not soluble in the vehicle while a dye is. /wiki/Pigment

 Discovery: Experiments Confirm Novel Eye Pigment Controls Circadian Rhythm
The scientists found the pigment, called cryptochrome (CRY), drives mammals' circadian rhythm, the 24-hour biological timer that regulates numerous bodily functions, Sancar said.
Discovered in 1877, pigments known as opsins, which are linked to vitamin A and located in the retina, enable mammals to see by absorbing light and transferring visual signals through the optic nerve to the brain.
However, because pigments for vision and circadian clocks occur in different parts of the retina, some blind people who have lost the part of the retina containing opsins still retain the cryptochrome region and maintain normal circadian rhythm. /pub_releases/1998-11/UoNC-DECN-191198.php

 Pigment Cell Research - Journal Information
Pigment cells represent a uniquely attractive model for the study of basic cell biological phenomena and malignant transformation.
Pigment Cell Research publishes manuscripts on all aspects of pigment cells including development, cell and molecular biology, genetics and melanoma.
Pigment Cell Research now publishes OnlineEarly papers - fully reviewed and revised articles published online in advance of publication in a forthcoming printed issue. /journal.asp?ref=0893-5785

No definitive record could be found in the vision literature substantiating the existence of such a biological membrane enclosing the portion of the Outer Segment extending from the end of the inner segment of the photoreceptor cell and the beginning of the phagocytosis region associated with the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells.
Two recent theories of transduction are entirely dependent on the existence of a biological membrane surrounding the disk stack of the Outer Segment.
Both the calcium gate and the glutamate cascade theories depend on gates in the biological membrane surrounding the disk stack of the Outer Segment. /reward.htm

 Primary Processes in Photosynthesis
Our work on photosynthetic bacteria has resulted in a detailed picture of how biological function is related to organization and dynamics of the pigment-protein complexes.
An exciton is an energy eigenstate of an aggregate of pigments in which the excited state energy is delocalized over a number of pigment molecules; dynamics occur through relaxation between different exciton states.
Early picosecond work provided information about overall processes involving many pigment molecules, like the overall trapping of energy by the reaction center (RC) and the wasteful reverse detrapping process as well as the energy migration and equilibration between different antenna complexes. /annual_96/primarynew.htm   (1671 words) Books: Pigment Cell 1985: Biological, Molecular and Clinical Aspects of Pigmentation
Pigment Cell 1985: Biological, Molecular and Clinical Aspects of Pigmentation
Top of Page : Pigment Cell 1985: Biological, Molecular and Clinical Aspects of Pigmentation Books: Pigment Cell 1985: Biological, Molecular and Clinical Aspects of Pigmentation /exec/obidos/ASIN/086008373X   (1671 words)

 Employment Opportunities
Active areas to study include: development of new methods for close range and remote estimation of pigment concentration and composition, atmospheric correction of aircraft and satellite imagery, calibration of remote sensing models by using pigment concentrations determined analytically in lab.
Examples of relevant interests include (but are not limited to): development of new sensor technologies suitable for deployment on an observing platform, remote sensing of the marine environment, use of optical or acoustical technologies for studying biological processes, and modeling of biological systems that incorporates data from observing platforms.
The ESSC is a world-class centre for quantitative research into remote sensing of the Earth, with strong links to the University's prestigious Meteorology Department and to the mathematics and physics communities. /employment.html   (1671 words)

Bloom-induced changes in the pigment concentration were observed almost simultaneously in the euphotic zone and in the traps to a depth of 160 m, indicating a rapid vertical transfer of surface-originating particles by organic aggregates.
Budget calculations suggest that the loss of primary-produced C and pigment from the euphotic zone by settling is ~5% regardless of season.
Flux measurements were compared with weekly samples of suspended pigments in the euphotic zone and bi-monthly samples of total suspended matter and particulate C throughout the water column at the mooring site. /pubs/1986abs/0701.html   (355 words)

 Uptake of the Neurotransmitter Histamine into the Eyes of Larvae of the Barnacle (Balanus amphitrite) -- Stuart et al. 202 (1): 53 -- The Biological Bulletin
Accumulation of silver grains over the ocellus cannot be distinguished from pigment in brightfield illumination but is obvious in epipolarized light, which reflects from the silver grains but not from the pigment.
The insert shows a section through another eye at a different orientation in which the pigment arms form two back-to-back cups around the photoreceptors; the right arm of the upper cup is incomplete.
Remodeling of the nauplius eye into the adult ocelli during metamorphosis of the barnacle, Balanus amphitrite hawaiiensis. /cgi/content/full/202/1/53   (3397 words)

 Light-dependent Activation of Rod Transducin by Pineal Opsin -- Max et al. 273 (41): 26820 -- Journal of Biological Chemistry
S bound to transducin in the absence of pigment (open and closed squares in DM or PC/DM, respectively) or in the presence of non-light exposed P-opsin (open and closed triangles in DM or PC/DM, respectively).
The remaining ability of each pigment to activate transducin was normalized to the pigment's activity that was immediately assayed following exposure to light.
of bovine rhodopsin or spectral characterization and transducin /cgi/content/full/273/41/26820   (4494 words)

 Pigmented Ink
A photosynthetic pigment is a pigment that is present in chloroplasts or photosynthetic bacteria and captures the light energy necessary for photosynthesis.
Yes, we were taught in primary school (no pun intended) that Red, Green, and Blue are the primary pigments; the article states that they're primary if they can't be created by mixing other pigments.
Lake pigments are pigments made by precipitating a dye on an inert substance, such as calcium sulphate. /pages3/68/pigmented-ink.html   (668 words)

 Photosynthesis - Wikipedia
In cyclic electron flow, the electron originates in a pigment complex called photosystem I, passes from the primary acceptor to ferredoxin[?], then to plastoquinone[?] (a complex of two cytochromes similar to those found in mitochondria), and then plastocyanin[?] before returning to chlorophyll.
The electrons originate when a photon of sunlight strikes a chlorophyll molecule contained within a photosystem (cluster of associated pigment molecules) and excites one of its electrons, which is then captured by a primary acceptor protein.
This is a series of proteins embedded in a biological membrane that transfers high-energy electrons from one to another, accomplishing various activities along the way as the electron drops in energy level. /encyclopedia/ph/Photosynthesis.html   (668 words)

 Meat Science and Food Safety- Dept. of Animal Sciences Colorado State Univ.
Metmyoglobin is the major muscle pigment observed in discolored beef.
The color of beef muscle in the retail case depends on the relative amounts of each muscle pigment; signs of brownish discoloration occur when at least 60% of the reduced-myoglobin and/or oxymyoglobin pigments in a given area of the muscle surface becomes oxidized to metmyoglobin (Lawrie, 1966).
(1992a) hypothesized that, if increased concentrations of alpha-tocopherol are incorporated into biological membranes within beef muscles, it will delay the oxidative processes which result in lipid oxidation and metmyoglobin formation within these muscles and prevent the subsequent deterioration of fresh beef during retail display. /dp/msfs/highebeef.htm   (668 words)

 RedNova News - Science - Chloroplast Biogenesis-From Proplastid to Gerontoplast
Chapter 2 entitled "Proplastid to Chloroplast Transformation" deals with the biogenesis of chloroplasts from proplastids via etioplasts with Phlide oxidoreductases, light- induced thylakoid synthesis and pigment accumulation, assembling of light-harvesting complexes, photosystems I and II, as well as of ATP synthase and the RubisCO.
It also includes essential topics such as protein import and targeting to the chloroplast envelope and to the thylakoid biomembranes as well as photoregulation of gene expression (nuclear and plastid genes) and the light adaptation of chloroplasts during development to either sun-type or shade-type chloroplasts that possess very different pigment composition, structure, and photosynthetic capacity.
The main emphasis is placed (a) on the "build up" of photosynthetically active chloroplasts during greening by integrating many aspects of the biochemical, enzymatic, and molecular biological details where much progress has been made in the last 25 years, and (b) on the functioning and responses of the mature chloroplast. /news/display?id=117512   (668 words)

 Hair pigmentation melanin and hair color
As we have seen, the color of hair is due to the presence in the cortex of granules of a pigment called melanin, which is formed in special pigment-producing cells (melanocytes) in the hair bulb during the growing phase (anagen) of each hair.
color is perhaps the most obvious characteristic of hair, but as far as we know it has no biological function in humans.
White hairs contain no melanin at all: their whiteness is an optical effect, due to the way they reflect the light. /science/haircare/hair_twh_59.htm   (368 words)

Just over 4500 years ago the lake re-emerged from under the ice and biological production resumed but with a lower biological diversity, lower rates of pigment production and a different species assemblage compared with the preceding interglacial.
This suggests cooler conditions during the Holocene than the Eemian interglacial and a high degree of species turnover.
However, there is limited information on environmental changes in terrestrial and freshwater environments of the late Quaternary era in Antarctica due to removal of stratigraphic records by glacial erosion. /gsa/inqu/finalprogram/abstract_54972.htm   (368 words)

 ARS Publication request: Melanin in the Extracellular Matrix of Germlings of Botrytis Cinerea
This paper reports that one component of the extracellular matrix (a sort of fungal glue) secreted by the fungus is a dark pigment called melanin.
This could be important because it is felt that melanins are able to protect delicate biological structures from various environmental stresses such as ultraviolet light.
Here we show that most of the remaining mass of the extracellular matrix consists of a chemically inert dark pigment with the electron paramagnetic resonance characteristics of a melanin. /research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=152118   (269 words)

 Uptake of the Neurotransmitter Histamine into the Eyes of Larvae of the Barnacle (Balanus amphitrite) -- Stuart et al. 202 (1): 53 -- The Biological Bulletin
Accumulation of silver grains over the ocellus cannot be distinguished from pigment in brightfield illumination but is obvious in epipolarized light, which reflects from the silver grains but not from the pigment.
Thorson, G. Light as an ecological factor in the dispersal and settlement of larvae of marine bottom invertebrates.
Aliquots of larvae were incubated with increasing concentrations of drug, as described in Materials and Methods. /cgi/content/full/202/1/53   (3397 words)

 The Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria)
The blue-green color of cells (cyan means blue-green) is due to the combination of green chlorophyll pigment and a unique blue pigment (phycocyanin).
Biological control is in principle possible, though not always practical and as effective.
The algae are the simplest members of the plant kingdom, and the blue-green algae are the simplest of the algae. /cyano.html   (2440 words)

The structure of a carotenoid ultimately determines what potential biological function(s) that pigment may have.
Beta-carotene, the principal carotenoid in carrots, is a familiar carotene, while lutein, the major yellow pigment of marigold petals, is a common xanthophyll (Fig.
The hydrocarbon carotenoids are known as carotenes, while oxygenated derivatives of these hydrocarbons are known as xanthophylls. /carotenoids.htm   (807 words)

 Mordechai Sheves Home Page
Biological activity of visual pigments and bacteriorhodopsin is related to a photocycle during which both the retinal and the opsin moieties undergo a series of structural changes.
The molecular changes and their correlation with the corresponding biological functions (i.e., the release of the diffusable transmitter in visual pigments and the pumping of H+ ions in bacteriorhodopsin) is of primary importance.
Aharoni, M. Ottolenghi and M. Sheves, Light induced hydrolysis and rebinding of non-isomerizable bacteriorhodopsin pigment, Biophys. /Organic_Chemistry/sheves.shtml   (807 words)

 Department of Cell and Structural Biology Recent Publications
Pigment cells of lower vertebrates have traditionally been used as a model for these studies because these cells transport pigment organelles in a highly coordinated fashion, are easily cultured and transfected, are ideal for microsurgery, and are good for biochemical experiments, including in vitro analysis of organelle motility.
The sources and consequences of the altered terminal staining are unclear, but are discussed in relation to immature synapse morphology, a failure of normal regression of synapses, and a potential biological penalty of such a failure to regress.
Normally, the e(11) cell lies in closest proximity to the m(12) cell that generates comb plate cilia; however, either of the e(1) daughters (e(11) or e(12)) is capable of emitting the signal required for m(1) descendants to form comb plates. /bix/SOLSPUBS/CSB.htm   (807 words)

 Enzymatic Browning
The control of browning in fruits and vegetables hinges upon an understanding of the mechanism(s) responsible for browning in fruits, vegetables and seafoods, the properties of polyphenol oxidase enzyme(s), their substrates and inhibitors, and the chemical, biological and physical factors which affect each of these parameters.
The primary role of reducing agents such as sulphiting agents in the inhibition of enzymatic browning is to reduce the pigment precursors (quinones) to colourless, less-reactive diphenols.
Enzymatic browning does not occur in intact plant cells since phenolic compounds in cell vacuoles are separated from the polyphenol oxidase which is present in the cytoplasm. /ag/ags/agsi/ENZYMEFINAL/Enzymatic%20Browning.html   (13944 words)

 Ilan Levin
Because the tomato fruit color and its carotenoid biosynthetic pathway are highly affected by the photomorphogenic cascade, we are now involved in a major study designed to evaluate these biological interactions.
Lieberman, M., Segev, O., Gilboa, N., Lalazar, A., and Levin, I. The tomato homolog of the gene encoding UV DAMAGED DNA BINDING protein 1 (DDB1) underlined as the gene that causes the high pigment-1 mutant phenotype.
Van Dam, J., Levin, I., Struik, P., and Levy, D. Identification of epistatic interaction affecting glycoalkaloid content in tubers of tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). /People/IlanLevine.html   (13944 words)

 Chemistry and Biological Effects of Melanoidins and Glyceraldehyde-Derived Pyridinium as Advanced Glycation End Products -- HAYASE et al. 1043 (1): 104 -- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Key Words: melanoidin • blue pigment • glyceraldehyde • GLAP (glyceraldehydes-derived pyridinium) • advanced glycation end products (AGEs)
formed from glyceraldehyde and N-acetylarginine as well as glyceraldehyde-derived /cgi/content/abstract/1043/1/104   (227 words)

 A Fully Functional Rod Visual Pigment in a Blind Mammal. A CASE FOR ADAPTIVE FUNCTIONAL REORGANIZATION? -- Janssen et al. 275 (49): 38674 -- Journal of Biological Chemistry
To reconstitute the purified pigment into a lipid membrane (proteoliposomes) a 100-fold molar excess of bovine retina lipids
spectroscopy and were found to be almost identical to recombinant
difference spectroscopy (10), and the pH value was raised to /cgi/content/full/275/49/38674   (227 words)

 Ifgene home page: Student's Help Desk -- A History of Genetic Engineering
Archibald Garrod suggested from studies of alcaptonuria, a disease for which one symptom is the appearance of a black pigment in the urine, that a defective gene gave rise to a defective enzyme (a protein which is a biological catalyst in cell processes).
Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri propose the chromosome theory of inheritance. /ifgene/history.htm   (227 words)

 Links SQL: Biological Science/Plants Animals and The Environment/Botany/Modified Leaves
Chlorogalum pomeridianum, the soap plant has a pigment in the leaves, which was pricked into the skin by Native Americans.
Home : Biological Science : Plants Animals and The Environment : Botany : Modified Leaves
Skip down to leaf arrangement, simple and compound leaves, venation, lobing, leaf shapes, apices and bases, and margins. /links/1253/1249/1181/1094   (227 words)

 The Upstream Region of the Rpe65 Gene Confers Retinal Pigment Epithelium-specific Expression in Vivo and in Vitro and Contains Critical Octamer and E-box Binding Sites -- Boulanger et al. 275 (40): 31274 -- Journal of Biological Chemistry
RPE65 is essential for all-trans- to 11-cis-retinoid isomerization, the hallmark reaction of the retinal pigment epithelium
cornea, iris, and ciliary body; the posterior segment, comprising
segment, comprising the cornea, iris and ciliary body; the posterior /cgi/content/full/275/40/31274   (227 words)

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