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Topic: Biological warfare

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  Biological warfare - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war.
However, the consensus among military analysts is that, except in the context of bioterrorism, biological warfare is of little military use.
As a tactical weapon, the main military problem with a biological warfare attack is that it would take days to be effective, and therefore, unlike a nuclear or chemical attack, would not immediately stop an opposing force.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Biological_warfare   (2271 words)

 Biological warfare - Wikipedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Biological warfare is a cause for concern because a successful attack could conceivably result in thousands, possibly even millions, of deaths and could cause severe disruptions to societies and economies.
As a strategic weapon, biological warfare is again militarily problematic, because it is difficult to prevent the attack from spreading to either allies or to the attacker and a biological warfare attack invites immediate massive retaliation.
Biological warfare is believed to have been practiced in the Middle Ages, often by flinging victims of the Black Death over castle walls using catapults.
wikipedia.findthelinks.com /bi/Biological_warfare.html   (1035 words)

 Biological warfare   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Biological warfare is a cause for concern a successful attack could conceivably result in possibly even millions of deaths and could severe disruptions to societies and economies.
As a strategic weapon biological warfare again militarily problematic because it is difficult prevent the attack from spreading to either or to the attacker and a biological attack invites immediate massive retaliation.
Biological warfare has been practised repeatedly throughout In 184 BC Carthaginian leader Hannibal had clay pots filled with poisonous and instructed his soldiers to throw the onto the decks of Pergamene ships.
www.freeglossary.com /Biological_warfare   (1554 words)

 Biological Warfare
Biological weapons include any organism (such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi) or toxin found in nature that can be used to kill or injure people.
A number of nations have or are seeking to acquire biological warfare agents, and there are concerns that terrorist groups or individuals may acquire the technologies and expertise to use these destructive agents.
Biological agents may be used for an isolated assassination, as well as to cause incapacitation or death to thousands.
www.emedicinehealth.com /biological_warfare/article_em.htm   (1163 words)

 CDC - Upcoming Event
Biological warfare was the focus of billion-dollar investments by the United States and the former Soviet Union until President Nixon's unilateral abjuration in 1969.
Biological weapons are characterized by low cost and ease of access; difficulty of detection, even after use, until disease has advanced; unreliable but open-ended scale of predictable casualties; and clandestine stockpiles and delivery systems.
The central premise of the Biological Weapons Convention is that infectious disease is the common enemy of all humans and that joining with that enemy is an act of treason against humanity.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/eid/vol7no6/lederberg.htm   (1389 words)

 Biological Warfare Archive: Biological Terrorism - Caffa Amherst 731 Aum 9/11
Biological terrorism refers to the use of biological agents to inflict mass casualties on civilian populations.
This unit conducted germ warfare experiments on prisoners of war (who were referred to as maruta, or "blocks of wood") and launched mass terror attacks on Chinese civilians via special plague and anthrax bombs.
Given the escalating potency of biological weapons, and their probable increasing availability on the open marketplace, the future threatens to repeat the past, but with much greater catastrophic impact.
www.zkea.com /categories/category1.html   (1110 words)

 Risking Biological Warfare   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Biological warfare involves the deliberate use of biological agents to incapacitate or kill an ‘enemy'.
Biological agents lend themselves to warfare by virtue of their ease of production, stability, infectivity, and toxicity (1c).
Some biological agents that are spotlighted as potentially dangerous include bacillus anthracis (anthrax), botulinum toxin (botulism), yersinia pestis (bubonic plague), smallpox and the ebola virus (3).
serendip.brynmawr.edu /biology/b103/f01/web1/cox.html   (1355 words)

 eMedicine - CBRNE - Biological Warfare Agents : Article by Daniel J Dire, MD, FACEP, FAAP, FAAEM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Biological weapons include any organism or toxin found in nature that can be used to incapacitate, kill, or otherwise impede an adversary.
The use of biological agents is not a new concept, and history is replete with examples of biological weapon use.
Before the 20th century, biological warfare took on 3 main forms: (1) deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious material, (2) use of microorganisms or toxins in some form of weapon system, and (3) use of biologically inoculated fabrics.
www.emedicine.com /emerg/topic853.htm   (14862 words)

 BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS: Malignant Biology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
A "biological chemical weapon" is produced by cultivating an organism and extracting from it or its spent medium the toxic material.
Biological weapons may target living organisms or an environment seen as affecting the outcome of a struggle for control.
Biological weapon are characterized by the following: Their target system; The nature of the biological weapon; and Whether it is a natural product or one that has been produced by genetic engineering.
www.slic2.wsu.edu:82 /hurlbert/micro101/pages/101biologicalweapons.html   (9526 words)

Biological agents are easily recognized through their effects on a target population.
It is important to recognize that the nature of an attack with chemical weapons is to produce a localized concentration of chemical warfare agent that is sufficient to kill or incapacitate unprotected personnel in the immediate area of attack.
As a result, the concentration of chemical warfare agents in the air is reduced to an insignificant level very rapidly as a function of distance and time.
www.gulflink.osd.mil /dsbrpt/warfare.html   (5430 words)

 biological warfare. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Biological warfare has scarcely been used in modern times and was prohibited by the 1925 Geneva Convention.
Such microorganisms can be delivered by animals (especially rodents or insects) or by aerosol packages, built into artillery shells or the warheads of ground-to-ground or air-to-ground missiles and released into the atmosphere to infect by inhalation.
With the rise of extremist groups and the disintegration of the established international political order in the late 20th cent., biological weapons again began to be perceived as a serious threat.
www.bartleby.com /65/bi/biologWar.html   (460 words)

 BBC NEWS | Talking Point | How serious a threat is biological warfare?
Why the hell are people worrying about biological warfare when it's a hell of a lot more likely that these terrorists will just fly a few more planes into buildings to achieve their aims.
The use of chemical and biological warfare is a very feasible route for the supporters of Osama bin Laden to take against not only the West, but against all freedom-loving countries.
Biological weapons are the tool for this job and we are right to consider this the greatest of present threats to our civilisation.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/talking_point/1562260.stm   (7451 words)

 Long grim story of bio-war
Biological weapons may seem a modern phenomenon, but they have a long, ugly history.
We extracted some "highlights" from "Biological Warfare: A Historical Perspective," (see the bibliography), written by experts from the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases.
In response to biological and chemical attacks during World War I, the Geneva Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, is signed.
whyfiles.org /059bio_war/history.html   (822 words)

 BIOLOGICAL WARFARE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In the aftermath of a biological attack, dermatologists could play a critical role in recognizing the differential diagnosis of an epidemic exanthem and alerting public health officials, leading to prompt medical and public health interventions, hopefully preventing wide-spread mortality.
‘Biological Warfare’ (BW) is defined as the ’employment of biological agents to produce casualties in man or animals or damage to plants.’[91] An early BW attack took place in the Black Sea port of Kaffa (now Feodossia, Ukraine) in 1346.
Another attempted use of biological warfare occurred between 1754 and 1767 when the British infiltrated smallpox-infested blankets to unsuspecting American Indians during the French and Indian war.
telemedicine.org /BioWar/biologic.htm   (11075 words)

 All the Virology on the WWW - Biological Weapons and Warfare
The Federation of American Scientists Chemical and Biological Arms Control Program covers all aspects of chemical and biological weapons and their control, but concentrates, at present, on efforts to prevent the development and use of biological weapons (BW) and the further proliferation of BW programs.
The Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute is a nonprofit corporation established to promote the goals of arms control and nonproliferation, with a special, although not exclusive focus on the elimination of chemical and biological weapons.
The Biological Weapons Convention requires Parties not to develop, produce, stockpile, or acquire biological agents or toxins "of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, and other peaceful purposes," as well as weapons and means of delivery.
www.virology.net /garryfavwebbw.html   (2268 words)

 biological warfare articles on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
biological warfare BIOLOGICAL WARFARE [biological warfare] employment in war of microorganisms to injure or destroy people, animals, or crops; also called germ or bacteriological warfare.
warfare WARFARE [warfare] violent conflict between armed enemies.
In modern times warfare has usually been conducted by the armed forces (e.g., army, navy, and air force) of a nation or other politically organized group.
www.encyclopedia.com /articles/01484.html   (400 words)

 Biological Weapons
A biological warfare attack with botulinum toxin delivered by aerosol would be expected to cause symptoms similar in most respects to those observed with food-borne botulism.
In a biological warfare scenario, the plague bacillus coul d be delivered via contaminated vectors (fleas) causing the bubonic type or, more likely, via aerosol causing the pneumonic type.
A biological warfare attack, most likely delivered by aerosol, would be ex pected to elicit the rather specific spectrum of human clinical manifestations and to cause disease in sheep and cattle in the exposed area.
www.fas.org /nuke/intro/bw/agent.htm   (7993 words)

 Bible Study - Biological Warfare
News headlines may make it seem so, but biological warfare is not just a modern-day phenomenon.
Biological warfare is also found in The Bible.
God used biological warfare on Pharoah's kingdom, while, amidst it all, the Israelites and their livestock, one way or another, were immunized.
www.keyway.ca /htm2001/20011023.htm   (447 words)

 Biological Warfare
MEDICAL ASPECTS of CHEMICAL and BIOLOGICAL WARFARE 1 Foreword by The Surgeon General xi 1 Preface xiii 1 Patient Flow in a Theater of Operations xv 1 Medical Aftermath of the Persian Gulf War....
Traces biological warfare back to ancient times when Roman soldiers would contaminate the water supplies of their enemies.
Chemical and Biological Warfare, use of harmful or deadly chemical or biological agents as weapons of war.
www.health-nexus.com /biological_warfare.htm   (373 words)

 frontline: plague war
Today, there are at least ten nations in the world with the ability to produce biological weapons.
Cheap and now technologically possible to produce and refine into weapons of mass destruction, biological warfare has the potential to do as much damage to civilian populations as nuclear weapons.
FRONTLINE presents new evidence culled from scientists, intelligence agencies, and policymakers to examine the threat biological warfare poses to world security and the responses the U.S. is frantically developing.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/plague   (76 words)

 Biological Warfare Agents   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Japanese government considered using smallpox as a biological weapon during World War II and the virus has been considered a threat to U.S. military forces for many years.
Monkeypox and cowpox are closely related to variola and might be genetically manipulated to produce a smallpox-like virus.
To be a serious biological terrorism threat, drinking water supplies would have to be contaminated with large amounts of the bacteria.
www.asod.org /biological.htm   (1699 words)

Biological agents have never been an effective weapon of war, but many nations and aggressive groups have experimented with the concept and have weaponized biological materials.
Three of the chapters are on the subject of Biological Warfare.
Ataxia: The Chemical and Biological Terrorism Threat and the US Response is a comprehensive research report that examines the many facets of the unconventional terrorism issue in the United States.
www.olive-drab.com /od_other_bioweapons.php3   (397 words)

 Biological Warfare
Biological weapons are the most destructive of all weapons of war ever developed.
The report is said to promote concentration on the growing threat of hit and run attacks on U.S. cities by an increasing number of nations noting that many enemies of America are developing biological or chemical weapons and the ability to deliver them to the mainland.
The conclusion that a father could possibly protect his family from the certain death of a biological warfare attack for as little as $10.00 compels me to publish this information.
www.dccsa.com /greatjoy/Rev64bio.htm   (3224 words)

 Comprehensive Report of the Special Advisor to the DCI on Iraq’s WMD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Biological Warfare (BW) program was born of the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS) and this service retained its connections with the program either directly or indirectly throughout its existence.
Iraq’s first foray into chemical and biological warfare (CBW) was rooted in the nationalist wave that swept the Middle East in the 1960s under Egypt’s president, Gamal Abdul Nasser, when Arab military leaders concluded the time had come to increase their understanding of the technology of modern warfare.
Biological growth mediums and chemical precursors (triethanolamine) were also found in the laboratory.
www.cia.gov /cia/reports/iraq_wmd_2004/chap6.html   (17972 words)

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