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Topic: Biomineralization


  
  CSM - Biomineralization   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Biomineralization is also a key process in several other domains: human health (osteogenesis, orthopedic surgery …), and chemistry of materials (biomaterials).
In spite of the major importance of biomineralization, biological mechanisms which transform ions in solution into a mineral structure are still largely unknown.
Whether of animal or vegetal origin, the biomineral contains an organic fraction, the organic matrix, whose role, largely controversial, seems to be to control the first stages of nucleation and the special form (macro- and micro-) of the structure.
www.centrescientifique.mc /csmuk/biomineralisation.php   (471 words)

  
 RedOrbit NEWS | Biomineralization   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Biomineralization is one topic that should be of value to all paleontologists studying shelled or skeletal remains.
They provide an overview of biominerals, and emphasize the major role played by calcium carbonate in its various polymorphs; and they also discuss the composite nature of many biocrystals, their polycyclic nature confirmed by inclusion of organic macromolecule matrices, (having most of the X-ray diffraction properties that single crystals do).
He presents the impact of biomineralization on the C, Ca, Si, and P cycles, and in the final part of his chapter discusses the marine silicon cycle at considerable length, perhaps greater length than needed by many paleontologists, but useful for the geochemists for whom it was written.
www.rednova.com /modules/news/tools.php?tool=print&id=132290   (2273 words)

  
 Kroger
Microalgal biomineralization is therefore regarded as paradigm for the controlled fabrication of nanopatterned inorganic materials.
Since biomineral structure is a species-specific characteristic, the blueprint information for biomineral morphogenesis must be encoded within the organism's genomes.
Biomineralization research aims to identify and isolate the protein-guided, cellular machinery that executes this remarkable genetic program.
www.mse.gatech.edu /FacultyStaff/MSE_Faculty_researchbios/Kroger/kroger.html   (730 words)

  
 Modes of Biomineralization and Biomimetics
Two fundamentally different modes of biomineralization are summarized by Lowenstam and Weiner [1989].
The archetypical example of microorganisms using BOB processes to produce iron biominerals are magnetotactic bacteria.
The study of the biomineralization of magnetite magnetosomes has been aided by the isolation and axenic culture of several different magnetotactic bacteria [ Bazylinski, 1990; Meldrum et al.
www.agu.org /revgeophys/moskow01/node4.html   (511 words)

  
 Impurities in biominerals reveal key to understanding climate change, will lead to novel materials
The calcium carbonate biominerals that are produced by ocean creatures to fulfill biological needs eventually settle to the bottom of the ocean to form much of the sea-floor sediment.
Many biominerals are so well adapted to their individual roles that they exhibit remarkable properties, making the processes involved in 'biomineralization' of interest to a wide array of scientific disciplines.
Another reason the biomineralization process is of interest is because organisms are able to create structures of astonishing complexity that are remarkably strong but lightweight.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2000-11/VT-Iibr-0811100.php   (642 words)

  
 Prinzipien der Biomineralisation / SPP 1117
The term biomineralization characterizes the formation of inorganic solids by living organisms, a most fascinating phenomenon joining together the living world with the realm of allegedly dead inorganic solids.
Biominerals have a variety of biological functions, which rely on a hierarchical structuring of bioorganic-inorganic composites on several length scales from the Angstrom to the cm scale.
Purely biological studies with regard to the function of biominerals are not within the scope of the programme, when they do not show clear relations to the hierarchical structures of the inorganic solids and their formation processes.
www.innovations-report.com /html/reports/dfg_natural_science/report-21661.html   (485 words)

  
 Magnetofossil Homepage at Caltech GPS
His seminal discovery of magnetite (Fe biomineralization in the teeth of chitons (mollusks of the class Polyplacophora) demonstrated that living organisms were able to precipitate the mineral magnetite, despite the widespread impression that it was chemically out of equilibrium in living systems.
Magnetite Biomineralization and Magnetoreception in Organisms: A New Biomagnetism.
Biomineralization processes of iron and manganese; modern and ancient environments.
www.gps.caltech.edu /users/jkirschvink/magnetofossil.html   (2543 words)

  
 Biomineralisation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Biominerals generally consist of either calcium, iron, or silicon, though in rare cases copper has been known as the base element.
The hardness of biominerals depends on both the degree of mineralisation (i.e., structure) and the type of mineral.
This page was last modified 04:31, 10 May 2006.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Biomineralization   (201 words)

  
 SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On Biomineralization
Oldak wondered if the microribbons might be the scaffold for biomineralization she had been looking for.
The discovery of the willowy microscopic crystals may open a broad new window to human understanding of biomineralization, the same process that produces bone, teeth and shell, some of nature's toughest and most intriguing biological materials...
The human gene is probably involved in biomineralization of teeth in a similar way that starmaker mediates crystal formation in otoliths.".
news.surfwax.com /chemistry/files/Biomineralization.html   (485 words)

  
 Abebooks Search Results - Biomineralization
These are questions that have been posed since the seventeenth century, and are still of vital importance today both for modern technology, and to understand the Earth's interior and the formation of minerals by living organisms.
The interactions among biotechnology, metals, and minerals are relevant to a number of emerging interdisciplinary areas such as biogenesis and biomineralization; biomaterials processing and biomimetics; ceramics and biomedical engineering; biomineral beneficiation; bioleaching; biocorrosion, biofouling, and biodeterioration; and bioenvironmental control.
This collection of conference papers presents information on the molecular genetics, biomineralization, growth and ecology of extant brachiopod stocks (extrapolated back to the Cambrian), and the shell microstructure, taphonomy, paleogeography, evolution, and taxonomy of fossil brachiopods.This set of essays aims to contribute towards concretization and materialization of the earthquake prognostics strategy.
www.abebooks.co.uk /search/sortby/3/kn/Biomineralization   (6169 words)

  
 Iron in the Brain
In addition to ferritin, biomineralization of ferrimagnetic magnetite is known to occur in a number of organisms including animals [e.g.
We are also investigating the effects of iron loading on magnetic iron biomineralization using rat brain models [11] and the effects of age on the formation of magnetic iron compounds in the brain [12].
We are presently synthesizing and characterizing nanoscale, magnetite-based ferrofluid phantoms which will be used to evaluate the effects of biogenic magnetite found in the human brain on MRI image intensity in order to assess whether these biominerals may be a source of the artefacts.
www.keele.ac.uk /depts/stm/magnetite.html   (1121 words)

  
 Nanobacteria
These bacteria initiated biomineralization of the culture medium and were identified in calcified particles and biofilms by nucleic acid stains, 16S rDNA sequencing, electron microscopy, and the demonstration of a transferable biomineralization activity.
Although biomineralization in our "cultures" was transferable to fresh DMEM, molecular examination of decalcified biofilms failed to detect nucleic acid or protein that would be expected from growth of a living entity.
Instead, we provide evidence that biomineralization previously attributed to nanobacteria may be initiated by nonliving macromolecules and transferred on "subculture" by self-propagating microcrystalline apatite.
www.thedoctorsdoctor.com /diseases/nanobacteria.htm   (1194 words)

  
 Oyster Ecology Bibliography and ref to MRC Presentation "SweetWater Oysters, Inc. - Aqua Farmette Development - ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Phosphate and calciumcarbonate saturation in a stratified coastal lagoon
Biomineralization operates as both cause and effect at all scales, and its significance can be fully appreciated only through the sort of interdisciplinary integration exemplified and encouraged by this Symposium.
Understanding the sedimentological behaviour of biominerals, and what happens to these organo-mineral architectures when they enter the geological world is the challenge we now face.
home.att.net /~deep_structures_playground/o991110_ref1.htm   (2258 words)

  
 On-Going Programs   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Therefore biochemical analyses were carried out to characterize biochemical matrices in major mineralizing groups, not to develop new biomineralization models, but essentially to provide us within formations that could be used as tools to decipher the fine structure of the crystal-like microstructural units.
Therefore it is not longer possible to admit, in any organism, the biomineralization domain as a homogenous volume in which a simple precipitation processs occurs.
Owing to these new data concerning formation of biominerals, diagenetic process must be revisited.Clearly, a purely mineralogic approach does not provide us with relevant research basis to study diagenesis of coral skeletons, a statement that can be widely extended.
biomin.geol.u-psud.fr /webdoc3.htm   (1740 words)

  
 Dr. Steve Weiner. Biomineralization
The formation of minerals by organisms - biomineralization - is a widespread and fascinating phenomenon.
My long term research goals in biomineralization are to understand the underlying mechanisms that organisms from different taxa use to control mineral formation.
We are using holographic and speckle interferometry to map strain of teeth subjected to compressive forces that occur during mastication.
www.weizmann.ac.il /sb/faculty_pages/Weiner/biomineralization.shtml   (428 words)

  
 Books on Biomineralization   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The Biomineralization and biomaterials research communities have not been working side by side in the past few years.
There is, therefore, a necessity for a book that would address, in an integrated way, topics that go from understanding Biomineralization processes of different mineralized tissues (that means: not only bone, tooth, etc.) to the use of that science to engineer new biomimetic processes and materials.
Lowenstam, the pioneer researcher in Biomineralization, and Weiner discuss the basic principles of mineral formation by organisms and compare various mineralization processes.
books.bankhacker.com /Biomineralization   (746 words)

  
 The Reporter -- From kidney stones to life on Mars
"The key to understanding biomineralization is to apply techniques from physical and biological sciences," explains Vali, whose research includes investigating minerals from sources as diverse as Martian meteorites, bacteria and the human body.
Vali explains, "In the traditional view of mammalian biomineralization, minerals precipitate outside of cells." However, from his investigation of tissue from a dysfunctional human liver, he showed that a biomineral similar to bone precipitated inside the liver cells.
The success of Vali's multidisciplinary approach to biomineralization is because of his ability to bridge gaps between geology, biology and medicine.
www.mcgill.ca /reporter/37/06/vali   (615 words)

  
 BIOMINERALIZATION: NANOSCALE APPROACHES TO DECIPHERING THE ORIGINS OF THE VITAL EFFECT
Because the interactions between organisms and their abiotic environments are central to understanding past and future earth environments, biomineralization processes have become an urgent research topic in geobiology.
This is problematic because reliable interpretations of compositional proxies require accurate sorting of true environmental signals from effects imposed by biological activity, the so-called ‘vital effect’.
In situ microscopies and spectroscopies are revealing underlying principles of mineral assembly that may give insights to chemical and biological controls on the “synthesis” of biogenic materials and their compositional signatures.
gsa.confex.com /gsa/2004AM/finalprogram/abstract_78784.htm   (471 words)

  
 ScienceWeek
The development of ex vivo systems is motivated both by the desire to more completely understand biomineralization processes and by the potential utility of biominerals in industrial and biomedical applications.
Despite the potential benefits of biominerals in regenerative medicine, few studies to date have been aimed at mineral formation on degradable biomaterials for use in orthopedic tissue regeneration.
Biomineralization is a major strategy for tissue hardening and manifests an astonishing diversity of bioceramic structures with exquisite microarchitectures that have specially adapted physical properties (1-5).
www.scienceweek.com /2004/sa040423-4.htm   (1141 words)

  
 Construction of a New Artificial Biomineralization System
are brittle biominerals by themselves; however, when combined with organic polymers in biological processes (biomineralization), the resulting hybrid material changes into a biocompatible material overcoming the intrinsic brittleness.
We point out that the dissolving anionic species that is one of the source materials of the biomineral has a common structure of a monoprotonic acid that can be adsorbed on the polymer matrix of the hydrogel by hydrogen bonding.
Further information about biomineralization will be brought about through the investigation of the artificial biomineralization system to establish a unified mechanism of hard tissue formation.
pubs.acs.org /cgi-bin/sample.cgi/bomaf6/2006/7/i01/html/bm0504476.html   (3890 words)

  
 CMS—Mimicking Nature's Crystalline Structures   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Researchers have been studying biominerals for decades and have known for some time that organic molecules can influence the shape and properties of a growing crystal.
Because crystals found in biomineral structures often exhibit unusual faces not found in synthetic crystals, researchers originally thought that the addition of a modifier must lower the energy of those new faces, allowing the crystal to express a shape that wouldn’t have otherwise been stable.
Through funding from the National Institutes of Health, Livermore’s biomineralization team is collaborating with Wierzbicki, physical chemist George Nancollas from State University of New York at Buffalo, and nephrologist John Hoyer from Children’s Hospital in Philadelphia to investigate the influence of modifiers in inhibiting the growth of kidney stones.
www-cms.llnl.gov /s-t/biomin_str.html   (3559 words)

  
 Conservation of Ornamental Stone by Myxococcus xanthus-Induced Carbonate Biomineralization -- Rodriguez-Navarro et al. ...
One set of biomineralized samples (cultured in inoculated M-3 or M-3P media for 30 days) was sonicated, and the other was not (i.e., was only immersed in deionized water).
Biomineralization of carbonates by Halomonas eurihalina in solid and liquid media with different salinities: crystal formation sequence.
Biomineralization processes on rock and monument surfaces observed in field and laboratory conditions.
aem.asm.org /cgi/content/full/69/4/2182   (6449 words)

  
 WPI Department of Biology and Biotechnology: Ted C. Crusberg
Biomineralization of Heavy Metals Within Fungal Mycelia: A New Technology for Bioremediation of Hazardous Wastes
The long term goal of this research is to develop a new technology using an innovative fungal BIOTRAP known to accumulate copper within its mycelia through biologically-mediated precipitation (biomineralization), for removal and recovery of heavy metal ions from wastewaters.
Currently, metal recovery process are based on physical and chemical processes and are capital intensive and require constant vigilance and maintenance, hence they are expensive to purchase and operate, and often produce sludges or precipitates which themselves are subject to disposal and further regulation and costs.
www.wpi.edu /Academics/Depts/Bio/People/Crusberg   (632 words)

  
 Control of Crystal Growth in Biology: A Molecular Biological Approach Using Zebrafish
This paper focuses on the in vivo manipulation of a gene encoding an acidic protein, Starmaker, which is critical for biomineralization of crystal structures in the zebrafish ear.
Moreover, it is the protein component of the extract that determines which polymorph is formed.
Thus, Dspp is an excellent candidate for direct participation in biomineralization of calcium phosphate mineral.
pubs.acs.org /cgi-bin/sample.cgi/cgdefu/2004/4/i04/html/cg0499010.html   (1649 words)

  
 Jill Dill Pasteris
Below is a brief summary of Professor Pasteris' and her group's current projects in biomineralization, medical mineralogy, and environmental mineralogy.
Professor Pasteris and her group first became involved in this notion of biominerals (normal or pathologic materials precipitated by living organisms) when they were asked to use Raman spectroscopy to analyze minute particles in human tissue.
Professor Pasteris’ group is particularly involved with geological and biomineral analogs (see photograph) as guides to the development of the proposed organic-inorganic composite materials.
epsc.wustl.edu /admin/people/pasteris.html   (1881 words)

  
 Nanobacteria: Are They or Aren't They Alive? A Case Study on What It Means to Be a Biological Organism - Part I - Case ...
Biomineralization is a good thing when it occurs in the correct location, but often this process occurs in the wrong place at the wrong time.
Nanobacteria have been isolated from within human kidney stones, leading to the suggestion that these bacteria may be the cause of this disease.
Over the next several class meetings we will be considering the evidence for the existence of nanobacteria and their role in the process of biomineralization.
www.sciencecases.org /nanobacteria/nanobacteria.asp   (450 words)

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