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Topic: Black Hills War

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In the News (Sun 22 Apr 18)

  CONK! Encyclopedia: Black_Hills   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Black Hills are considered by the Lakota Sioux to be the axis mundi, or center of the world; the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) had confirmed their ownership of the mountain range before the discovery of gold; the Lakota had conquered the Black Hills by defeating the Cheyenne in 1776.
Unlike the rest of the Dakotas, the Black Hills was primarily settled from the west and south, as a result of miners flocking to the Hills from earlier gold boom locations in Colorado and Montana.
The southern Black Hills are characterized by Precambrian granite, pegmatite, and metamorphic rocks that comprise the core of the entire Black Hills uplift.
www.conk.com /search/encyclopedia.cgi?q=Black_Hills   (1015 words)

 Indian Wars   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Indian Wars were a series of long-running conflicts between the government and military (regular and irregular) of the United States and the Native American peoples of North America.
The War of 1812, described as some as the "Second American Revolution," was a conflict in the early 19th century between the young United States and the United Kingdom in a struggle for a degree of respect and a recognition of sovereignty from mother to daughter country.
The War of 1812 also led to a strong surge of nationalism in the 1810s and 1820s which some point to as one of the causes of the intensification of relocation and slaughter of Native Americans during the period.
www.1-free-software.com /en/wikipedia/i/in/indian_wars.html   (1454 words)

 Black Hills Pegmatites
Lithium from the Black Hills occurs in spodumene, amblygonite-montebrasite, lepidolite and triphylite.
Blake (1884) Columbite in the Black Hills of Dakota.
Blake (1885) Tin ore in the Black Hills of Dakota.
www.dakotamatrix.com /Black_Hills_pegmatites.asp   (6472 words)

 Black Hills   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Although Black Hills National Cemetery does not have an honor guard, there are several honor guards in the area that provide military funeral honors for families.
Black Hills National Cemetery is located three miles east of Sturgis, S.D., in the shadows of the Black Hills.
The name of the cemetery was changed from Fort Meade National Cemetery to Black Hills National Cemetery in 1949 to avoid confusion with the existing active military installation in Maryland and in recognition of the area’s historical significance.
www.cem.va.gov /nchp/blackhills.htm   (930 words)

 Articles - Indian Wars   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The wars, which ranged from colonial times to the Wounded Knee massacre and "closing" of the American frontier in 1890, collectively resulted in the conquest of American Indian peoples and their decimation, assimilation, or forced relocation to Indian reservations.
Indeed, the War of 1812 was a massive Indian war, and Tecumseh was killed by Harrison's army at the Battle of the Thames.
Black Hills War (1876–1877) – Lakota under Tatanka Iyotake (Sitting Bull) and Tasunka witko (Crazy Horse) fight the U.S. after repeated violations of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868).
www.lastring.com /articles/Indian_Wars   (1844 words)

 Black Hills, Paha Sapa
Custer reported that the hills were filled with gold "from the grass roots down." This unleashed a horde into the Black Hills and the track cut by Custer's supply train became known as the Thieves' Road.
In the spring of 1875, with the hills full of miners, the Army sent General Crook, in a nominal effort to comply with the treaty, to notify the miners that they were in violation of the treaty.
The commissioners returned to Washington, reported their failure to negotiate for the Black Hills, and recommended that Congress ignore this result and appropriate a sum that they regarded "as a fair equivalent of the value of the hills." The forced purchase would be presented to the Sioux as their only choice.
www.hanksville.org /daniel/lakota/BlackHills.html   (1233 words)

 LakotaArchives.com - Print The Black Hills Land Claim Article
Others say that the race itself created the Black Hills - that is, before the race the region was simply a lush and gentle uplift, but that the pounding of the ground by the racers so shook the earth that the track was pushed down and the ground within it rose even higher.
It is said that the Black Hills is the home of Wakinyan, the Thunderbeing whose belly rumbles and whose eyes flash with such ferocity that an adult can be killed, a tree can be split and a large area of forest can be ravaged by fire in an instant.
Ceremonially, the Black Hills have been described to non-Indians as heart, heartbeat, sacred, altar, tabernacle, cathedral, and white possession of it is likened to desecration.
www.lakotaarchives.com /laklandpr.html   (7311 words)

 Black Hills --  Encyclopædia Britannica
The hills lie between the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche rivers and rise about 3,000 feet (900 m) above the surrounding plains; they culminate in Harney Peak (7,242 feet [2,207 m]), the highest point in South Dakota.
The region is divided into the Missouri Hills, the portion east of the Missouri River; the Missouri Plateau, which covers most of this region; the Black Hills, on its western border; and the High Plains, on its southern border.
In the Missouri Hills the land rises and falls in hummocks and mounds.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9015482?tocId=9015482&query=jewel   (832 words)

 Hills Donates Chastain Sculptures to Library   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Black Hills State University retiring political science professor, Dr. Tom Hills, recently donated a set of Civil War sculptures created by former BHSU employee Pat Chastain to be displayed at the E.Y. Berry Library and Learning Center on campus.
Hills purchased the set of 15 Civil War figures some years ago and has since displayed them in his office.
Chastain said, “I knew Tom was a Civil War history buff, and he helped me immensely with these sculptures.” Chastain noted that the uniform details, which can't be indicated by color because all the sculptures were produced in crushed pecan shell and dyed red, were vital for authenticity.
www.bhsu.edu /news/university_communications/news_releases/april_03/hills_donates_sculptures.htm   (364 words)

 [No title]
The Black Hills are the sacred land of the Sioux, made so by tradition and by the rude law of the tribe.
The Secretary of War has addressed a communication to General Sherman, saying that all expeditions into that portion of the Indian Territory known as the Black Hills country must be prevented as long as the present treaty exists.
Their love for the Hills is simply because it is in the center of their reservation, the various bands of the Sioux being located on three different sides.
www.ausbcomp.com /~bbott/cowley/Oldnews/WORTMAW/SIOIND.htm   (19235 words)

 Sioux Encyclopedia Article, Definition, History, Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Other wars followed; and in 1862-1864, as refugees from the "Sioux Uprising" in Minnesota fled west to their allies in Montana and Dakota Territory, the war followed them.
Because the Black Hills are sacred to the Lakota, they objected to mining in the area, which has been attempted since the early years of the19th century.
A treaty in 1877 ceded the Black Hills to the United States, but a low-intensity war continued, culminating, fourteen years later, in the killing of Sitting Bull (December 15, 1890) at Standing Rock and the Massacre of Wounded Knee (December 29, 1890) at Pine Ridge.
popularityguide.com /encyclopedia/Sioux   (2089 words)

 Just the Arti-FACTS - Conflict Over Indian Lands   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
George A. Custer's expedition to the Black Hills in 1874 opened the area for white settlement, but created conflict with Sioux Indians who, according to the terms of the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 had exclusive rights to the area.
The Black Hills, rich in game and fish, belonged to the Lakotas who considered them sacred ground, home of their gods and ancestors.
Lakotas referred to the hills as Paha Sapa, or Black Hills, because their dense growths of pine made them appear fl from a distance.
www.chicagohs.org /AOTM/nov99/nov99fact1d.html   (261 words)

 Articles - South Dakota   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Harney Peak, in the Black Hills, is the highest point between the Rocky Mountains and the French Alps.
The deepest mine in the United States, the Homestake gold mine (now defunct), is in the Black Hills of South Dakota, near the town of Lead.
The Black Hills of South Dakota was one of the sites considered for the permanent home of the United Nations.
www.worldhammock.com /articles/South_Dakota   (1303 words)

 Argus Leader - Special Coverage | Little Bighorn   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Black Hills were conceded to the Sioux as part of the northern reserve.
According to David Miller, a former history professor at Black Hills State University, the treaty was taken to Chicago from Fort Laramie for Gen. Phil Sheridan, commander of Military Division of the Missouri, to review.
In fact, it was those Indian hostilities, caused in large part by white incursions into the Black Hills, that helped to fuel the animosities that exploded on the battlefield at the Little Bighorn on June 25, 1876.
www.argusleader.com /specialsections/2001/bighorn/Wednesdayfeature.shtml   (2981 words)

 Human History in the Black Hills
Negotiators in Washington, fearing war, encouraged the tribes to sell the land for cash, which they desperately needed to survive as bison populations dwindled.
Congress reacted quickly and began punishing even the peaceful Sioux: rations of food and clothing were cut dramatically and eventually a new treaty was exacted which ceded tribal land in the Black Hills to the federal government.
New lands opened up to homesteaders, gold was harvested from the Black Hills, riverboats ran the rivers, and railroad tracks were laid to new townsites.
www.americanparknetwork.com /parkinfo/ru/history/index.html   (1644 words)

 Prince and Pauper Bookshop Black Hills History and Information
This pictorial history is an introduction to the area's history including photographs gathered in all six counties of the Black Hills.
A collection of Lee's Black Hills Notebook columns that appeared in weekly publications in the Northern Black Hills during 1997-1998.
A Black Hills natural history which chronicles the Black Hills from the geologic rumblings that shaped the landscape to the contemporary conservation issues that threaten its special ecosystems.
www.blackhillsgifts.com /prince   (1239 words)

 USATODAY.com - Black Hills experiences are golden   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
BLACK HILLS, S.D. — First, western South Dakota is in the middle of nowhere.
All notions about living in and with the environment were lost down the hill in Deadwood, a former gold-mining town that sprang up in 1876 on land promised to the Lakota —; and now the subject of a TV series of the same name.
Besides all of the distinctive highlights, the Black Hills "Autumn Expedition" offers art and quilting shows, a marathon, chili cook-off, the national sheepdog finals and a buffalo roundup.
www.usatoday.com /travel/destinations/2005-10-24-deadwood_x.htm   (749 words)

 Handbook of Texas Online: BLACK HILLS, TX
Black Hills, on Farm Road 1839 eight miles northwest of Corsicana in north central Navarro County, was probably established before 1900.
Black Hills had a cotton gin, a store, and a church.
In 1990 Black Hills was a dispersed community.
www.tsha.utexas.edu /handbook/online/articles/view/BB/hrbcz.html   (207 words)

 Historic Black Hills of Wyoming Photos
To the early explorers the Black Hills, the Paha Sapa of the native Americans, extended from the Dakotas south to Ft. Laramie.
Now the term Black Hills refers to the northeast corner of Wyoming in Crook and Weston Counties east of the Belle Fourche River and the western part of South Dakota.
Although, the Black Hills were reputedly the first area of Wyoming to be explored, it was also the last.
www.wyomingtalesandtrails.com /gillette.html   (1063 words)

 FindLaw's Writ - Lazarus: Same Black Hills, More White Justice
There is no end in sight to this tragic Black Hills stalemate which has yielded neither sustenance (physical or spiritual) to the tribe, nor true redemption for their conquerors.
A constructive first step would be a bill authorizing the Sioux, presumably using the interest on their Black Hills award, to buy private property in the Hills and obtain reservation status for the land so purchased.
A former federal prosecutor, he is the author of two books, Black Hills/White Justice: The Sioux Nation Versus the United States, 1775 to the Present and Closed Chambers: The Rise, Fall, and Future of the Modern Supreme Court.
writ.news.findlaw.com /lazarus/20020124.html   (1276 words)

 Black Hills Visitor Magazine
It is generally believed that Crazy Horse was born along Rapid Creek near present-day Rapid City, South Dakota, in the sacred Paha Sapa, the Black Hills.
Crazy Horse became further known to many of the Sioux bands for his courage in the War for the Bozeman Trail of 1866-68 under the Oglala Chief Red Cloud, when the army began building a road in the Powder River country from the Oregon Trail to the goldfields of Montana.
In 1874, the Black Hills gold rush increased tensions in the area.
www.blackhillsvisitor.com /main.asp?id=14&cat_id=30149   (688 words)

 Historical Chronology
Many people who came to the Hills were not able to find a paying claim and ended up mining the miners by providing supplies, entertainment and other services.
After the war's end, the 147th was retained as part of the South Dakota National Guard.
Lightning caused a large forest fire in the Black Hills in July.
www.sdhistory.org /soc/soc_hist.htm   (4114 words)

 ...a recollection
The Indians had one demand: the return of the Great Sioux Nation, a sovereign land base (consisting of the entire western half of South Dakota) that was recognized by the United Sates in the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868.
In 1971, the Interior Department endorsed a document that declared that the Black Hills, sacred land of the Lakota people, was to become the nucleus of a massive energy center, producing power in the abundant uranium and coal fields, and exporting it eastward on a network of lines running to St. Louis and Minneapolis.
Banks, in his fl beret and weathered warrior's face, is a folk hero on this reservation, his status equal to Che Guevara in Cuba.
www.dickshovel.com /lsa14.html   (3419 words)

 DVD Rental Way West: War For The Black Hills DVD - Shanachie Entertainment - General DVD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The War for the Black Hills (1870-1876) follows the dramatic sequence of events that led up to the Battle of the Little Big Horn.
The systematic extermination of the buffalo coupled with the invasion by the United States of the sacred Black Hills in search of gold sparked outrage among the Lakota and Cheyenne.
By 1875, the stage was set for the cataclysmic showdown between the U.S. Army and the tribes of the Northern Plains.
hitflix.com /GeneralDVD/gr205903D1.htm   (125 words)

 Planning Your Trip: The Black Hills @ nationalgeographic.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Black Hills area roughly describes an oval—120 miles [193.1 kilometers] north to south and 50 miles [80.5 kilometers] west to east—with the highest, and oldest, rocks in the center.
To the Indians the Paha Sapa, or Black Hills, were a sacred place.
George A. Custer sent word of gold in the hills, and the rush was on.
www.nationalgeographic.com /destinations/The_Black_Hills/trip_planner.html   (384 words)

 Black Hills Veterans Memorial
Constructed on a piece of granite from the Crazy Horse Memorial in the Black Hills, the Black Hills Veterans Memorial pays tribute to all those brave veterans of the five major conflicts in the twentieth century including World War I, World War II, The Korean War, The Vietnam War and the Persian Gulf War.
Etched within the granite rock is a message from each of the Presidents of the United States whose terms occurred during these wars.
Erected as a joint venture with the local veteran’s organizations and the City of Rapid City, the memorial is located in the southwest corner of Memorial Park near the intersection of Seventh and Omaha Streets.
www.rcgov.org /parks_recreation/parks/black_hills_veterans_memorial.htm   (136 words)

 American Experience | War Letters | Timeline
U.S. Marines occupy Haiti after a civil war; a treaty between the U.S. and the Haitian Senate makes the island nation a virtual U.S. protectorate.
The U.S. ends three years of neutrality in the European conflict, declaring war on Germany.
The U.S. and other Allied troops invade Russia to protect war supplies during the Russian Revolution.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/amex/warletters/timeline/timeline2.html   (374 words)

 Jeffrey St. Clair: Dark Deeds in the Black Hills
The Black Hills, the tallest mountains east of the Rockies, are an isolated range that rise up like shadows off the sun-baked flatlands of South Dakota.
The Black Hills are the eastern limit of the Ponderosa pine forests and about the only place you can find unadulterated patches of montane grasslands.
The Black Hills are one of the most butchered national forests in the West.
www.counterpunch.org /stclair0801.html   (2888 words)

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