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Topic: Blumenbach

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In the News (Thu 21 Mar 19)

  Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
Blumenbach later studies were based mainly on his role in the founding of scientific anthropology.
Blumenbach began to separate human beings from apes, suggesting that Homo be assigned to a different and separate zoological order.
Although, Blumenbach was a pioneer collector of human crania and often cited as the fonder of craniology, he didn’t contribute to the development of any craniometric methods.
www.mnsu.edu /emuseum/information/biography/abcde/blumenbach_friedrich.html   (599 words)

 Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (www.whonamedit.com)
Blumenbach view of the nature was a philosophical one; he searched for the causes of things, not satisfying himself with the mere counting and description of phenomena.
Blumenbach was one of the earliest thinkers to recognise the «historicalness» of nature, and therefore occupies an important place in the history of evolution theory.
Blumenbach was the founder of craniology, and his craniological collection served as the principal foundation for his investigations into the natural history of mankind.
www.whonamedit.com /doctor.cfm/1247.html   (1725 words)

 Johann Friedrich Blumenbach - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
He was born at Gotha, studied medicine at Jena and graduated in 1775 with his MD thesis De generis humani varietate nativa (On the Natural Varieties of Mankind, University of Göttingen), which is considered one of the most influential works in the development of subsequent concepts of human races.
Blumenbach's Malayan race roughly equates to Australoid and was made up of Australian aboriginals, the people living in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore.
Blumenbach died in Göttingen in the year 1840.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Johann_Friedrich_Blumenbach   (668 words)

 Brandon Bera
Blumenbach found strong resemblances between this skull and the crania of the Germans, so with this he conjectured that possibly the Caucasus regions may have been the original home of the Europeans.
Despite the many of scientists who contributed to the development of racial ideology, Carolus Linnaeus and Johann Blumenbach were, and still are considered to have had the largest impact on the development of race and classifications of the human population in their respected eras.
Later, Blumenbach would follow up on the work of Linnaeus, and together, their work would begin a process of definition that would help determine an idea of race that had not been heard or seen around the world.
www.msu.edu /user/berabran/essay4.htm   (2222 words)

 Malay people - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
By 1795, Blumenbach added another race called Malay which he considered to be a subcategory of the Mongolian race.
The Malay race were those of a "brown color, from a clear magohany to the darkest clove or chestnut brown." Blumenbach expanded the term "Malay" to include the inhabitants of the Marianas, the Philippines, the Malukus, Sundas, as well as Pacific Islands such as Tahitians.
Since Blumenbach, many anthropologists have rejected his theory of five races, citing the enormous complexity of classifying races.
www.arikah.net /encyclopedia/Malay_people   (1562 words)

 Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
Blumenbach' s more complete collection allowed intensive study into the racial history of mankind, which is just what he wanted to do.
Blumenbach also minimized the importance of sex differences and disagreed with the notion that sex could easily be determined by the skull or other skeletal bones, save the pelvis.
Blumenbach searched for answers regarding the history man and the varieties of the specie of man. We still search for such answers, but from his guidance we have been given some direction and inspiration.
www.udayton.edu /~hume/Blumenbach/blumenbach.htm   (5251 words)

 The Geometer of Race - - science news articles online technology magazine articles The Geometer of Race   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Blumenbach, one of the greatest and most honored scientists of the Enlightenment, spent his entire career as a professor at the University of Göttingen in Germany.
Blumenbach held that "almost all the diversity of the form of the head in different nations is to be attributed to the mode of life and to art."
Blumenbach's descriptions are pervaded by his subjective sense of relative beauty, presented as though he were discussing an objective and quantifiable property, not subject to doubt or disagreement.
www.discover.com /issues/nov-94/features/thegeometerofrac441   (3033 words)

This category was first proposed by the German scientist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach[?], who coined the term in his treatise "On the Natural Varieties of Mankind" in 1775.
His studies based the classification of the Caucasian race primarily on skull features, which Blumenbach claimed were optimized by the inhabitants of Georgia in the Caucasus mountains.
Later anthropologists such as Carleton Coon have further expanded upon the classification of the Caucasian race proposed by Blumenbach, and have subdivided the group into Nordic, Alpine, Mediterranean, and at times Dinaric and Baltic subdivisions.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/ca/Caucasian.html   (300 words)

 Kitson, "Romanticism and colonialism: races, places, peoples, 1785-1800," page 2 of 5, _Romanticism and Colonialism_ - ...
Blumenbach followed the biblical account of race, arguing that the different varieties of humanity could be accounted for by the idea of 'degeneration'.
For Blumenbach white was 'the primitive colour of mankind' since it 'was very easy for that to degenerate into brown, but much more difficult for dark to become white'.
Blumenbach, following Montesquieu, argued that climate accounted for change and denied that mental ability was a key determinant of race.
www.rc.umd.edu /bibliographies/CUP/fulfordandkitson/kitson/kitson2.html   (1465 words)

 Human Variability and Adaptability: A Reader   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
In the first edition, Blumenbach enumerated only four varieties or races, but in 1781 he extended these to five to accommodate reports of "the new Southern world" provided by such authors as J R. Forster, who accompanied Captain Cook.
Blumenbach maintained one of the largest collections of skulls in the world and he practiced his classification skills on this skull collection, in spite of the fact that he explicitly acknowledges the continuous (not categorical) nature of human variation.
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, The anthropological treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, translated by Thomas Bendyshe, 1865
www.as.ua.edu /ant/bindon/ant275/reader/275reader.htm   (6317 words)

 Mots Pluriels Hinchman
Blumenbach was a German physiologist and anthropologist; much of his work is what today is called comparative anatomy.
One of the major accomplishments of Blumenbach's career was his classification of humanity into five distinct races.
For Lavater and Blumenbach, studying the relationship between bodily appearance and mental reality was their life's work.
www.arts.uwa.edu.au /MotsPluriels/MP1099mh.html   (5045 words)

 INTERRACIAL VOICE - Guest Editorial
Blumenbach selected the Caucasus Mountains, in the Russian Georgia-Azerbaijan region (land of dark "white" people, by the way), because Blumenbach -- 18th century German anatomist that he was -- thought he measured the most beautiful human skulls there.
Blumenbach conjectured that the descendants of Adam and Eve had spread from the Caucasus outward so far that their seed degenerated into lower "races" of mankind incapable of self-government.
Blumenbach’s purpose coining "races" doubtless was justifying the cruel European colonialism girdling the world by 1775 (and for most of the two centuries since).
www.webcom.com /~intvoice/gwinkel7.html   (2080 words)

 RACE - The Power of an Illusion . Go Deeper | PBS
Johann Blumenbach, one of many classifiers in the 18th century, lays out the scientific template for contemporary race categories in On the Natural Varieties of Mankind.
Blumenbach strongly opposes slavery and believes in the potential equality of all people.
Nevertheless, he maps a hierarchical pyramid of five human types, placing "Caucasians" at the top because he believes a skull found in the Caucasus Mountains is the "most beautiful form of the skull, from which...the others diverge." This model is widely embraced, and Blumenbach inadvertently paves the way for scientific claims about white superiority.
www.pbs.org /race/000_About/002_03_a-godeeper.htm   (857 words)

Blumenbach’s varieties were based solely on phenotypic features, in contrast to Linnaeus’ use of behavioral and cultural traits.
Blumenbach’s views continued to evolve, by 1795 giving rise to five named varieties, Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay, differing from the former grouping in that Eskimos were now classified with the East Asians.
Despite describing these as the five primary divisions of the human species, Blumenbach continued to express the view that human variation is continuous rather than discrete and that such classifications are arbitrary.
www.saintmarys.edu /~rjensen/race.html   (2784 words)

 Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
BLUMENBACH, JOHANN FRIEDRICH [Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich], 1752-1840, German naturalist and anthropologist.
Blumenbach's analysis of an extensive skull collection, published as Collectio craniorum diversarum gentium (1790-1828), established craniometric study.
Find newspaper and magazine articles plus images and maps related to "Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich" at HighBeam.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-blumenba.html   (221 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Blumenbach,
Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich BLUMENBACH, JOHANN FRIEDRICH [Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich], 1752-1840, German naturalist and anthropologist.
Genetically a race may be defined as a group with gene
Find newspaper and magazine articles plus images and maps related to "Blumenbach," at HighBeam.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Blumenbach,   (250 words)

 Beyond Race: The Bhagavad-gita in Black and White, Chapter 3
Against that backdrop, it is interesting to observe how, today, racialists of all colors quickly denigrate the notion that there is no biological foundation for race, as they fear losing an identity built on the shifting sands of nescience.
Blumenbach is widely considered the "father" of anthropology, and his book synthesized the earlier attempts of individuals such as Frangois Bernier, Georges Buffon, and Carolus Linneaus, who were experimenting with the idea of classifying human-kind into various, rather arbitrary, groupings.
Blumenbach distinguished five varieties of mankind determined by climate, pigmentation, and skull size: Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, Malay, and Caucasian.
www.geocities.com /chasbyrd9252   (1865 words)

 The UnMuseum - Mummy in Entertainment
In the 18th and 19th centuries mummies first figured in entertainment not through stories, but as spectacle when mummy "unrollings" became a fad in Europe and America.
Johnann Blumenbach, a German physician and anthropologist, unwrapped dozens of mummies across England in 1792.
Blumenbach found that many of the mummies that had been sent back to Europe were fakes sold to travelers by unscrupulous antiques dealers in Egypt.
www.unmuseum.org /mumwrap.htm   (888 words)

 This Modern World » Blog Archive » A Brief History of Caucasians
At the time, Blumenbach’s theory had a certain symmetry that made it the very model of good science.
Blumenbach believed darkness was a sign of change from the original.
Blumenbach’s theory is totally forgotten today by everybody (except maybe Georgian men).
thismodernworld.com /2207   (1158 words)

 Arthur O. Lovejoy: "Kant and Evolution II"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The Two Essays on the Conception of "Race," 1775, 1785.—The review of Moscati (1771), summarized in the preceding instalment of this survey, was the earliest indication among Kant's writings of a growing interest in a group of scientific problems which always thereafter much occupied his attention : namely, the genetic problems of physical anthropology.
The beginnings of that science, in its systematic form, are usually credited to the treatise of Blumenbach, "De generis humani variations native," 1775.
Blumenbach, says the historian [21]of eighteenth century anthropology, " derived his zoological facts chiefly from Buffon.
spartan.ac.brocku.ca /~lward/Lovejoy/Lovejoy_1911.html   (6468 words)

 Contexts -- Science -- Physical Anthropology
But the most important person in the field, often considered the founder of physical anthropology, is Johann Friedrich Blumenbach.
In On the Natural Variety of Mankind (1775), he rejected Linnaeus's habit of using personality traits and cultural characteristics in classifying humans, preferring to place the emphasis entirely on anatomy.
Blumenbach's emphasis on anatomy rather than cultural characteristics caused him to differ from Linnaeus on these questions: he rejected Linnaeus's Ferus and Troglodyte, but added a Malayan race for the inhabitants of Southeast Asia.
www.english.upenn.edu /Projects/knarf/Contexts/physanth.html   (348 words)

 Tom Tyler - Four Hands Good, Two Hands Bad   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Blumenbach rejected naturalists’ long-established commitment to the continuity or gradation of nature, the chain of being which had still held Tyson captive, and argued instead that there are large gaps between classes and genera of creatures.  He proposed ten distinct orders of mammalia, the first of which, the Bimana, included only the genus Homo.
171-72.  Blumenbach’s dissertation was first published in 1775, when he argued that apes should be considered quadrupeds; see pp.
Blumenbach discounts ‘the manati, birds (especially the penguins)’, and ‘the lizard Siren’; Blumenbach, On the Natural Varieties of Mankind, p.
www.cyberchimp.co.uk /papers/fourhands.htm   (2933 words)

 joy} Research
Reading early works by Blumenbach, and Lavater, one may begin to understand how a group of people could acquire a common reputation.
While Blumenbach stressed environment as the cause of racial differences, he still pointed out these “differences.” His specific references to Jews gave them a universal facial configuration.
Combine Blumenbach’s Jewish face with Lavater’s character analysis, and the conclusion is obvious: Jews all share a common set of character traits.
www.davidschoenberger.net /joy/career/Holocaust.html   (2100 words)

 Untitled Document
These scientists had only crude methods of categorizing human beings, no knowledge of Darwinian Evolution or Heredity, little firsthand knowledge of the people they were judging, and little academic scholarship available to them on the histories or cultures of these "races." Racial terminology varied but some of their terms are still used today.
A German physiologist named Johann Blumenbach is sometimes called the father of physical anthropology.
To Blumenbach, Caucasian was coined for aesthetic not biological reasons because the Caucasus region of Asia Minor he said produced "the most beautiful race of men" While Americans like to think of racial labels as having to do with descent, no one believes that the origins of White Americans is from the Caucus mountains.
www.dartmouth.edu /~hist32/History/White.htm   (1157 words)

 VGCC: HUM122: Race   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
It was the German anatomist, Johann Blumenbach (reputedly the founder of modern physical anthropology), however, who eventually had the most influential impact on the Western conceptualization of race.
In 1795 Blumenbach introduced his typology of the "races of mankind," a classification containing five racial groups or "human varieties": in order, the Caucasians (Europeans), the Mongolians (Asians), the Ethiopians (Africans), the Americans (Native Americans), and the Malays (Polynesians).
Indeed it was Blumenbach who coined the term "Caucasian" to refer to Europeans, believing that human beings originated in the Caucasus Mountains of Russia and that the other races were descended from this group.
oit.vgcc.cc.nc.us /hum122/race.html   (15758 words)

 Zinken: Late Pleistocene remains of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blumenbach) in Scandinavia: chronology and ...
Late Pleistocene remains of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blumenbach) in Scandinavia: chronology and environment
This article presents new data on the Late Pleistocene giant deer, Megaloceros giganteus (Blumenbach), describing its distribution in time and space, geographical and sexual variation and general biology.
Twenty-three south Scandinavian fossils found in situ in lacustrine sediments or redeposited in glaciofluvial material form the basis of this investigation.
zinken.typepad.com /palaeo/2004/04/late_pleistocen.html   (588 words)

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