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# Topic: Boltzmann constant

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 Boltzmann constant - Definition, explanation It is named after the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann, who made important contributions to the theory of statistical mechanics, in which this constant plays a crucial role. In principle, the Boltzmann constant could be a derived physical constant, as its value is determined by other physical constants and in the definition of unit of absolute temperature. The universal gas constant R is simply the Boltzmann constant multiplied by Avogadro's number. www.calsky.com /lexikon/en/txt/b/bo/boltzmann_constant.php   (448 words)

 Universal gas constant - Information from Reference.com The gas constant (also known as the universal or ideal gas constant, usually denoted by symbol R) is a physical constant used in equations of state to relate various groups of state functions to one another. It is another name for the Boltzmann constant, but when used in the ideal gas law it is usually expressed in the more convenient units of energy per kelvin per mole rather than simply energy per kelvin per particle. For example, the equation for the speed of sound, is usually written in terms of the specific gas constant. www.reference.com /search?q=Universal+gas+constant   (486 words)

 Vacuum History & Technology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) The Boltzmann constant, k, is a fundamental constant of physics occuring in nearly every statistical formulation of both classical and quantum physics. Boltzmann was also one of the first Europeans to recognize the importance of the electromagnetic theory proposed by James Clerk Maxwell of England. This empirical relation, formulated by Boyle in 1662, states that the pressure (p) of a gas varies inversely as its volume (v) at constant temperature; in equation form, pv=k, and is a constant. www.mcallister.com /vacuum.html   (2681 words)

 Time's Arrow and the Goal of Time Ludwig Boltzmann was right to model all possible states in relation to order, when he attempted to explain thermodynamics in the 1870's. The physicist Ludwig Boltzmann was the first to imagine that an overall set of possibilities has a shape and structure that controls what happens in time when he developed an advanced theory of thermodynamics in 1868. Boltzmann believed this is the reason why increasing disorder is much more probable than increasing order, because in selecting the future, nature chooses among a larger pool of disordered states over ordered states. everythingforever.com /st_order5.htm   (6540 words)

 Ludwig Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann was born on February 20, 1844 in a house on the main street of the Landstrasse district of Vienna, the son of an "Imperial and Royal Cameral-Concipist," a tax official. By now Boltzmann was well know in the scientific world, and talented young people, such as Svante Arrhenius from Sweden and Walther Nernst from Ge rmany, came to study with him in the mid-eighties. On his tombstone there is the inscprition S= K ln W. At Vienna Boltzmann taught not only physics but in 1903 he also committed himself to teach a university course "Methods and General Theory of the Natural Sciences," in which he lectured three hours every week on problems of philosophy. www.mrs.umn.edu /~sungurea/introstat/history/w98/Boltzmann.html   (927 words)

 What is the origin of Boltzmann's constant? In principle, the Boltzmann constant is a derived physical constant, as its value is determined by other physical constants. However, calculating the Boltzmann constant from first principles is far too complex to be done with current knowledge. Boltzmann's constant relates energy and temperature, and so is dependent upon our chosen temperature scale. www.physicsforums.com /showthread.php?t=39343   (643 words)

 B - Glossary of chemical terms where λ is the wavelength, h is Planck's constant, c is the speed of light, k is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature. In radiation physics, an ideal flbody is a theoretical object that absorbs all the radiant energy falling upon it and emits it in the form of thermal radiation. Boltzmann constant (k) is the molar gas constant R divided by Avogadro's constant. www.ktf-split.hr /periodni/en/abc/b.html   (927 words)

 Stefan-Boltzmann constant Summary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) The main conclusion from Boltzmann's work with gasses is that entropy is a measure of the probability of a state; that is, apart from an additive constant, the entropy is proportional to the log of the probability of the thermodynamic state. As well as being referred to as the gas constant per molecule Boltzmann's constant is also often called the universal conversion factor and is incorporated into many thermodynamic equations relating environmental conditions to the energy and state of systems. The Stefan-Boltzmann constant (also Stefan's constant), a physical constant denoted by the Greek letter σ, is the constant of proportionality in the Stefan-Boltzmann law: the total energy radiated per unit surface area of a fl body in unit time is proportional to the fourth power of the thermodynamic temperature. www.bookrags.com /Stefan-Boltzmann_constant   (589 words)

 Numerical Constants - Mathematics & Physics - Numericana Planck's constant: The ratio of a photon's energy to its frequency. The attribution of this irrational constant to Ramanujan was made by Simon Plouffe, as a monument to a famous 1975 April fools column by Martin Gardner in Scientific American (where it was claimed that the above had been proven to be exactly an integer, as conjectured by Ramanujan in 1914 [sic!]). Some other set of independent constants could have been used to define the 7 basic units (for example, a conventional value of the electron's charge could replace the conventional permeability of the vacuum) but the following one was chosen after careful considerations. home.att.net /~numericana/answer/constants.htm   (5480 words)

 Vacuum History & Technology In so doing, he made clear that the second law is essentially statistical and that a system approaches a state of thermodynamic equilibrium (equal energy distribution throuhgout) because equilibrium is overwhelmingly the most probable state in which matter occurs. It is a special case of the general gas law, which states that the product of the absolute temperature (t) and a constant equals the product of the pressure (p) and the volume (v) or pv=kt, and can be derived from the kinetic theory of gases under the assumption of a perfect (ideal) gas. Measurements show that at constant pressure the thermal expansion of real gases is nearly the same at sufficiently low pressure and high temperature, showing that Charles's law is approximately valid. www.tau.ac.il /~phchlab/experiments/vacuum/Vacuum_history/vacuum.html   (2628 words)

 boltzmann   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Boltzmann's Law states that at equilibrium the probability of finding an energy H in some molecular "degree of freedom", such as motion along the x axis or vibration of a particular C-H bond, is proportional to e This is nonsense, because when you go to use free energy in calculating an equilibrium or rate constant, you divide by T in the Boltzmann expression. S contributes a factor to the equilibrium (or rate) constant that is independent of temperature. www.chem.yale.edu /~chem125/125/kinetics/Boltzmann/boltzmann.htm   (1089 words)

 Physics Myths and physics facts Buoyancy: Although Archimedes' principle gives the force on a buoyant object, it is generally not recognized that this does not determine the related acceleration of the object in the usual way over Newton's first law. This result is merely academic because the assumption of a Boltzmann energy distribution in the Debye-Hückel theory implies a collisionally dominated isothermal situation where the pressure gradient exactly cancels the force due to the electric field. 3) An explicit solution of the Boltzmann equation indicates that the distribution function of the ions also deviates strongly from the generally assumed Maxwellian due to the inhomogeneities of the plasma and the spatial scale and velocity dependence of diffusion (see http://www.plasmaphysics.org.uk/research/#A6). www.physicsmyths.org.uk   (8155 words)

 Where does the Boltzmann factor come from? This is a factor that shows up in situations where the temperature, T, is given; it is (proportional to) the probability that the system is in a state with energy E, where k is Boltzmann's constant (which you may have seen in the ideal gas law in a chemistry class). The Boltzmann factor is the basis of a huge amount of thermodynamic and statistical physics, both classical and quantum. The other factor is just a constant, which will be the same for all of the states; we can ignore that because we typically take care of the overall normalization of probabilities by dividing expectation values by the integral of e^(-E/kT), the famous partition function. world.std.com /~mmcirvin/boltzmann.html   (2622 words)

 Basic definitions and thermodynamics Boltzmann identified this quantity as the entropy, S of the system, which, for the microcanonical ensemble is a natural function of N, V and E: The importance of Boltzmann's relation is that it establishes a connection between the thermodynamic properties of a system and its microscopic details. Of course, the ultimate test of Boltzmann's relation between entropy and the partition function is that the above relations correctly generate the known thermodynamic properties of a given system, e.g. www.nyu.edu /classes/tuckerman/stat.mechII/lectures/lecture_2/node6.html   (622 words)

 Congen V2.1.2178 - Poisson-Boltzmann Electrostatics Specifies the dielectric constant of the solvent in units of the vacuum dielectric. It is possible to adjust the dielectric constant of exposed atoms to that of the solvent(10). This option applies to averaging dielectric constants when atoms overlap in the grid, for dielectric smoothing, and for generating the dielectric constant for spheres generated by the molecular surface algorithm. www.congenomics.com /congen/congen_9.html   (4410 words)

 Boltzmann 3D Homepage — Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Boltzmann 3D is a kinetic theory demonstrator that visually illustrates principles of kinetic theory on your computer screen. Boltzmann 3D was named after the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906) who worked out much of the theory of entropy and statistical mechanics. Boltzmann 3D was written by Scott R. Burt (an undergraduate chemistry major) and Benjamin J. Lemmon (an undergraduate computer science major) during the summer of 2004. www.chem.byu.edu /Plone/people/rbshirts/research/boltzmann_3d   (913 words)

 Kinetic Theory of Gases: A Brief Review   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) The constants A and B can be determined by integrating this probability distribution over all possible speeds to find the total number of particles N, and their total energy E. Boltzmann proved that the thermodynamic entropy S of a system (at a given energy E, say) was related to the number W of microscopic states available to it by S = klogW, k being Boltzmann's constant. Boltzmann was depressed by these attacks and by his own poor health, and took his own life in 1906. galileo.phys.virginia.edu /classes/252/kinetic_theory.html   (2171 words)

 Vacuum Scientists   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann was born February 20, 1844, in Vienna and died on September 5, 1906, in Duino, Italy. The Boltzmann constant, k, is a fundamental constant of physics occuring in nearly every statistical formulation of both classical and quantum physics. Boltzmann was also one of the first Europeans to recognize the importance of the electromagnetic theory proposed by James Clerk Maxwell of England. vacuumscientists.com /p1.html   (489 words)

 Boltzmann Constant Online Encyclopedia Article About Boltzmann Constant Boltzmann Constant Online Encyclopedia Article About Boltzmann Constant is Avogadro's constant; appears throughout the study of the statistical properties of gases; named after Ludwig Boltzmann. Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part. encyclopedia.jrank.org /Cambridge/entries/030/Boltzmann-constant.html   (87 words)

 Theoretical Principles of Plasma Physics and Atomic Physics Boltzmann Equation: As a generalized form of the Continuity Equation, the Boltzmann equation gives an exact description for the density of a plasma constituent both in real and velocity space. Examples for a detailed balance equation are the Boltzmann Equation and the equation for the atomic Level Population (in contrast, for both of these cases LTE -models with their given energy distribution will generally yield invalid results). For the calculation of the density of atomic levels populated by recombination, it is important that Radiative Recombination has to be described as a two-step process (see /research/levschem.htm), i.e. www.plasmaphysics.org.uk   (7930 words)

 MW - The Weathers Constant The Weathers Constant, W, can be used in many areas of mathematics, economics, and computer science, and biology. Unlike some other, unwieldy physical constants, the Weathers Constant is short, easy to use, and quick to memorize. In short, the Weathers Constant is useful for many areas of science and every day life. www.matthewweathers.com /year2004/weathers_constant.htm   (359 words)

 The definition of temperature(Gerald L. Hurst) The only relevancy of the Boltzman constant that I am familiar with is in relating temperature to the translational kinetic energy of molecules in gases, i.e., T = 2*E/(3*k) and the Boltzmann distribution law. The only relevancy of the Boltzman constant that I am amiliar with is in relating temperature to the translational kinetic energy of molecules in gases, i.e., T = 2*E/(3*k) and the Boltzmann distribution law. Part of Boltzmann's fame rests on his work on the kinetic theory of gases, which is a two-edged sword in an argument advocating definitions based solely on his other work on the relation of entropy to probability. yarchive.net /chem/temperature.html   (5325 words)

 Boltzmann's Factor Nevertheless, Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906) and Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903) came very close to a reasonable theory, which was completely clarified with the appearance of quantum mechanics. The Boltzmann factor is perhaps the most useful result of statistical mechanics, applicable to many problems, and which can even be carried over to problems expressed in classical mechanics, though it is fundamentally a counting of states. This is Boltzmann's expression for the entropy in terms of the probabilities. www.du.edu /~jcalvert/phys/boltz.htm   (5653 words)

 Chapter 14. Boltzmann's Constant Therefore, in SE units, the value of Boltzmann's constant is an electron's rest-mass energy divided by its threshold temperature for a value of unity. The value of Boltzmann's constant in SG units is the same as it is in SE units because both the masson's rest-mass energy and threshold temperature are greater than those of the electron by the same factor Boltzmann's constant, Avogadro's number, and the universal gas constant do not exist, as such. www.writword.com /unituniv/c14.htm   (248 words)

 Stefan-Boltzmann Law I want to emphasize that I will make no attempt to derive the correct value of the Stefan-Boltzmann constant as that requires knowledge of complex variable theory. Here I will simply collect the constants, and concentrate on demonstrating that the total energy radiated varies as a power of the temperature. When the constant is properly evaluated, it is found to be donald.phast.umass.edu /courseware/vrml/bb/SBLaw.html   (258 words)

 Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Law   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) T is the absolute temperature, N is number of molecules, m is mass of a molecule, v is the velocity of a molecule, k is the Boltzmann constant 13.805 x 10 By analysis of the transfer of momentum during collisions between molecules, Maxwell determined that the volume element must be multiplied by the Boltzmann factor exp(- Below is a plot of the probability distribution of molecules as a function of velocity at three temperatures. www.tannerm.com /maxwell_boltzmann.htm   (143 words)

 Boltzmann's constant - a definition from Whatis.com This constant derives its name from the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906), and is equal to the ratio of the gas constant to the Avogadro Constant. In general, the energy in a gas molecule is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. This produces increased pressure if the gas is confined in a space of constant volume, or increased volume if the pressure remains constant. whatis.techtarget.com /definition/0,,sid9_gci858320,00.html   (201 words)

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