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In the News (Tue 23 Apr 19)

  Ludwig Boltzmann
Boltzmann was awarded a doctorate from the University of Vienna in 1866 for a thesis on the kinetic theory of gases supervised by Josef Stefan.
Boltzmann, at least half jokingly, used to say that the reason he moved around so much was that he was born during the dying hours of a Mardi Gras ball.
Boltzmann obtained the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in 1871, namely the average energy of motion of a molecule is the same for each direction.
www.corrosion-doctors.org /Biographies/BoltzmannBio.htm   (765 words)

 Distribution functions for identical particles
The distribution function f(E) is the probability that a particle is in energy state E. The distribution function is a generalization of the ideas of discrete probability to the case where energy can be treated as a continuous variable.
The term A in the denominator of each distribution is a normalization term which may change with temperature.
The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is the classical distribution function for distribution of an amount of energy between identical but distinguishable particles.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/quantum/disfcn.html   (249 words)

 Boltzmann Transport Equation
The non-equilibrium distribution (7) is the linear Boltzmann transport equation in a somewhat non-traditional form.
Boltzmann transport equation relates the properties of a non-equilibrium system, expressed by a non-equilibrium distribution, in terms of local equilibrium distributions.
Boltzmann transport equation is applied to calculation of the general currents in a medium with particle and temperature gradients.
urila.tripod.com /Boltzmann.htm   (952 words)

 Springer Online Reference Works
The Boltzmann distribution is a consequence of the Boltzmann statistics for an ideal gas, and is a particular case of the Gibbs distribution
The distribution function (1) is sometimes referred to as the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, the term Boltzmann distribution being reserved for the distribution function (1) integrated over all momenta of particles representing the density of the number of particles at the point
The Boltzmann distribution of a mixture of several gases with different masses shows that the partial density distributions of the particles for each individual component is independent of that of other components.
eom.springer.de /b/b016810.htm   (354 words)

 Ludwig Boltzmann
Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist famous for the invention of statistical mechanics.
is engraved on Boltzmann's tombstone at the Vienna Zentralfriedhof.
The Boltzmann equation describes the time and spatial variation of the probability distribution of position and momentum of a single particle in an ideal gas.
www.mlahanas.de /Physics/Bios/LudwigBoltzmann.html   (729 words)

 Boltzmann biography
The battle between Boltzmann and Ostwald resembled the battle of the bull with the supple fighter.
Ostwald led the opposition to Boltzmann's ideas which were opposed by many European scientists, they misunderstood them, not fully grasping the statistical nature of his reasoning.
Boltzmann continued to defend his belief in atomic structure and in a 1905 publication Populäre Schriften he tried to explain how the physical world could be described by
www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk /Biographies/Boltzmann.html   (1128 words)

 Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
is distributed as a Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution with parameter a.
The Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is usually thought of as the distribution of molecular speeds in a gas, but it can also refer to the distribution of velocities, momenta, and magnitude of the momenta of the molecules, each of which will have a different probability distribution function, all of which are related.
Another example where applying the Maxwell Boltzmann Distribution would make no sense would be in cases where the quantum thermal wavelength of the gas is not small compared to the distance between particles, there, the theory would fail to account for significant quantum effects.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Maxwell-Boltzmann_distribution   (1374 words)

 Boltzmann 3D Homepage — Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Boltzmann 3D is a kinetic theory demonstrator that visually illustrates principles of kinetic theory on your computer screen.
Boltzmann 3D was named after the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906) who worked out much of the theory of entropy and statistical mechanics.
Boltzmann 3D was written by Scott R. Burt (an undergraduate chemistry major) and Benjamin J. Lemmon (an undergraduate computer science major) during the summer of 2004.
www.chem.byu.edu /Plone/people/rbshirts/research/boltzmann_3d   (913 words)

 Velocity distribution
There is a type of equilibrium between the kinetic and potential forms of the energy, in the same sense that the entire system is in equilibrium with an external bath that maintains the fixed temperature.
Because the kinetic energy depends only on the atomic velocities, the Boltzmann distribution can be applied to develop an expression for the distribution of velocities in the system.
According to the Boltzmann distribution applied to the kinetic energy only, the probability to observe the system in a particular state, in which the set of velocities are {v
www.ccr.buffalo.edu /etomica/app/modules/sites/Ljmd/Background3.html   (590 words)

 Boltzmann distribution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Boltzmann distribution applies only to particles at a high enough temperature and low enough density that quantum effects can be ignored, and the particles are obeying Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics.
The Boltzmann distribution is often expressed in terms of β=1/kT where β is referred to as thermodynamic beta.
Boltzmann compound Poisson degenerate Gauss-Kuzmin geometric hypergeometric logarithmic • negative binomial • parabolic fractal • Poisson Rademacher Skellam uniform Yule-Simon zeta Zipf Zipf-Mandelbrot
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Boltzmann_distribution   (447 words)

 The Boltzmann Distribution and Pascal's Triangle
While Ludwig Boltzmann's contributions to theoretical science are many, the Boltzmann distribution formula is arguably his most important contribution to the field of chemistry.
This distribution in turn governs numerous chemical phenomena, including the intensities of spectral lines, the rates of chemical reactions, and the sedimentation rates of macromolecules, just to name a few.
The Boltzmann distribution is normally introduced to students during the statistical mechanics portion of the physical chemistry curriculum.
chemeducator.org /bibs/0008002/820116tg.htm   (195 words)

 Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Law   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
T is the absolute temperature, N is number of molecules, m is mass of a molecule, v is the velocity of a molecule, k is the Boltzmann constant 13.805 x 10
By analysis of the transfer of momentum during collisions between molecules, Maxwell determined that the volume element must be multiplied by the Boltzmann factor exp(-
Below is a plot of the probability distribution of molecules as a function of velocity at three temperatures.
www.tannerm.com /maxwell_boltzmann.htm   (143 words)

 Metropolis Monte Carlo Proof   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The purpose of this discussion is to present a proof that the probabilistic acceptance used in a Metropolis Monte Carlo simulation [1] produces a distribution of states given by the Boltzmann Distribution Law.
This distribution law states that the natural logrithm of the ratio of particles in two states is equal to the negative of their energy difference divided by kT, where k is the Boltzmann constant an T is the absolute temperature (in Kelvin).
In the development of the Boltzmann Distribution Law, it was assumed that there are a large number of particles in different states.
members.aol.com /btluke/metro02.htm   (635 words)

 2.4 Distribution functions (Probability density functions)
The derivation starts from the basic notion that any possible distribution of particles over the available energy levels has the same probability as any other possible distribution, which can be distinguished from the first one.
The fact that the distribution function does not depend on the density of states is due to the assumption that a particular energy level is in thermal equilibrium with a large number of other particles.
A plot of the three distribution functions, the Fermi-Dirac distribution, the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and the Bose-Einstein distribution is shown in the figure below, where the Fermi energy was set equal to zero.
ece-www.colorado.edu /~bart/book/distrib.htm   (1292 words)

 Statistical Mechanics
The Boltzmann distribution law that is a fundamental principle in statistical mechanics enables us to determine how a large number of particles distribute themselves throughout a set of allowed energy levels.
Each of the ten distributions is called a microstate; in our example the ten microstates fall into three groups, or configurations, denoted A, B, and C. When dealing with only three particles, we can count the number of microstates and configurations, but for larger numbers of particles, we need to calculate them.
In this derivation of the Boltzmann distribution law, the multiplicity, or degeneracy, of the quantum states is taken into account during the derivation.
www.biochem.vt.edu /modeling/stat_mechanics.html   (1840 words)

 Carrier distribution functions
The distribution function of impurities differs from the Fermi-Dirac distribution function although the particles involved are Fermions.
This distribution function is also called the classical distribution function since it provides the probability of occupancy for non-interacting particles at low densities.
A plot of the three distribution functions, the Fermi-Dirac distribution, the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and the Bose-Einstein distribution is shown in Figure 2.5.4.
ece-www.colorado.edu /~bart/book/book/chapter2/ch2_5.htm   (1710 words)

 Ludwig Boltzmann - Wikimedia Commons
Deutsch: Ludwig Boltzmann (1844 – 1906) war ein österreichischer Physiker und Philosoph.
Boltzmann and co-workers in 1887, Graz; (standing, from the left) Nernst, Streintz, Arrhenius, Hiecke, (sitting, from the left) Aulinger, Ettingshausen, Boltzmann, Klemencic, Hausmanninger
Grave of Ludwig Boltzmann, physicist, Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery), Vienna, Austria.
commons.wikimedia.org /wiki/Ludwig_Boltzmann   (101 words)

 Kinetic Molecular Theory:Part 5
Yet, while the average is fixed, the individual objects in the system continue to collide and rearrange the distribution of the kinetic energy.
The distribution of the kinetic energy values based on his work is now known as the Boltzmann Distribution.
The Boltzmann Distribution, as it applies to gases, shows the relationship between the many different values for kinetic energy carried by the particles in a system and the number of times a particular kinetic energy value is carried by those particles.
www.bcpl.net /~kdrews/kmt/kmtpart5.html   (563 words)

 Kinetic Molecular Theory: Maxwell Distribution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The Maxwell distribution describes the distribution of particle speeds in an ideal gas.
The distribution may be characterized in a variety of ways.
To determine this value, find the height of the distribution at the most probable speed (this is the maximum height of the distribution).
www.chm.davidson.edu /ChemistryApplets/KineticMolecularTheory/Maxwell.html   (520 words)

 Mean values and the Boltzmann distribution
The systems in the representative ensemble are distributed over their accessible states in accordance with the Boltzmann distribution.
Hence, the mean energy of a system governed by the Boltzmann distribution always increases with temperature.
In other words, the work done is minus the average change in internal energy of the system, where the average is calculated using the Boltzmann distribution.
physics.ship.edu /~mrc/thermo/ut_thermo/node62.html   (323 words)

 Kinetic Theory I   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
It illustrates several important concepts in statistical mechanics/kinetic theory, such as: mean free path and average time between collisions, the approach to thermal equilibrium and the Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution, and the question of macroscopic irreversibility vs. microscopic reversibility.
How fast the speed distribution approaches the steady state seems to depend also on the number of collisions per particle.
Check out also how the the relative size of the fluctuations about the steady state distribution is greater for fewer particles.
comp.uark.edu /~jgeabana/mol_dyn/KinThI.html   (452 words)

 The Boltzmann distribution
The statistical distribution of the molecule over its own particular microstates must be consistent with this macrostate.
So, it ought to be possible to calculate the probability distribution of the molecule over its microstates from a knowledge of these macroscopic properties.
This is known as the Boltzmann probability distribution, and is undoubtably the most famous result in statistical physics.
physics.ship.edu /~mrc/thermo/ut_thermo/node60.html   (812 words)

 Boltzmann distribution
Show that the results for the mean energy and mean velocity of the particle are insensitive to the values of the initial speed and the maximum change in velocity.
Show that the width of the distribution is proportional to the temperature by doing simulations at different temperatures.
Confirm that the form is an exponential and show that the energy distribution is proportional to exp(-E/T).
stp.clarku.edu /simulations/boltzmann.html   (203 words)

 Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Function
The Maxwell-Boltzmann probability distribution function is commonly used in statistical mechanics in order to determine the speeds of molecules.
It would be convenient now to derive a function which could relate several state variables of a gas to produce a distribution of speeds for the molecules of which the gas consists.
To determine its value, we realize that for any probability distribution, the integral of the distribution over the entire region of space it encompasses must be unity.
user.mc.net /~buckeroo/MXDF.html   (1047 words)

 Molecular Kinetic Energy from the Boltzmann Distribution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
This distribution function can be used to calculate the average value of the square of the velocity.
Note that the average kinetic energy for molecules is not the same as the average energy for purely random energies under the Boltzmann distribution, which is E
The average energy integral for the distribution of energy among a collection of particles according to the Boltzmann distribution is:
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/kinetic/molke.html   (303 words)

 Physics Web Course - Boltzmann Distribution
Especially in physics, one finds that the particles are often distributed according to the Boltzmann distribution law.
The requirements for a system to be Boltzmann distributed are very fundamental and are not dependant on any special physical behaviour, so that this distribution law can be found in other areas as well.
This law says, that the number of particles n in a certain energy state E are exponentially distributed, supposed that the total number of particles is large.
mats.gmd.de /~skaley/pwc/boltzmann/Boltzmann.html   (717 words)

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