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Topic: Bose gas

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An atomic gas is a gas of atoms, as opposed to molecules.
The gas constant (also known as the universal or ideal gas constant, usually denoted by symbol R) is a physical constant used in equations of state to relate various groups of state functions to one another.
Gas stoichiometry applies when the gases produced are assumed to be ideal, and the temperature, pressure, and volume of the gases are all known.
www.shortopedia.com /G/A/Gases   (1508 words)

Photoassociation of sodium in a Bose- Einstein condensate.
Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms.
In the case of a degenerate Fermi gas, confined in a harmonic external potential, the Pauli exclusion principle forbids the multiple occupation of a single quantum state and leads to a strong effective repulsion between the identical atoms.
scienceweek.com /2003/sw030404.htm   (10906 words)

 States of Matter -- Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma
Plasma is an ionized gas, a gas into which sufficient energy is provided to free electrons from atoms or molecules and to allow both species, ions and electrons, to coexist.
In effect a plasma is a cloud of protons, neutrons and electrons where all the electrons have come loose from their respective molecules and atoms, giving the plasma the ability to act as a whole rather than as a bunch of atoms.
This phenomenon was predicted in the 1920s by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein, based on Bose's work on the statistical mechanics of photons, which was then formalized and generalized by Einstein.
www.edinformatics.com /math_science/states_of_matter.htm   (1010 words)

 Gas in a box - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This simple model can be used to describe the classical ideal gas as well as the various quantum ideal gases such as the ideal massive Fermi gas, the ideal massive Bose gas as well as fl body radiation which may be treated as a massless Bose gas.
The most common massless Bose gas is a gas of photons in a fl body.
This considers a gas of phonons in a box and differs from the development for photons in that the speed of the phonons is less than light speed, and there is a maximum allowed wavelength for each axis of the box.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gas_in_a_box   (1293 words)

 Bose-Einstein condensate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The result of the efforts of Bose and Einstein is the concept of a Bose gas, governed by the Bose-Einstein statistics, which describes the statistical distribution of identical particles with integer spin, now known as bosons.
In 1999 Bose condensation of magnons was demonstrated in the antiferromagnet TlCuCl3.
"Bose–Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms".
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Bose-Einstein_condensate   (1926 words)

 Bose-Einstein condensate runs circles around magnetic trap
This ring, the first to contain a Bose-Einstein gas, is full of cold particles at a temperature of only one-millionth of a degree above absolute zero, traveling with energies a billion trillion times less than the particles in a high-energy storage ring.
As first proposed 80 years ago by Albert Einstein, based on previous work by Satyendra Nath Bose, if a gas of neutral atoms is cooled to a low enough temperature, all atoms of the gas would fall into the same quantum state.
The supercold atoms are created from a hot gas of neutral atoms that is laser cooled, collected in a magneto-optic trap, cooled further by evaporation, and then spun off into a magnetic trap for a few seconds of study before it warms up and dissipates.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2005-09/uoc--bcr090705.php   (803 words)

 BEC_papers.html   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
It is a quantum stochastic equation for the kinetics of a dilute quantum Bose gas, and describes the behavior and formation of Bose condensation.
For the condensed gas, we find substantial corrections arise from the inclusion of quasiparticles, whose number is very large because of the very lowfrequency (10.2 Hz) of the longitudinal trap mode.
the gas the theoretical curve deviates significantly from the experimental curves.
www.vuw.ac.nz /staff/crispin_gardiner/BEC_papers.html   (3697 words)

 Bose gas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab2.isi.jhu.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The thermodynamics of an ideal Bose gas is best calculated using the grand partition function.
For example, for a massive Bose gas in a box, α=3/2 and the critical energy is given by:
For a massive Bose gas in a harmonic trap we will have α=3 and the critical energy is given by:
en.wikipedia.org.cob-web.org:8888 /wiki/Bose_gas   (1185 words)

 physics - Bose gas
Following the procedure described in the gas in a box article, we can apply the Thomas-Fermi approximation which assumes that the average energy is large compared to the energy difference between levels so that the above sum may be replaced by an integral:
The problem with this continuum approximation for a Bose gas is that the ground state has been effectively ignored, giving a degeneracy of zero for zero energy.
It is seen that all quantities approach the values for a classical ideal gas in the limit of large temperature.
www.physicsdaily.com /physics/Bose_gas   (1049 words)

 Session J3 - Focus Session: Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensates.
For a spinor gas, a mixture of identical particles with different internal degrees of freedom, we derive the partition function in terms of the Feynman--Kac functionals of polarized components.
As an example a spin-1 Bose gas with the spins subjected to an external magnetic field and confined in a parabolic potential is studied.
From the analysis of the free energy obtained for a finite number of particles, we find that the specific heat of this ideal spinor gas has two maxima: one is a Schottky anomaly, due to the lifting of the spin degeneracy by the external field, the other is the signature of Bose--Einstein condensation.
flux.aps.org /meetings/YR00/DAMOP00/abs/S620.html   (2185 words)

 Ideal Bose gas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Satyendra Nath Bose (January 1, 1894 - February 4, 1974) was an Indian physicist specializing in mathematical physics.
Bose-Einstein statistics and bosons are called after Bose as well.
Apart from physics he did some research in biochemistry and literature (Bengali, English).
gassystem.net   (161 words)

 Session SC06 - Bose-Einstein Condensation.
The alkali Bose condensates are dilute gases of millions of ultracold atoms occupying a single quantum state a few microns across.
We consider the properties of Bose gas in a thermal environment (flbody radiation) at temperature T_1 simultaneously interacting with an ``optical molasses'' at much lower temperature T_2 produced by laser irradiation.
We have studied the spin texture of F=1 spinor Bose condensates with both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions in anisotropic optical traps.
flux.aps.org /meetings/YR99/CENT99/abs/S6845.html   (1209 words)

 Erich Mueller -- Graduate Research
The role of weak interactions on the transition temperature of a dilute Bose gas: Bose-Einstein condensation is a rather unique phase transition in that it occurs in a non-interacting gas of particles.
This technique is then used to calculate the transition temperature of an interacting Bose gas.
85, 2228 (2000)], a Bose condensate of alkali atoms is superfluid.
www.physics.ohio-state.edu /~emueller/grad.html   (646 words)

 Non-equilibrium dynamics of the Bose gas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Phase ordering kinteics of the Bose gas, K. Damle, S.
Phase transition of a Bose gas in a harmonic potential, K.
Far from equilibrium dynamics of the Bose gas, K. Damle, S.N. Majumdar, and S. Sachdev, Pune Workshop (CMT-20) Proceedings, Condensed Matter Theories vol 12., J.W. Clark ed., Nova Science Publishing (1997); cond-mat/9705047.
qpt.physics.harvard.edu /bose.html   (206 words)

 DC MetaData for: On the Infimum of the Excitation Spectrum of a Homogeneous Bose Gas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
DC MetaData for: On the Infimum of the Excitation Spectrum of a Homogeneous Bose Gas
On the Infimum of the Excitation Spectrum of a Homogeneous Bose Gas
Abstract: We consider a second quantized homogeneous Bose gas in a large cubic box with periodic boundary conditions, at zero temperature, and in the
www.esi.ac.at /Preprint-shadows/esi1742.html   (124 words)

 Ideal Bose gas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The Bose-Einstein condensate is a phase of matter, in the sense that solid, liquid, gas and plasma are phases of matter.
They were predicted in the 1920s by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein based on Bose's work on rules for deciding when two photons should be counted up as either identical or different; Einstein formalized and generalized these ideas, and the result of their efforts is the so called Bose Einstein statistics.
This is the description of the statistics of identical particles that don't mind sharing a quantum energy level with each other (as opposed to Fermi Dirac statistics, which describe identical particles of which you can only put one in each energy level).
gassystem.net /Cond.html   (522 words)

 OUP: UK General Catalogue   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The book develops the theory of Bose gases starting from the pioneering Bogoliubov approach and gives special emphasis to the new physical features exhibited by non-uniform gases which are produced in the recent experiments with magnetic and optical traps.
Bose Einstein Condensation is receiving more and more interest from other areas of physics as well, including condensed matter physics, mathematical physics, and field theory.
The Ideal Bose gas in the harmonic trap
www.oup.com /uk/catalogue/?ci=9780198507192   (513 words)

 CiteULike: Tag bose   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Seeing zeros of random polynomials: quantized vortices in the ideal Bose gas
posted to 2d bose quantum random random-polynomial by ansobol as
Fluctuation of maximal particle energy of quantum ideal gas and random partitions
www.citeulike.org /tag/bose   (195 words)

 Bose—Einstein Condensation in Dilute Gases - Cambridge University Press
Lecturers can request inspection copies of this title.
In 1925 Einstein predicted that at low temperatures particles in a gas could all reside in the same quantum state.
This gaseous state, a Bose-Einstein condensate, was produced in the laboratory for the first time in 1995 and investigating such condensates has become one of the most active areas in contemporary physics.
www.cambridge.org /uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521665809   (377 words)

 Energy Citations Database (ECD) - Energy and Energy-Related Bibliographic Citations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Energy Citations Database (ECD) Document #4709617 - CHARGED BOSE GAS IN ASTROPHYSICS
Availability information may be found in the Availability, Publisher, Research Organization, Resource Relation and/or Author (affiliation information) fields and/or via the "Full-text Availability" link.
BS>The existence of an ideal charged Bose gas in stellar systems is suggested; conditions that would exist in such an assembly of ions and relativistic electrons and positrons are examined; and astrophysical phenomena perhaps explicable on the basis of Bose-Einstein condensation are discussed.
www.osti.gov /energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=4709617   (131 words)

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