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Topic: Bourgeoisie

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  bourgeoisie. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The bourgeoisie as a historical phenomenon did not begin to emerge until the development of medieval cities as centers for trade and commerce in Central and Western Europe, beginning in the 11th cent.
In England and the Netherlands, the bourgeoisie was the driving force in uprooting feudalism in the late 16th and early 17th cent.
In the 17th and 18th cent., the bourgeoisie supported principles of constitutionality and natural right, against the claims of divine right and against the privileges held by nobles and prelates.
www.bartleby.com /65/bo/bourgeoi.html   (543 words)

  Bourgeoisie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
But the bourgeoisie was never without its critics; it was first accused of narrow-mindedness, materialism, hypocrisy, opposition to change, and lack of culture, among other things, by persons such as the playwright Molière.
The earliest recorded pejorative uses of the term "bourgeois" are associated with aristocratic contempt for the lifestyle of the bourgeoisie.
Marxism defines the bourgeoisie as the social class which obtains income from ownership or trade in capital (economics) assets, or from commercial activities such as the buying and selling of commodities, wares and services.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Bourgeoisie   (1055 words)

 SparkNotes: The Communist Manifesto: Introduction and Section 1, Bourgeois and Proletarians (Part 1)
The development of the bourgeoisie began in the earliest towns, and gained momentum with the Age of Exploration.
The development of the bourgeoisie as a class was accompanied by a series of political developments.
The bourgeoisie has changed all occupations into wage-laboring professions, even those that were previously honored, such as that of the doctor.
www.sparknotes.com /philosophy/communist/section1.html   (1318 words)

 bourgeoisie articles on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: )
bourgeoisie BOURGEOISIE [bourgeoisie], originally the name for the inhabitants of walled towns in medieval France; as artisans and craftsmen, the bourgeoisie occupied a socioeconomic position between the peasants and the landlords in the countryside.
Saltykov-Shchedrin was a master of the satirical sketch, which he used to attack the bourgeoisie, the gentry, and the officials of the civil service, of which he was a member.
The coup of 9 Thermidor (July 27, 1794) marked the downfall of Robespierre and the end of the Reign of Terror.
www.encyclopedia.com /articlesnew/01745.html   (394 words)

 [No title]
But just as the summits of the liberal bourgeoisie in its time were unable, by their own force alone, to get rid of feudalism, monarchy, and the church, so the magnates of finance capital are unable, by their force alone, to cope with the proletariat.
That was in the period of the rise of the bourgeoisie.
In the epoch of the rise, the growth, and the bloom of capitalism, the petty bourgeoisie, despite acute outbreaks of discontent, generally marched obediently in the capitalist harness.
history.eserver.org /fighting-fascism/ch06-Bourgeoisie.txt   (1594 words)

 Petite bourgeoisie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
They were seen as servants of the bourgeois class who in turn were seen as servants of the aristocracy.
Though distinct from the ordinary working class and the lumpenproletariat, who rely entirely on the sale of their labor-power for survival, the petty bourgeois remain members of the proletariat rather than the haute bourgeoisie, or capitalist class, who own the means of production and buy the labor-power of others to work it.
Though the petty bourgeois do buy the labor power of others, in contrast to the bourgeoisie they typically work alongside their own employees; and although they generally own their own businesses, they do not own a controlling share of the means of production.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Petty_bourgeoisie   (224 words)

 Definition of bourgeoisie
The bourgeoisie is the exploiter class most characteristic of the capitalist system.
In French feudalism, the term "bourgeoisie" arose to refer to the middle-classes of the cities, people who traded or other men of wealth but not the highest social standing.
There are other categories of bourgeoisie that are not capitalist, such as what Mao called the "comprador bourgeoisie" which owes its existence to imperialist capitalists and cannot function on its own as a capitalist class.
www.etext.org /Politics/MIM/faq/bourgeoisie.html   (723 words)

 The Golden Age of the Chinese Bourgeoisie   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Bergere’s work traces the brief flourishing of an elusive, if not nebulous, Chinese bourgeoisie between 1910 and 1920, who, to the author, was important because it was the first to "identify its own destiny and that of China as a whole with economic modernization" (4).
By studying the brief emergence of the bourgeoisie, Bergere challenges the Marxist interpretation of Chinese history and believes that a social revolution was not necessary for economic progress.
This treatment of the Chinese bourgeoisie gives significant insight into the vagaries of the modernization process as dealt with by China’s social and political forces between 1911 and 1927, as seen through the achievements and adaptations experienced by this new urban business class at its apogee.
orpheus.ucsd.edu /chinesehistory/pgp/bergere.htm   (485 words)

 Bourgeoisie   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The bourgeoisie uniformly cling to the State out of fear that the unruly, unwashed masses they so fear will drag them back into the fold and force them to be human, that is, social, beings, again.
The bourgeoisie are most likely to shake their heads and "tsk" at the evil of humankind, which they believe in whole-heartedly -- of course, they're okay -- it's just the rest that's screwed.
The wealthy are to be vicariously studied, envied, and emulated by the bourgeoisie, whereas the poor are to be avoided, lest it be contagious.
www.cat.org.au /a4a/bourg.html   (1226 words)

 BOURGEOISIE - About the game...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The story is like a vine, it comes out from one seed, which is the source of the time, and flows, spreads and twists creating an alternative world.
Bourgeoisie will give you a lot of freedom with making decisions as well as with getting to know the world.
Keeping order in Bourgeoisie is the responsibility of the great council, made up of descendants of the people who left the vault for the first time.
burzuj.nma-fallout.com /english/o_grze.php   (693 words)

 Dictionary of the Social Sciences: bourgeoisie @ HighBeam Research   (Site not responding. Last check: )
bourgeoisie The commercial class that emerged during the feudal era and that became the principal protagonist of the transition to capitalism and democratic rule.
The bourgeoisie began primarily as merchants but gradually took on the roles made possible by a diversifying and expanding economy—banking, professional activities, and, ultimately, manufacturing.
As the principal group actor of the age, the bourgeoisie forms the backdrop to much of the social thought of the period—although nowhere as centrally or explicitly as in Marxism.
www.highbeam.com /doc/1O104:bourgeoisie/bourgeoisie.html?refid=ip_hf   (175 words)

 The Rise OF THE BOURGEOISIE DURING THE AGE OF DISCOVERY   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The presence of the Bourgeoisie is shown by the law code of the Babylonian king, Hammurabi (2067-2925 BC), which has numerous provisions dealing with merchants and the carrying on of commerce (Palm, 8).
When the big Bourgeoisie tried to wring revenue out of the masses by means of merciless exploitation, they completed a destructive economic cycle by thus constricting the purchase power of the workers (Palm, 18).
The fourth influence leading to the rise of the Bourgeoisie was the exhaustion in the ranks of nobility by the numerous famines, plagues, and epidemics spreading throughout Europe.
muweb.millersville.edu /~columbus/papers/romberger-a.html   (2226 words)

 GamerGod - Bourgeoisie: Pearl of the Wastes by Zangk   (Site not responding. Last check: )
One uncommon part of the game is the developers wish to make Bourgeoisie a “game for gamers.” They have an active forum at www.NMA-fallout.com, where gamers (like myself) post ideas and questions with usually quick, desirable answers.
Bourgeoisie is a Post-nuclear war game based on a future Europe that is still recovering from a large world disaster.
In Bourgeoisie, people and creatures will “live their own life.” This means the character will not be the center of the world.
gamergod.com /article.php?article_id=3214   (3837 words)

 Glossary of Terms: Bo
The ruling class in bourgeois society is the bourgeoisie, who own the means of production as Private Property, despite the fact that the productive forces have become entirely socialised and operate on the scale of the world market.
The producing class in bourgeois society is the proletariat, a class of people who have nothing to sell but their capacity to work; since all the means of production belong to the bourgeoisie, workers have no choice but to offer their labour-power for sale to the bourgeoisie.
The word Democratic is attached to such a government, because in it all people in such a society have certain freedoms: those who own the means of production, the bourgeoisie, are free to buy and sell labor-power and what is produced by it solely for their own benefit.
www.marxists.org /glossary/terms/b/o.htm   (822 words)

 Social Classes - The Bourgeoisie
The story of dependence and subservience that characterizes the Afro-American bourgeoisie is repeated in the case of the Chicano bourgeoisie, the Diné (Navajo) bourgeoisie, the Puerto Rican bourgeoisie and the capitalists of the other oppressed nations and nationalities in the United States.
He knows that the fall of the monopoly bourgeoisie would never, and could never, mean the rise to power of the small capitalist, but rather the rise to power of the proletariat, the destruction of the capitalist system and the seizure of his property.
The national bourgeoisie (excluding the compradors) in numerous oppressed nations has taken part in national anti-imperialist revolutions, although their role has always been one of conciliation, attempts to limit the revolutionary struggle and, eventually, bitter struggle against the carrying of the revolution through to the end.
www.mltranslations.org /US/Rpo/classes/classes1.htm   (5417 words)

In proportion as the bourgeoisie, i.e., capital, is developed, in the same proportion is the proletariat, the modern working class, developed -- a class of laborers, who live only so long as they find work, and who find work only so long as their labor increases capital.
The bourgeoisie itself, therefore, supplies the proletariat with its own elements of political and general education, in other words, it furnishes the proletariat with weapons for fighting the bourgeoisie.
The socialist and communist literature of France, a literature that originated under the pressure of a bourgeoisie in power, and that was the expressions of the struggle against this power, was introduced into Germany at a time when the bourgeoisie in that country had just begun its contest with feudal absolutism.
www.anu.edu.au /polsci/marx/classics/manifesto.html   (14158 words)

 The Attitude of the Bourgeoisie Towards the Proletariat
In speaking of the bourgeoisie I include the so-called aristocracy, for this is a privileged class, an aristocracy, only in contrast with the bourgeoisie, not in contrast with the proletariat.
Since, however, the bourgeoisie cannot dispense with government, but must have it to hold the equally indispensable proletariat in check, it turns the power of government against the proletariat and keeps out of its way as far as possible.
Meanwhile the most open declaration of war of the bourgeoisie upon the proletariat is Malthus Law of Population and the New Poor Law framed in accordance with it.
marxists.org /archive/marx/works/1845/condition-working-class/ch13.htm   (6010 words)

 Bourgeoisie — FactMonster.com
Citoyen is a freeman, a citizen of the State; bourgeois, an individual of the Bourgeoisie class.
bourgeoisie - bourgeoisie bourgeoisie, originally the name for the inhabitants of walled towns in medieval...
bourgeoisie: Origins and Rise - Origins and Rise The bourgeoisie as a historical phenomenon did not begin to emerge until the...
www.factmonster.com /dictionary/brewers/bourgeoisie.html   (178 words)

 The French Elections
Portugal and Germany, for example, are not in conditions to comply with the 3% of the GNP maximum fiscal deficit (Portugal is on the verge of collapse), and other countries, such as Italy, have trouble keeping the public debt under 60% of the GNP.
Ideologically, on the other hand, 90% of the bourgeoisie is fascist, something which which is hidden on television or in Parliament, but which is openly exposed in the workplace.
With respect to Chirac, Laiguillier proposes "that the workers not fall into the trap" and that Chirac "not be elected with the votes of those he has oppressed for five years." That is that she is opposed to abstention and also to voting for either Le Pen or Chirac.
www.po.org.ar /english/751art2.htm   (1533 words)

 The Communist Manifesto - Bourgeoisie and Proletariat
But at this stage a new struggle was formed between the bourgeoisie (the property owning class) and the proletariat (the industrial working class).
Marx argued that the capitalist bourgeoisie mercilessly exploited the proletariat.
He described how the wealth of the bourgeoisie depended on the work of the proletariat.
www.bl.uk /learning/histcitizen/21cc/utopia/methods1/bourgeoisie1/bourgeoisie.html   (467 words)

 Bourgeoisie Home Page
The bourgeoisie was a class fighting for freedom from the aristocracy while simultaneously striving to attain the
Members of the bourgeoisie utilized fashion to mimic the air of the aristocracy, outings to the theater and the opera to inflate their public image, and appearances at restaurants and casinos to demonstrate their economic status and their aristocratic taste.
But in all places a social climbing bourgeoisie must behave with grace in order to fully mimic the noble image, thus proper etiquette was essential.
www.mtholyoke.edu /courses/rschwart/hist255-s01/pleasure   (156 words)

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