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Topic: Brahmi numeral

 Brahmi numeral   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) The source of the first three numerals seems clear: they are collections of 1, 2, and 3 strokes, like the modern Chinese numerals. Brahmi numerals in the first century CE The sometimes rather striking graphic similarity they have with the hieratic and demotic Egyptian numerals is not good evidence of a historical connection, as many cultures have independently recorded numbers as collections of strokes â” witness the Roman numerals, for example. Another possibility is that the numerals were acrophonic, like the Attic numerals, and based on the Kharosthi alphabet. www.donob.com /encyclopedia/Brahmi_numeral   (367 words)

 Encyclopedia: Indian numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). Prior to that, the Brahmi numerals used similar forms, except that 10 was represented as a fish. Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Indian-numerals   (1564 words)

 Indian numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) Most of the positional base 10 numeral systems in the world have originated from India, which first developed the concept of positional nemerology. The Indian numeral system is commonly referred to in the West as Hindu-Arabic numeral system, since it reached Europe through the Arabs. Before that epoch, the Brahmi numeral system was in use; that system did not encompass the concept of the place-value of numbers. www.donob.com /encyclopedia/Indian_numerals   (426 words)

 Encyclopedia: Abjad numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) The Abjad numerals are a numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Arabic numerals (which are actually of Indian origin). The numerals though were already in wide use throughout the Arab empire, as Avicenna who was born in 980 tells in his autobiography that he learnt them, as a child, from a humble vegetable seller. The numerals came to fame due to their use in the pivotal work of the Arab mathematician Al-Khwarizmi, whose book On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals was written about 825, and the Arab mathematician Al-Kindi, who wrote four volumes (see [2]) "On the Use of the Indian Numerals" (Ketab fi Isti'mal al-'Adad al-Hindi) about 830. www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Abjad-numerals   (1418 words)

 Brāhmī - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Brāhmī numeral system is the ancestor of the Hindu-Arabic numerals, which are now used world-wide. Brāhmī is generally believed to be derived from a Semitic script such as the Imperial Aramaic alphabet, as was clearly the case for the contempory Kharosthi alphabet that arose in a part of northwest Indian under the control of the Achaemenid Empire. Older examples of the Brahmi script appear to be on fragments of pottery from the trading town of Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka, which have been dated to the early 5th century BC. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Brahmi   (755 words)

 Encyclopedia: Brahmi numeral   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) The system of Hindu-Arabic numerals is a positional decimal numeral system that evolved from the Brahmi numeral system in ancient India, from the 9th century documented to have used a positional notation including a zero symbol. The unary numeral system is the simplest numeral system to represent natural numbers: in order to represent a number N, an arbitrarily chosen symbol is repeated N times. The vigesimal or base-20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten). www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Brahmi-numeral   (1454 words)

 Hindi numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) For the purpose of this articlehowever the term Indian numeral system will refer only to the positional base 10 numeral systems that developed in Indiaand the term Indian numerals will refer only to the numerals that are part of the Devanagari script. The Arabic numerals are a slightly modified shapes of the Indiansystem. This numeral system spread to the Middle East and later came to becalled the Arabic numeral system, although the Arabs continue to call their numerals the Indian numerals. www.therfcc.org /hindi-numerals-96750.html   (313 words)

 Binary numeral system   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) In a computer, the numeric values may be represented by two different voltages; on a magnetic disk, magnetic polarities may be used. A "positive", "yes", or "on" state is not necessarily equivalent to the numerical value of one; it depends on the architecture in use. Though not directly related to the numerical interpretation of binary symbols, sequences of bits may be manipulated using Boolean logical operators. en.askmore.net /Binary_numeral_system.htm   (3081 words)

 Indian numerals The Brahmi numerals have been found in inscriptions in caves and on coins in regions near Poona, Bombay, and Uttar Pradesh. One is that the numerals came from an alphabet in a similar way to the Greek numerals which were the initial letters of the names of the numbers. The Gupta numerals developed from the Brahmi numerals and were spread over large areas by the Gupta empire as they conquered territory. www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk /history/HistTopics/Indian_numerals.html   (2571 words)

 Brahmi - Unipedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) The Brahmi numeral system is the ancestor of the Hindu-Arabic numerals, which are now used world-wide. A glance at the oldest Brahmi inscriptions shows striking parallels with contemporary Aramaic for the half of the phonemes that are equivalent between the two languages, especially if the letters are flipped to reflect the change in writing direction. Aramaic did not have Brahmi's aspirated consonants (kh, th), whereas Brahmi did not have Aramaic's emphatic consonants (q, ţ); and it appears that Aramaic's extra emphatic letters may have been used to fill in Brahmi's missing aspirates (Aramaic q for Brahmi kh, Aramaic ţ for Brahmi th). www.unipedia.info /Brahmi.html   (656 words)

 [No title] The numerals are not well specified in the sources available at this time; hence, no numerals are given in the accompanying chart. Brahmi and Other Scripts of India The Brahmi script is the progenitor of all or most of the scripts of India, as well as most scripts of Southeast Asia. Brahmi is also known as Asoka, the script in which the famous Asokan edicts were incised in the second century BC. www.unicode.org /Public/TEXT/UTR-3.TXT   (12590 words)

 Decimal - Freepedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) It is the most widely used numeral system, probably because humans normally have a total of ten fingers and thumbs on their hands. Decimal notation is the writing of numbers in the base-ten numeral system, which uses various symbols for ten distinct quantities (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, called digits) to represent numbers. The symbols for the digits in common use around the globe today are called Arabic numerals by Europeans and Indian numerals by Arabs, the two groups' terms both referring to the culture from which they learned the system. en.freepedia.org /Decimal.html   (1144 words)

 Roman numerals - Freepedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) Roman numerals are commonly used today in numbered lists (in outline format), clockfaces, pages preceding the main body of a book, chord triads in music analysis, the numbering of movie sequels, and the numbering of some sport events, like the Super Bowls or Olympic Games. Roman numerals remained in common use until about the 14th century, when they were replaced by Arabic numerals (thought to have been introduced to Europe from al-Andalus, by way of Arab traders and arithmetic treatises, around the 11th century). Since the French use capital Roman numerals to refer to the quarters of the year ('III' is the third quarter), and this has become the norm in some European standards organisation, the mixed Roman-Arabic method of recording the date has switched to minuscule Roman numerals in many circles, as '4-viii-1961'. en.freepedia.org /Roman_numerals.html   (2676 words)

 Hindu-Arabic Numerals The most important as well as the most widely used place - value symbols are those belonging to the Nagari script numerals 1 - 9, very similar to the Brahmi numerals. The so called West Arabic numerals are contemporary with the East Arabic numerals and likewise stem from Hindu figures and are forerunners of our Western figures. In the West Arabic numerals one dot indicates tens, 2 dots hundreds so it is not a complete place value system. www.scit.wlv.ac.uk /university/scit/modules/mm2217/han.htm   (688 words)

 Talk:Indian numerals - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The wiki article on Arabic numerals still referes to origins for this numbering system to chinese. I'm not sure what to make of this, since the "Indian numerals" (which the article defines to mean the Devanagari numerals) did not include a "10". To say that "Arabic Numerals" is a misnomer is like saying that European languages are a misnomer since they belong to Indo-European languages and trace their origin to India, but Europeans speak European languages, not Indian ones. www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Talk:Indian_numerals   (457 words)

 Laputan Logic With Devanagari numerals, the 1 was rotated by 90 degrees and had developed a serif-like loop at the top. And just as the shape of the letters that they use for writing is different in different regions of their country, so the numerical symbols vary. While the Devanagari numerals already look quite familiar to Western eyes, in the process of adoption by the Arabs led to a stylistic split between East and West. laputan.blogspot.com /2003_06_01_laputan_archive.html   (2017 words)

 Articles About Egyptian Numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) Instances of numerals written in hieratic can be found as far back as the Early Dynastic Period. Boyer proved 50 years ago that hieratic script used a different numeral system, using individual signs for the numbers 1 to 9, multiples of 10 from 10 to 90, the hundreds from 100 to 900, and the thousands from 1000 to 9000. In the oldest hieratic texts the individual numerals were clearly written in a ciphered relationship to the Egyptian alphabet. www.officeonlineinc.net /wiki/index.php?title=Egyptian_numerals   (588 words)

 Online edition of Sunday Observer - Business   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) These ancient numerals of the Sinhala, have a close resemblance to the numerals preserved in most other ancient states in the Indian subcontinent. The numerals are similar to those at Dakkhini Vihare and are of the same period. The symbols for ancient Sinhala numerals for 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 40, 50, 70, 100 and 1000 are all recorded at the Dhakkina Vihare (inscription of Ceylon volume II part II No. 100)- Dr. S. www.sundayobserver.lk /2004/09/19/fea29.html   (682 words)

 Middle East Open Encyclopedia: Quaternary numeral system   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) It shares with all fixed-radix numeral systems many properties, such as the ability to represent any real number with a canonical representation (almost unique) and the characteristics of the representations of rational numbers and irrational numbers. As with the octal and hexadecimal numeral systems, quaternary has a special relation to the binary numeral system. Although octal and hexadecimal are widely used in computing and programming in the discussion and analysis of binary arithmetic and logic, quaternary does not enjoy the same status. www.baghdadmuseum.org /ref?title=Quaternary_numeral_system   (408 words)

 Upstream: Upstream: Issues: Anthropology: Indus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) The Brahmi script, which was in use throughout India during the reign of Asoka [reigned 269-232 B.C.], was highly systematic, reflecting clearly the theories of Indian grammarians. Many of the Brahmi signs are the first syllables of familiar objects: thus g, ch, m, s, h appear to have been derived from the representations of girl (hill), chatra (umbrella), matsya (fish), sara (arrow), and hasta (hand). Although the demonstration that Brahmi is derived from Indus does not, by itself, establish that the Harappan people were Indo-Aryan, the structural similarities in the Indus and the Brahmi texts do point to that conclusion. www.mugu.com /cgi-bin/Upstream/Issues/anthropology/indus.html   (6420 words)

 Perceptions from the Jain Past:24. What Is Behind the Numbers?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) Large numbers are used in the Brahmi (unrelated to the Hindu deity Bramha) language inscriptions from around 3000 years ago (1000 BCE). Existence of special terms and symbols for the numeral 0 to 9 was a typical and important characteristic of these systems. Further importance of the place system is that when zero is placed after a numeral, the value of the numeral is enhanced 10-fold. www.hira-pub.org /namokar/namokar24.html   (447 words)

 Rxpress - Vigesimal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) Twenty is the sum of all fingers and toes on human hands and feet, and is the product of five and four. In a vigesimal place system, twenty individual numerals (or digit symbols) are used, ten more than in the usual decimal system. One modern method of finding the extra needed symbols is to write ten as the letter A, to write nineteen as J, and the numbers between with the corresponding letters of the alphabet. www.rxpresspharmacy.com /wiki/index/Vigesimal   (934 words)

 II-12. What Is Behind the Numbers?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) The key elements for such a representation of quantities were initiated sometimes around 3000 BC with the use of numerals for 1 to 10. Large numbers are used in the Brahmi (unrelated to the Hindu deity Bramha) language inscriptions from around 3000 years ago (1000 BC). The symbols for numerals from the Central Asia region of the Arabian Empire are virtually identical to those in Brahmi. www.hira-pub.org /anugam/vol2/vol2ii12.html   (2760 words)

 Decimal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) It is the most widely used numeral system, probably because humans usually have a total of ten digits on their hands. Decimal notation is the writing of numbers in the base-ten numeral system, which uses various symbols (called digits) for ten distinct values (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) to represent numbers. These digits are often used with a decimal point which indicates the start of a fractional part, and with one of the sign symbols + (plus) or − (minus) to indicate sign. www.1bx.com /en/Base_10.htm   (1145 words)

 WELCOME : www.jainsamaj.org   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) In any case the occurrence of Prakrit words in the Brahmi script in the early Tamil cave inscriptions should be considered no more abnormal than the occurrence of Sanskrit expressions written in the Grantha script in the later Vatteluttu and Tamil inscriptions. However an unusual feature of the inscription is that the name of the donor is found written in Prakrit as utayanasa with the addition of the genitive case-ending -sa to the name (though da has become ta and na replaces na under the influence of Tamil). A remarkable feature is the indication of the number three by a numeral comprising three hprizontal parallel strokes. www.jainsamaj.org /literature/recent-171104.htm   (4820 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Brahmi numeral Instead, there were separate numerals for each of the tens (10, 20, 30, etc.). Likewise, the units for the tens are not obviously related, although 10, 20, 80, 90 appear to be based on a circle. (The sometimes rather striking graphic similarity with hieratic and demotic Egyptian is not good evidence of a historical connection, as many cultures have independently recorded numerals as collections of strokes — witness the Roman numerals, for example. www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Brahmi_numeral   (335 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) The 'plausible transition path' of each Indus sign to the Brahmi stage is traced by progressively 'simplifying' the sign by cutting and chipping until the desired linear Brahmi form is reached, and its phonetic value is presumed to be that of the corresponding Indus sign. As Rajaram has no argument either to rebut the generally held view that the direction is from the right or in support of his theory that it is from the left, the question arises as to how the choice of the direction was made. According to him, the Brahmi script is not directly derived from the Indus, but through the pottery graffiti of later times. users.primushost.com /~india/ejvs/ejvs0801/ejvs0801.txt   (8733 words)

 Authors & Messages of the Harappan Inscriptions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11) The connections of this ancient script came to surface through the study of the shapes and the denominatitions of the Brahmi numerals, as they are found parallel in sequence to the Phoencian alphabets. When the cycle got broken as is evident from the phoencian alphabets and the Brahmi numerals, the opposites’ followed the opposite directions. This numeral figure falling at the position of 14th letter of the Phoenician alphabets and on the 12th position of the Brahmi numerals reminds of the meeting of 2 Saptkas of 12 musical notes. www.harappanscript.com /phoneticelements.htm   (934 words)

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