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Topic: Bretton Woods


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  NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Bretton Woods
Though multilateral in formal design, therefore, the Bretton Woods system in practice quickly became synonymous with a hegemonic monetary regime centered on the dollar, much in the same manner as the classical gold standard of the nineteenth century had come to be centered on Britain's pound sterling.
The chief features of the Bretton Woods system were an obligation for each country to adopt a monetary policy that maintained the exchange rate of its currency within a fixed value—plus or minus one percent—in terms of gold; and the ability of the IMF to bridge temporary imbalances of payments.
Bretton Woods established a system of payments based on the dollar, in which all currencies were defined in relation to the dollar, itself convertible into gold, and above all, "as good as gold." The U.S. currency was now effectively the world currency, the standard to which every other currency was pegged.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Bretton-Woods   (534 words)

  
 Bretton Woods: Birth and Breakdown - Global Policy Forum - Social and Economic Policy
Moreover, the institutions of Bretton Woods were part of a planned global regulatory system for trade and finance.
The era of flexible and floating exchange rates that followed the breakdown of the Bretton Woods exchange regime was not really a victory for the principle of national sovereignty as much as a triumph of US financial hegemony.
The IMF that was born at Bretton Woods was probably as much as Keynes could have hoped for.
www.globalpolicy.org /socecon/bwi-wto/2001/braithwa.htm   (2619 words)

  
 Bretton Woods by Addison Wiggin
What makes the Bretton Woods accords so interesting to us today is the fact that the whole plan for international monetary policy was based on nations agreeing to adhere to a global gold standard.
Bretton Woods had the original intention of smoothing out economic conflict, in recognition of the problems that economic disparity causes.
The Bretton Woods system collapsed, partially due to economic expansion in excess of the gold standard's funding abilities on the part of the United States and other member nations.
www.lewrockwell.com /orig4/wiggin-addison6.html   (2268 words)

  
  Benjamin J. Cohen, Bretton Woods System
The Bretton Woods system is commonly understood to refer to the international monetary regime that prevailed from the end of World War II until the early 1970s.
The conference that gave birth to the system, held in the Amrican resort village of Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, was the culmination of some two and a half years of planning for postwar monetary reconstruction by the Treasuries of the United Kingdom and the United States.
Though multilateral in formal design, therefore, the Bretton Woods system in practice quickly became synonymous with a hegemonic monetary regime centered on the dollar, much in the same manner as the classical gold standard of the nineteenth century had come to be centered on Britain's pound sterling.
www.polsci.ucsb.edu /faculty/cohen/inpress/bretton.html   (4372 words)

  
  Bretton Woods system at AllExperts
The chief features of the Bretton Woods system were an obligation for each country to adopt a monetary policy that maintained the exchange rate of its currency within a fixed value—plus or minus one percent—in terms of gold; and the ability of the IMF to bridge temporary imbalances of payments.
The political bases for the Bretton Woods system are in the confluence of several key conditions: the shared experiences of the Great Depression, the concentration of power in a small number of states, and the presence of a dominant power willing and able to assume a leadership role in global monetary affairs.
Bretton Woods established a system of payments based on the dollar, in which all currencies were defined in relation to the dollar, itself convertible into gold, and above all, "as good as gold." The U.S. currency was now effectively the world currency, the standard to which every other currency was pegged.
en.allexperts.com /e/b/br/bretton_woods_system.htm   (9411 words)

  
 ipedia.com: Bretton Woods system Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The chief features of the Bretton Woods system were, first, an obligation for each country to maintain the exchange rate of its currency within a fixed value—plus or minus one percent—in terms of gold; and, secondly, the provision by the IMF of finance to bride temporary payments imbalances.
The political bases for the Bretton Woods system are to be found in the confluence of several key conditions: the shared experiences of the Great Depression, the concentration of power in a small number of states, and the presence of a dominant power willing and able to assume a leadership role.
The planners at Bretton Woods hoped to avoid a repeat of the debacle of the 1930s, when exchange controls undermined the international payments system that was the basis for world trade.
www.ipedia.com /bretton_woods_system.html   (6634 words)

  
 The Road to Bretton Woods - The Churchill Centre
Representatives of forty-five countries, all of the "United and Associated Nations," were convening at Bretton Woods to discuss the creation of international financial mechanisms tint were expected, in the words of a recent historian of these matter's, to "usher in a new age of global collaboration...
Indeed, we are compelled to recognize that a discussion of Bretton Woods in the context of Winston Churchill's passionate regard for the future of the British Empire and Commonwealth produces a story shot through with irony.
The road to Bretton Woods thus takes the observer past vistas of Britain's prewar and wartime economic decline; the circumstances of American and British national politics, relations - real and wished- for - between the two great English-speaking countries and their respective leaders; and Winston Churchill's romantic attachment to the British Empire and Commonwealth.
www.winstonchurchill.org /i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=572   (2847 words)

  
 SkiCentral - Ski Bretton Woods New Hampshire
Economical lodging in the White Mountains of New Hampshire.
Reduced rate lift tickets for Bretton Woods and Cannon.
Condominium rental at Bretton Woods Ski Area, New Hampshire.
www.skicentral.com /brettonwoods.html   (309 words)

  
 Bretton Woods Revisted: GATT (part 1 0f 4)
In 1944, some 24 nations met in Bretton Woods New Hampshire to map out a post war strategy to revitalize the global economy.
Building on the Bretton Woods agreement, there have been eight completed rounds of GATT negotiations since 1947.
bretton woods revisted: gatt (part 1 0f 4)
www.suite101.com /article.cfm/political_economy/5861   (517 words)

  
 LaRouche's New Bretton Woods System
In the United States, various state legislatures are discussing the New Bretton Woods proposal, and resolutons have been introduced in some legislatures, and it passed in the Alabama State Assembly.
The original Bretton Woods system came into being at a conference of 44 nations beginning on July 1, 1944, in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, convened on the initiative of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
LaRouche's New Bretton Woods economic policy, including resolutions introduced in the Senate of Italy, the European Parliament, the Commonwealth of Virginia, the Kentucky House of Representatives and the Alabama House of Representatives; therefore be it
www.schillerinstitute.org /economy/nbw/nbw.html   (3494 words)

  
 Goski.com New - Bretton Woods
Bretton Woods Mountain Resort is located on Route 302 in Bretton Woods, NH, in the middle of the beautiful White Mountains.
Bretton Woods is a great mountain, it is a real family mountain with some challenge.
Bretton Woods is a great place to learn to ski or ride.
www.goski.com /resorts/bretton/resort_welcome.html?cntry_or_state=states&rorc=New   (1085 words)

  
 Wikinfo | Bretton Woods system   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The chief features of the Bretton Woods system were, first, an obligation for each country to maintain the exchange rate of its currency within a fixed value—plus or minus one percent—in terms of gold; and, secondly, the provision by the IMF of finance to bridge temporary payments imbalances.
The big question at the Bretton Woods Conference with respect to the institution that would emerge as the IMF was the issue of future access to international liquidity and whether that source should be akin to a world central bank able to create new reserves at will or a more limited borrowing mechanism.
The collapse of the Bretton Woods system is a subject of intense debate, there are a variety of theories as to why it did so, ranging from the budget deficit problems, to blaming the Vietnam War, to marginal tax rates.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Bretton_Woods_system   (9260 words)

  
 The Bretton Woods Committee
The Bretton Woods Committee members are prominent Americans who support active U.S. engagement in the Bretton Woods institutions and keep a watchful eye on their evolution.
The common bond among Bretton Woods Committee members is their commitment to multilateral economic problem solving and their belief in the need for effective multilateral institutions.
Bretton Woods Committee members are in close contact with government leaders and senior officials of the multilateral institutions.
www.brettonwoods.org /members.html   (401 words)

  
 Bretton Woods entry
In July 1944, in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, representatives of 44 nations met to establish the standards by which international trade and finance would be conducted once the Second World War had ended.
Bretton Woods was certainly not the only reason for this "miracle," especially in light of the fact that not all of its provisions (in particular, the convertibility obligations) were in full force until 1958 and that the impact of U.S. policy, especially the Marshall Plan, was undoubtedly greater than that of the World Bank.
Though an attempt was made to save Bretton Woods in 1971 (the Smithsonian Agreement), by 1973 the inability to agree on par rates led to its collapse.
www.econ.tcu.edu /harvey/5133/bretton.html   (2338 words)

  
 Bretton Woods Agreement (1944): historical context, economic impact and related links
The delegates at Bretton Woods reached an agreement known as the Bretton Woods Agreement to establish a postwar international monetary system of convertible currencies, fixed exchange rates and free trade.
Under the Bretton Woods system, the IMF member countries agreed to a system of exchange rates that could be adjusted within defined parities with the U.S. dollar or, with the agreement of the IMF, changed to correct a fundamental disequilibrium in the balance of payments.
Advocates of the Bretton Woods system believed that stable exchange rates would avoid the “beggar thy neighbour” policies of the 1930s and benefit economies around the world by expanding international trade.
canadianeconomy.gc.ca /english/economy/1944Bretton_woods.html   (649 words)

  
 Ski and Snowboard at Bretton Woods Ski Resort, New Hampshire
Bretton Woods is a relatively new ski area by New Hampshire standards, having been started in 1973.
Bretton Woods touts itself as a family ski resort and it really is. With one base area, it’s difficult to get lost, although at times in the deep woods, you might feel lost.
Bretton's Wood also is home to the Lumber Yard Terrain Park, which hosts a "freestyle frenzy" informal jam session every Friday night.
www.skisnowboard.com /brettonwoods/index.html   (700 words)

  
 Capitalism In Crisis
Capital controls, ala Bretton Woods, not only guard against dislocation and crisis, but also allow governments to carry out monetary and tax policies, unemployment benefits, and social programs, and maintain public goods, all without fear of capital flight, which would, if allowed, limit such behavior.
The Bretton Woods system operated as intended for about a quarter century engendering the golden age of capitalism through the 1950s and 1960s.
That is, eliminating Bretton Woods and thereby allowing capital flight to undercut social support systems zapped labor big time.
www.zmag.org /zmag/articles/nov98edit.htm   (1162 words)

  
 What Has Government Done to Our Money? Bretton Woods and the New Gold Exchange Standard (the U.S.) 1945-1968
While the Bretton Woods system worked far better than the disaster of the 1930's, it worked only as another inflationary recrudescence of the gold-exchange standard of the 1920s and—like the 1920s—the system lived only on borrowed time.
In the Bretton Woods system, the United States pyramided dollars (in paper money and in bank deposits) on top of gold, in which dollars could be redeemed by foreign governments; while all other governments held dollars as their basic reserve and pyramided their currency on top of dollars.
For the rules of the Bretton Woods game provided that the West European countries had to keep piling upon their reserve, and even use these dollars as a base to inflate their own currency and credit.
www.mises.org /money/4s5.asp   (1003 words)

  
 Bretton Woods Ski Resort: OnTheSnow Overview of Bretton Woods New Hampshire
Bretton Woods fields a 1,500 foot vertical drop and 434 acres of terrain with nine lifts serving 101 trails and glades.
Despite all the fl diamond additions, Bretton Woods is still a family favorite, very modern in style, and is famous for hosting the International Monetary Conference of yore.
In addition to the terrain park on Bretton's Wood Trail, two new terrain parks will also be added to Rosebrook Meadow and Range View, for a total of three freestyle terrain areas.
www.onthesnow.com /NH/78/index.html?XE_AFF=R_Text&XE_LNK=Resort_Info   (309 words)

  
 Bretton Woods, New Hampshire - The Lodge At Bretton Woods - Hotel, Motel, Lodging   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The Lodge at Bretton Woods is your base for outdoor adventure in New Hampshire*s White Mountains.
In the shadow of Mount Washington, and in the heart of 18,000 acres of National Forest lands, the Lodge is part of the legendary Mount Washington Resort at Bretton Woods -- affording families all resort amenities, from golf, tennis and swimming to skiing, skating, and horseback riding.
The Lodge at Bretton Woods is part of the Mount Washington Resort at Bretton Woods -- affording families all resort amenities, from golf, tennis and swimming to skiing, skating, and horseback riding.
www.roadsideamerica.com /hotels-motels/hotelinfo/73079.html   (940 words)

  
 Remarks at the Development, Democracy and Security Bretton Woods Committee Conference
But Bretton Woods is the only case of leaders sitting down to reconstruct global economic relations after a major conflict, and not merely to slice up the world into power centers.
With no precedent to guide them, the pioneers of Bretton Woods had to rely on their own education, their own imagination, their own perspiration in order to be practical and to be effective.
As we think back about the origins and development of Bretton Woods, the key lesson is that we’ve got to keep doing what the Bretton Woods pioneers did: match theory against experience.
www.state.gov /secretary/former/powell/remarks/36649.htm   (4603 words)

  
 Bretton Woods
The North responded with pious declarations of its good intentions - but also with a hard nosed insistence that the proper forum for any economic forum continued to be the Bretton Woods institutions where they held the balance of power.
By the late 1 960s, however, the Bretton Woods dream of a stable monetary system of fixed exchange rates with the US dollar as the only international currency was collapsing under the strain of US trade and budgetary deficits.
And the Bretton Woods institutions themselves are coming under direct pressure from community activists and environmentalists calling for either their reform or outright abolition.
www.thirdworldtraveler.com /New_Global_Economy/Bretton_Woods_NI.html   (1076 words)

  
 Bretton Woods - Golf Outings
Bretton Woods' PGA Head Professional, Jim Napier, and his two assistant PGA Golf Professionals, Randy Barnes and Jason Hill, conduct over 100 golf outings per year.
Bretton Woods also offers the flexibility of either morning or afternoon shotgun starts.
You can rest assured that we are professionally committed to make your day at Bretton Woods a most memorable and enjoyable occasion for the participants, volunteers and organizers of your event.
www.bwrc.org /index.cfm?ID=174   (318 words)

  
 BRETTON WOODS PARTNERS WITH DALBELLO~ELAN SPORTS
As part of this partnership, Bretton Woods will be one of the first in the country to have the 2007-08 Elan and Dalbello products for both demo and retail sales.
“Bretton Woods’ state of the art grooming and terrain is perfect for Elan and Dalbello to showcase their products to the industry's retail buyers, as well as the public,” said Chris Ellms, Director of Ski Operations. 
A pedestrian village at the base of Bretton Woods Mountain Resort, complete with a variety of shopping, dining, lodging, and recreational options is also in the works.
www.ropeways.net /programm/seite.php?wert=903   (186 words)

  
 Great Glen to Bretton Woods Nordic Adventure annual cross country ski marathon
While the course begins on the trail system at Great Glen Trails and finishes 50 kilometers later at the Bretton Woods Nordic Center, the route from one touring center to the other includes Forest Service roads, hiking trails, a power line right of way and a rail trail.
The Great Glen to Bretton Woods Nordic Adventure was part of New England Nordic Ski Association’s (NENSA) New England Marathon Series and the American Marathon Series, which includes the famous American Birkebeiner.
Both Great Glen Trails and Bretton Woods Nordic look forward to putting the time and energy spent on the Nordic Adventure into new events in the future.
www.greatglentobrettonwoods.com   (499 words)

  
 Bretton Woods
Ever-increasing pressures in the 1960s culminated in the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in 1971, and it was reluctantly replaced with a regime of floating exchange rates.
As the Bretton Woods system evolved, the reserves of most countries became a mixture of gold and dollars.
The collapse of the Bretton Woods system did not generate a chaos as did the collapse of the international gold standard in the 1930s.
www.econ.iastate.edu /classes/econ355/choi/bre.htm   (2870 words)

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