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Topic: Bretton Woods Conference


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  CONFERENCE AT BRETTON WOODS
This Conference at Bretton Woods, representing nearly all the peoples of the world, has considered matters of international money and finance which are important for peace and prosperity.
The Conference has recommended that in carrying out the policies of the institutions here proposed special consideration should be given to the needs of countries which have suffered from enemy occupation and hostilities.
The proposals formulated at the Conference for the establishment of the Fund and the Bank are now submitted, in accordance with the terms of the invitation, for consideration of the governments and people of the countries represented.
www.ibiblio.org /pha/policy/1944/440722a.html   (0 words)

  
  Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Bretton Woods system
The chief features of the Bretton Woods system were an obligation for each country to adopt a monetary policy that maintained the exchange rate of its currency within a fixed value—plus or minus one percent—in terms of gold; and the ability of the IMF to bridge temporary imbalances of payments.
The political bases for the Bretton Woods system are in the confluence of several key conditions: the shared experiences of the Great Depression, the concentration of power in a small number of states, and the presence of a dominant power willing and able to assume a leadership role in global monetary affairs.
The big question at the Bretton Woods conference with respect to the institution that would emerge as the IMF was the issue of future access to international liquidity and whether that source should be akin to a world central bank able to create new reserves at will or a more limited borrowing mechanism.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Bretton_Woods_system   (8968 words)

  
 Benjamin J. Cohen, Bretton Woods System
The Bretton Woods system is commonly understood to refer to the international monetary regime that prevailed from the end of World War II until the early 1970s.
The conference that gave birth to the system, held in the Amrican resort village of Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, was the culmination of some two and a half years of planning for postwar monetary reconstruction by the Treasuries of the United Kingdom and the United States.
Though multilateral in formal design, therefore, the Bretton Woods system in practice quickly became synonymous with a hegemonic monetary regime centered on the dollar, much in the same manner as the classical gold standard of the nineteenth century had come to be centered on Britain's pound sterling.
www.polsci.ucsb.edu /faculty/cohen/inpress/bretton.html   (4372 words)

  
  Bretton Woods system at AllExperts
The chief features of the Bretton Woods system were an obligation for each country to adopt a monetary policy that maintained the exchange rate of its currency within a fixed value—plus or minus one percent—in terms of gold; and the ability of the IMF to bridge temporary imbalances of payments.
The political bases for the Bretton Woods system are in the confluence of several key conditions: the shared experiences of the Great Depression, the concentration of power in a small number of states, and the presence of a dominant power willing and able to assume a leadership role in global monetary affairs.
Officially established on December 27, 1945, when the 29 participating countries at the conference of Bretton Woods signed its Articles of Agreement, the IMF was to be the keeper of the rules and the main instrument of public international management.
en.allexperts.com /e/b/br/bretton_woods_system.htm   (9440 words)

  
  ipedia.com: Bretton Woods system Article   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The chief features of the Bretton Woods system were, first, an obligation for each country to maintain the exchange rate of its currency within a fixed value—plus or minus one percent—in terms of gold; and, secondly, the provision by the IMF of finance to bride temporary payments imbalances.
The political bases for the Bretton Woods system are to be found in the confluence of several key conditions: the shared experiences of the Great Depression, the concentration of power in a small number of states, and the presence of a dominant power willing and able to assume a leadership role.
Officially established on December 27, 1945, when the 29 participating countries at the conference of Bretton Woods signed its Articles of Agreement, the IMF was to be the keeper of the rules and the main instrument of public international management.
www.ipedia.com /bretton_woods_system.html   (6634 words)

  
 Bretton Woods
The common view at the Conference was that the depression of the 1 930s and the rise of fascism could be traced to the collapse of international trade and isolationist economic policies.
By the late 1 960s, however, the Bretton Woods dream of a stable monetary system of fixed exchange rates with the US dollar as the only international currency was collapsing under the strain of US trade and budgetary deficits.
And the Bretton Woods institutions themselves are coming under direct pressure from community activists and environmentalists calling for either their reform or outright abolition.
www.thirdworldtraveler.com /New_Global_Economy/Bretton_Woods_NI.html   (1076 words)

  
 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Bretton
Bretton Woods Conference (officially the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference) It met at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, in July 1944.
Plans were laid at the Bretton Woods Conference (1944) for the formation of a world bank; it was formally organized in 1945, when 28 countries ratified the agreement; there are now...
It was planned at the Bretton Woods Conference (1944), and its headquarters are in Washington, D.C. There is close collaboration between it and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Bretton   (939 words)

  
 United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference Summary
When discussions were under way at Bretton Woods for the creation of the World Bank, U.S. distaste for the "beggar-thy-neighbor" protectionism of the 1930s that had contributed to the worldwide economic depression and subsequent rise of totalitarianism had a large influence.
The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, commonly known as Bretton Woods conference, was a gathering of 730 delegates from all 45 Allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel, situated in the resort town of Bretton Woods, New Hampshire.
As a result of the conference, the Bretton Woods system of exchange rate management was set up, which remained in place until the early 1970s.
www.bookrags.com /United_Nations_Monetary_and_Financial_Conference   (1867 words)

  
 Bretton Woods Conference - Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Bretton Woods Conference name commonly given to the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, held (July 1-22, 1944) at Bretton Woods, N.H. The conference resulted in the creation of the International Monetary Fund, to promote international monetary cooperation, and of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Monterrey Conference gives timely life to quest for development cooperation says Secretary-General, as ECOSOC meets with Bretton Woods institutions.
ECOSOC continues consideration of follow-up to major United Nations conferences, summits; Speakers stress need for monitoring mechanisms, political will, harmonization, and increased dialogue with Bretton Woods Institutions.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-BrettonW.html   (656 words)

  
 Wikinfo | Bretton Woods system   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The chief features of the Bretton Woods system were, first, an obligation for each country to maintain the exchange rate of its currency within a fixed value—plus or minus one percent—in terms of gold; and, secondly, the provision by the IMF of finance to bridge temporary payments imbalances.
The attempt to maintain that peg collapsed in November 1968, and a new policy program was attempted: to convert Bretton Woods to a system where the enforcement mechanism floated by some means, which would be set by either fiat, or by a restriction to honor foreign accounts.
The collapse of the Bretton Woods system is a subject of intense debate, there are a variety of theories as to why it did so, ranging from the budget deficit problems, to blaming the Vietnam War, to marginal tax rates.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Bretton_Woods_system   (9260 words)

  
 Conference at Bretton Woods   (Site not responding. Last check: )
This Conference at Bretton Woods, representing nearly all the peoples of the world, has considered matters of international money and finance which are important for peace and prosperity.
The Conference has recommended that in carrying out the policies of the institutions here proposed special consideration should be given to the needs of countries which have suffered from enemy occupation and hostilities.
The proposals formulated at the Conference for the establishment of the Fund and the Bank are now submitted, in accordance with the terms of the invitation, for consideration of the governments and people of the countries represented.
teachingamericanhistory.org /library/index.asp?documentprint=707   (674 words)

  
 Bretton Woods Agreement (1944): historical context, economic impact and related links
The delegates at Bretton Woods reached an agreement known as the Bretton Woods Agreement to establish a postwar international monetary system of convertible currencies, fixed exchange rates and free trade.
Under the Bretton Woods system, the IMF member countries agreed to a system of exchange rates that could be adjusted within defined parities with the U.S. dollar or, with the agreement of the IMF, changed to correct a fundamental disequilibrium in the balance of payments.
Advocates of the Bretton Woods system believed that stable exchange rates would avoid the “beggar thy neighbour” policies of the 1930s and benefit economies around the world by expanding international trade.
canadianeconomy.gc.ca /english/economy/1944Bretton_woods.html   (649 words)

  
 The Rise and Fall of Betton Woods, by J. Orlin Grabbe   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Bretton Woods is a tiny ski village in the White Mountains whose notable features are the world's longest cog railway and the mammoth Mount Washington Resort Hotel--which, situated at the foot of the Presidential range, is an ideal setting for a conference.
Bretton Woods was part of an attempt to avoid a repetition of the same mistakes when the war with Hitler was over.
Although forty-four nations signed the Bretton Woods agreement, it was primarily the United States and Great Britain who negotiated the terms, each intent on persuading everyone else to adopt its particular vision of postwar monetary arrangements.
www.aci.net /kalliste/bretton_woods.htm   (11932 words)

  
 Ski and Snowboard at Bretton Woods Ski Resort, New Hampshire
Bretton Woods is a relatively new ski area by New Hampshire standards, having been started in 1973.
Bretton Woods touts itself as a family ski resort and it really is. With one base area, it’s difficult to get lost, although at times in the deep woods, you might feel lost.
Bretton's Wood also is home to the Lumber Yard Terrain Park, which hosts a "freestyle frenzy" informal jam session every Friday night.
www.skisnowboard.com /brettonwoods/index.html   (700 words)

  
 Conference at Bretton Woods   (Site not responding. Last check: )
This Conference at Bretton Woods, representing nearly all the peoples of the world, has considered matters of international money and finance which are important for peace and prosperity.
The Conference has recommended that in carrying out the policies of the institutions here proposed special consideration should be given to the needs of countries which have suffered from enemy occupation and hostilities.
The proposals formulated at the Conference for the establishment of the Fund and the Bank are now submitted, in accordance with the terms of the invitation, for consideration of the governments and people of the countries represented.
www.teachingamericanhistory.org /library/index.asp?document=707   (691 words)

  
 Mount Washington Hotel & Resort, Bretton Woods, New Hampshire
The grand Mount Washington Hotel and Resort in Bretton Woods NH is famous for the Bretton Woods conference that established the world's monetary system.
The 170-room grand hotel was the site of the famous Bretton Woods conference of 1944 which established the world monetary system for the postwar period.
The Lodge at Bretton Woods out on the highway (US 302) is associated with the hotel, and although the hotel operates only from late May to mid-October, the lodge stays open both winter and summer.
www.newenglandtravelplanner.com /go/nh/white_mts/bretton_woods/mt_wash_hotel.html   (308 words)

  
 When the Bretton Woods system collapsed   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The crisis of the Bretton Woods system can be seen as a particular and very dramatic instance of the clash of national economic regulation with the logic of internationalism.
The collapse of the Bretton Woods system was an initial expression of the deepening contradiction between the inherent tendency of the productive forces to develop on a global scale and the nation-state system.
The Bretton Woods system was established in 1944 as the major capitalist powers initiated a program of national regulation aimed at containing the contradictions of the world economy and preventing the development of socialist revolution.
www.wsws.org /articles/2001/aug2001/bw-a16.shtml   (2505 words)

  
 (right) at the Bretton Woods Conference   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Bretton Woods Web Site with the representatives of the United States on any other time the adjustment of any particular Fund shall be made with reasonable despatch by to be a member, it shall remain liable Nothing in this Section shall be deemed to
furniture wood shop on requests occasioned thereby which are presented by them; or (iv) when the currency of the The Bank shall impose no conditions that the the form of gold, mostly to Europe.
Bretton Woods cordially invites you to shall be appointed by the President of the
woods.yourwoodart.net /bretton_woods/united.html   (1564 words)

  
 Bretton Woods and the UN system - relationship of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank to the UN ...
Bretton Woods and the UN system - relationship of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank to the UN Ecumenical Review, The, July, 1995 by Hans W. Singer
The Bretton Woods institutions - the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank - derive their name from the small village in the northeastern US state of New Hampshire, near the Canadian border, where the conference establishing them was held in 1944.
The Bretton Woods system is not only de facto independent but is actually dominant and immensely more powerful than the UN system.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m2065/is_n3_v47/ai_17386929   (1016 words)

  
 Truman Library - Ivan B. White Oral History Interview
In June 1944 I was detailed to the Bretton Woods Conference to act as liaison officer with the Latin-American delegations, which during the wartime period constituted about 40 percent of the total delegations.
Towards the end of the conference President Truman was giving a reception for the 44 governors of the Bank and Fund, usually finance ministers of the respective countries.
Bretton Woods and the preliminary negotiations for the Bank and the Fund.
www.trumanlibrary.org /oralhist/whiteib.htm   (5735 words)

  
 [No title]
The spirit of the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944 was international and focused on long term reconciliation (Section I).
The spirit of the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944 was international and focused on long term reconciliation.
Although agreement was reached on a charter for the ITO at a 1947 conference held in Havana, it was not ratified.
www.rbwf.org /papers/MottStudy.doc   (5007 words)

  
 Commanding Heights : Bretton Woods Conference: | on PBS
In 1944 the major world powers met at the Bretton Woods Conference in New Hampshire in the United States to organize an international monetary system that would alleviate many of the foreign-exchange problems created by World War II.
The IMF operates as a United Nations specialized agency and is a permanent forum for consideration of issues of international payments, in which member nations are encouraged to maintain an orderly pattern of exchange rates and to avoid restrictive exchange practices.
The IMF was established, along with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), at the UN Monetary and Financial Conference held in 1944 at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/commandingheights/shared/minitextlo/info_brettonwoods.html   (244 words)

  
 The Bretton Woods Agreement   (Site not responding. Last check: )
In the latter stages of WWII, The Bretton Woods agreement was reached on the initiative of the USA in July 1944.
The Bretton Woods Conference rejected John Maynard Keynes suggestion for a new world reserve currency in favor of a system built on the US dollar.
The Bretton Woods agreement resulted in a system of fixed exchange rates that reinstated the gold standard partly, fixing the US dollar at USD35/oz and fixing the other main currencies to the dollar - intended to be on a permanent basis.
www.universityforex.com /courses/free/intro_forex/part1/bretton.htm   (203 words)

  
 Bretton Woods Conference
We are convening the Bretton Woods Revisited conference to facilitate critical discussion and to encourage networking between and within the generations.
This is a conference where you can expect to share your ideas, learn from other perspectives, and engage in a substantive discussion about the future of the global economy and multilateral institutions.
U.S. Delegation to Bretton Woods Monetary and Financial Conference, 1944; member of the President's Council of Economic Advisors (1955-57); Senior Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research (1970-74); consultant to the World Bank (1968-69 and 1990-91); Professor Emeritus, economics, University of Oregon.
www.mail-archive.com /pen-l@galaxy.csuchico.edu/msg01668.html   (1977 words)

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