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Topic: Brezhnev Doctrine


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In the News (Tue 2 Sep 14)

  
  CNN Cold War - Historical Documents: Speech by Leonid Brezhnev
It was known in the West as the "Brezhnev Doctrine" and would remain influential until 1989, when Mikhail Gorbachev denounced the policy.
In connection with the events in Czechoslovakia the question of the correlation and interdependence of the national interests of the socialist countries and their international duties acquire particular topical and acute importance.
Discharging their internationalist duty toward the fraternal peoples of Czechoslovakia and defending their own socialist gains, the U.S.S.R. and the other socialist states had to act decisively and they did act against the antisocialist forces in Czechoslovakia.
www.cnn.com /SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/14/documents/doctrine   (834 words)

  
  NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Leonid Brezhnev   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Brezhnev belonged to the first generation of Soviet Communists who had no adult memories of Russia before the revolution, and who were too young to have participated in the leadership struggles in the Communist Party which followed Lenin's death in 1924.
Brezhnev's assertion that the Soviet Union had the right to interfere in the internal affairs of its satellites to "safeguard socialism" became known as the Brezhnev Doctrine, although it was really a restatement of existing Soviet policy, as Khrushchev had shown in Hungary in 1956.
Unlike the cult of Stalin, however, the Brezhnev cult was widely seen as hollow and cynical, and, in the absence of the purge, could command neither respect nor fear, resulting in a lack of reception and apathy.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Leonid-Brezhnev   (8810 words)

  
  Brezhnev - MSN Encarta
Leonid Ilich Brezhnev was born in Kamenskoye (present-day Dniprodzerzhyns’k, Ukraine) in the southwestern territory of the Russian Empire.
Brezhnev lost his candidate membership and was appointed deputy head of the political arm of the armed forces.
In 1964 Brezhnev was a key actor in the ouster of his former mentor, Khrushchev, who was accused by his party colleagues of sponsoring a variety of poorly planned and unsuccessful projects.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761551585/Brezhnev_LeonidIlich.html   (1093 words)

  
 Leonid Brezhnev, 1906-1982
Leonid Ilich Brezhnev, was born at Kamenskoye, Ukraine.
When Stalin died (March 1953), Brezhnev lost his posts on the Central Committee and in the Politburo and had to accept the position of deputy head of the political department of the Ministry of Defense with the rank of lieutenant general.
Brezhnev was soon promoted to first secretary of the Kazakstan Communist Party (1955), and in 1956 he was reelected to his posts on the CPSU Central Committee and in the Politburo.
www.historyguide.org /europe/brezhnev.html   (862 words)

  
 Brezhnev Doctrine - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
In practice, this meant that "limited sovereignty" of communist parties was allowed, but no country would be allowed to leave the Warsaw Pact, disturb a nation's communist party's monopoly on power, or in any way compromise the strength of the Eastern bloc.
The doctrine was used to justify the invasions of Czechoslovakia that terminated the Prague Spring in 1968 and of the non-Warsaw Pact nation of Afghanistan in 1979.
The Brezhnev Doctrine was superseded by the facetiously named Sinatra Doctrine in 1989.
www.arikah.net /encyclopedia/Brezhnev_Doctrine   (223 words)

  
 Leonid Brezhnev   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Brezhnev was born in Kamenskoye (now Dniprodzerzhyns'k) in Ukraine, the son of a steel worker.
In May Brezhnev visited West Germany, and in June he made a state visit to the U.S. The high point of the Brezhnev "detente" era was the signing of the Helsinki Final Act in 1975, which recognised the postwar frontiers in eastern and central Europe and in effect legitimised Soviet hegemony over the region.
Brezhnev's final and fatal legacy to his successors was the December 1979 decision to intervene in Afghanistan, where an unpopular Communist regime was struggling to hold power.
www.dejavu.org /cgi-bin/get.cgi?ver=93&url=http://articles.gourt.com/%22http%3A%2F%2Farticles.gourt.com%2F%3Farticle%3DBrezhnev   (2705 words)

  
 sociology - Leonid Brezhnev
Brezhnev belonged to the first generation of Soviet Communists who had no adult memories of Russia before the revolution, and who were too young to have participated in the leadership struggles in the Communist Party which followed Lenin's death in 1924.
Brezhnev's assertion that the Soviet Union had the right to interfere in the internal affairs of its satellites to "safeguard socialism" became known as the Brezhnev Doctrine, although it was really a restatement of existing Soviet policy, as Khrushchev had shown in Hungary in 1956.
Brezhnev's final and fatal legacy to his successors was the December 1979 decision to intervene in Afghanistan, where an unpopular Communist regime was struggling to hold power.
www.aboutsociology.com /sociology/Leonid_Brezhnev   (2346 words)

  
 Wikipedia: Brezhnev Doctrine
The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev, which stated:
This effectively meant that no country was allowed to leave the Warsaw pact, and the doctrine was used to justify the invasions of Czechoslovakia in 1968 as well as the non-Warsaw pact nation of Afghanistan in 1979.
The Brezhnev Doctrine was superceded by the Sinatra Doctrine.
www.factbook.org /wikipedia/en/b/br/brezhnev_doctrine.html   (120 words)

  
 Brezhnev Doctrine
The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers' Party on November 13, 1968, which stated:
Implicit in this doctrine was that the leadership of the Soviet Union reserved to itself the right to define "socialism" and "capitalism." This meant in practice that no country was allowed to leave the Warsaw Pact or to disturb that nation's communist party's monopoly on power.
The doctrine was used to justify the invasions of Czechoslovakia that terminated the Prague Spring in 1968 and of the non-Warsaw Pact nation of Afghanistan in 1979.
www.xasa.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/b/br/brezhnev_doctrine.html   (178 words)

  
 Russia the Brezhnev doctrine, Brezhnev biography, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, Lenoid Brezhnev, Kravchuk or Brezhnev, ...
Russia the Brezhnev doctrine, Brezhnev biography, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, Lenoid Brezhnev, Kravchuk or Brezhnev, Leonard Brezhnev on RussiansAbroad.com
Brezhnev, who took the post of first secretary, may have been viewed originally by his colleagues as an interim appointee.
But Brezhnev's rise was very gradual; only in 1971, when he succeeded in appointing four close associates to the Politburo, did it become clear that his was the most influential voice in the collective leadership.
www.russiansabroad.com /russian_history_283.html   (613 words)

  
 Doctrine Photos, Videos, And Journals   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Doctrine, from Latin doctrina (compare doctor), means "a code of beliefs", "a body of teachings" or "instructions", taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system.
In matters of foreign policy, a doctrine is a body of axioms fundamental to the exercise of a nation's foreign policy.
Doctrines of this sort are almost always presented as the personal creations of one particular political leader, whom they are named after.
www.buzznet.com /tags/doctrine   (218 words)

  
 Russia - The Brezhnev Era
Brezhnev, who took the post of first secretary, may have been viewed originally by his colleagues as an interim appointee.
But Brezhnev's rise was very gradual; only in 1971, when he succeeded in appointing four close associates to the Politburo, did it become clear that his was the most influential voice in the collective leadership.
Although a second SALT agreement was signed by Brezhnev and President Jimmy Carter in Vienna in 1979, after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan the Carter administration withdrew the agreement from consideration by the United States Senate, and détente effectively came to an end.
www.countrystudies.us /russia/14.htm   (2601 words)

  
 Leonid Brezhnev   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Brezhnev was born on Dec 19, 1906, in Kamenskoye, Ukraine.
He was the author of the "Brezhnev Doctrine," which stated that a threat to the cause of socialism in one communist country was a threat to all communist countries.
During Brezhnev's leadership, Soviet expansion was also seen in the buildup of military might at the expense of domestic prosperity and in the invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, again to maintain a communist government.
www.fortunecity.com /boozers/ferret/451/profiles/brezhnev.htm   (443 words)

  
 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Leonid Brezhnev
In 1936, he was transferred to the regional centre of Dnepropetrovsk and, in 1939, he became Party Secretary in Dnepropetrovsk, in charge of the city's important defense industries.
In May, Brezhnev visited West Germany, and, in June, he made a state visit to the U.S. The high point of the Brezhnev "detente" era was the signing of the Helsinki Final Act in 1975, which recognized the postwar frontiers in eastern and central Europe and, in effect, legitimized Soviet hegemony over the region.
Brezhnev was married to Viktoria Petrovna (1912-1995) and lived in 26 Kutuzovsky Prospekt, Moscow.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Leonid_Brezhnev   (2629 words)

  
 Camelot Village: Britain's Heritage and History   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Leonid Brezhnev (1906-82) was the statesman who seized the leadership of the Soviet Communist Party from Nikita Khrushchev in 1964, and remained the USSR's head of state until his death.
Brezhnev persecuted religious and political dissidents in the Soviet Union, but reached various agreements with the USA on reducing the two nations' stocks of nuclear weapons.
Brezhnev is remembered for his craggy face and bushy eyebrows, and his apparent senility towards the end of his presidency.
www.camelotintl.com /world/02leonid_brezhnev.html   (177 words)

  
 Leonid Brezhnev
Leonid Brezhnev, the son of a steelworker, was born in Kamenskoye, in the Soviet Union in 1906.
Brezhnev had come to power in October 1964, as a result of a compromise between the groups which ousted Khrushchev.
In a political sense, Brezhnevism was nothing but a conservative reaction against Khrushchev's attempt at reforming the authoritarian model of his time.
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk /COLDbrezhnev.htm   (1594 words)

  
 Leonid Brezhnev
Brezhnev was born in Ukraine in December 1906 to a steelworking family.
Brezhnev publicly derided Dubcek as “revisionist” and “anti-Soviet,” and invoked provisions of the Warsaw Pact to invade the Soviet satellite.
Brezhnev claimed that Russia had a right to “safeguard socialism.” That maneuver became known as the “Brezhnev Doctrine,” even though Khrushchev had used the tactic 12 years earlier in Hungary.
www.u-s-history.com /pages/h1883.html   (1331 words)

  
 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Eastern Block   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Hungary was invaded by the Red Army in 1956 after it had overthrown its pro-Soviet government; Czechoslovakia was similarly invaded in 1968 after a period of liberalization known as the Prague Spring.
The latter invasion was codified in formal Soviet policy as the Brezhnev Doctrine.
The Eastern bloc came to an end with the collapse of the pro-Soviet regimes in Eastern Europe in 1989.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Eastern-Block   (537 words)

  
 Russia - The Brezhnev Era
Although a second SALT agreement was signed by Brezhnev and President Jimmy Carter in Vienna in 1979, after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan the Carter administration withdrew the agreement from consideration by the United States Senate, and détente effectively came to an end.
His prospects of succeeding Brezhnev, however, were hurt by political problems plaguing the general secretary in the early 1980s.
By avoiding necessary political and economic change, the Brezhnev leadership ensured the economic and political decline that the country experienced during the 1980s.
countrystudies.us /russia/14.htm   (2601 words)

  
 Nostalgia Remains Strong for Brezhnev Era
Brezhnev was not a cruel man, but he had no understanding of why people needed civil liberties, she said.
Brezhnev was furious but ordered his aides to make sure that the soldier, who was injured, received good treatment in the hospital, a two-week leave, and no disciplinary action.
Leonid Brezhnev, Aleksei Kosygin, Nikolay V. Podgorny, Aleksandr Shelepin and the KGB chief Semichastny ousted Russia's former dictator, Nikita Khrushchev, in a coup in 1964.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/f-news/1754264/posts   (2469 words)

  
 Serbia Info News / Junge Welt: Clinton's Doctrine Facing Fiasco
Belgrade, April 28, 1999 (Tanjug) Clinton's doctrine is going to meet with fiasco in Yugoslavia just as it happened with Brezhnev's doctrine in Afghanistan, the Berlin Junge Welt states in its commentary entitled "Acclamation Before a Fiasco".
The newspaper reminds that the essence of Brezhnev's doctrine was that the big Soviet brother could interfere in the internal affairs of the members of the Warsaw Pact at its own discretion and as it found fit, however, the sovereignty of the members was, nevertheless, limited.
The second rule of Clinton's doctrine cited by the Berlin newspaper is: If the public in a certain country has an opposite view to that of the American president, any truly democratic government is not to respect its public opinion but its obligations in relation to the Alliance i.e.
www.serbia-info.com /news/1999-04/29/11412.html   (1144 words)

  
 RUSNET.NL :: Encyclopedia :: B :: Brezhnev, Leonid Ilyich
Following Nikita Khrushchev's fall from power in 1964, which Brezhnev helped to engineer, he was named first secretary (later general secretary) of the Communist party.
In 1968, in support of the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, he enunciated the "Brezhnev doctrine," asserting that the USSR could intervene in the domestic affairs of any Soviet bloc nation if Communist rule were threatened.
Under Mikhail Gorbachev, Brezhnev's regime was criticised for its corruption and failed economic policies.
www.rusnet.nl /encyclo/b/print/brezhnev.shtml   (273 words)

  
 Transcript of Brezhnev's Telephone Conversation with Dubcek
Brezhnev, that these are very complex matters, which can't be resolved as easily as you might think.
Brezhnev, that this is a complex question, the resolution of which requires that we convene a plenum.
Brezhnev, you should resort to all the measures that your CC Politburo believes are appropriate.
www.fas.harvard.edu /~hpcws/translation.htm   (6218 words)

  
 The Rise and Fall of the Brezhnev Doctrine in Soviet Foreign Policy, by Matthew J. Ouimet. Introduction.   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Rise and Fall of the Brezhnev Doctrine in Soviet Foreign Policy, by Matthew J. Ouimet.
Even examinations that spotlight the Brezhnev Doctrine treat this marriage of ideology and military intervention as virtually unaltered from its origins in 1968 until the late Gorbachev era.
At the center of this consolidation campaign was the fundamental assertion of the Brezhnev Doctrine—that bloc nations had both a right and a responsibility to support and defend one another against all foes, foreign and domestic.
uncpress.unc.edu /chapters/ouimet_rise.html   (2641 words)

  
 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Brezhnev,   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Brezhnev, Leonid Ilyich The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition...
Brezhnev, Leonid Ilyich (1906–82) Soviet statesman, effective ruler from the mid-1960s until his death.
A protégé of Leonid Brezhnev, he rose through Communist party ranks in the 1950s, becoming a full member of the Central Committee (1971) and the Politburo (1978).
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Brezhnev,   (746 words)

  
 The Hard Truths of the Brezhnev Legacy
The death of Leonid Brezhnev is already producing an assortment of favorable reminiscences, as well as hopeful expectations for the course of future U.S.-Soviet relations: we hear Jimmy Carter fondly recalling Brezhnev's fervent desire for world peace and Cyrus Vance stating that Brezhnev's greatest legacy is his arms control efforts.
The most dramatic demonstration of this is the "Brezhnev Doctrine" of 1968., Brezhnev used this to justify the Soviet invasion' of Czechoslovakia in 1968, the invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and the 'suppression of Polish liberties in 1981.
The Soviets under Brezhnev continued to refuse to discuss the return to Japan of islands seized at the end of World'War II; in contrast, the U.S. voluntarily returned Okinawa, won at the cost of bloody fighting, to Japan.
www.heritage.org /research/russiaandeurasia/EM8.cfm   (1026 words)

  
 Leonid Ilich Brezhnev   (Site not responding. Last check: )
In the postwar years Brezhnev worked under Nikita KHRUSHCHEV in Ukraine, later serving as Communist party chief in Moldavia (1950-53) and Kazakhstan (1954-56).
Brezhnev first ruled the country in tandem with Prime Minister Aleksei KOSYGIN and later as the first among the "collective leadership" of the party.
For this reason, the Brezhnev era was later dubbed the "period of stagnation." Brezhnev suppressed (1968) reform Communism in Czechoslovakia and formulated the Brezhnev Doctrine, which asserted the USSR's right to intervene against "anti-socialist degeneration" within the Soviet bloc.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Acropolis/7477/brezhnev.htm   (325 words)

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