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Topic: Bribery

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  Bribery - Wex
Bribery is the offer of money, goods, services, information or anything else of value, which is presented with the intent of influencing the actions, opinions, or decisions of the taker.
Violators may be prosecuted under 18 U.S.C. 201 - Bribery
This page was last modified 17:08, 27 Oct 2005 by LII Editor.
www.law.cornell.edu /wex/index.php/Bribery   (65 words)

bribery will be touched upon here; the historical aspect of the question will be dealt with in the articles on the nations and countries.
bribery in connection with the administration of justice.
The judge on his assumption of office undertakes to administer justice to all who come before him, and in most countries binds himself by a special oath to do his duty.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/02778c.htm   (972 words)

  Australian Government Attorneys General's Department - Crime Prevention and Community Safety - Bribery of Foreign ...
Bribery includes providing or promising to provide a benefit (including non-monetary and non-tangible inducements) to another person where that benefit is not legitimately due.
Companies can be held to be criminally responsible for the conduct of a corporate agent in a range of situations, including where the corporate culture directs, encourages, tolerates or leads to breaches of the legislation, or where the company fails to create and maintain a corporate culture that requires compliance with the law.
However, domestic bribery is unlawful in almost every country in the world, and it is irrelevant that the conduct is customary or officially tolerated.
www.ag.gov.au /foreignbribery   (1103 words)

  Bribery - LoveToKnow 1911
Bribery at political elections was at common law punishable by indictment or information, but numerous statutes have been passed dealing with it as a "corrupt practice." In this sense, the word is elastic in meaning and may embrace any method of corruptly influencing another for the purpose of securing his vote (see Corrupt Practices).
In many states, bribery or the attempt to bribe is made a felony, and is punishable with varying terms of imprisonment, in some jurisdictions it may be with a period not exceeding ten years.
Bribery may also take the form of a secret commission (q.v.), a profit made by an agent, in the course of his employment, without the knowledge of his principal.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Bribery   (1149 words)

 bribery - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Bribery, in law, the illegal influencing of any person in the exercise of a public duty through the payment of money or anything of value.
Betrayal: Just for a handful of…, Bribery: CLOWN Though authority be a…, Bribery: I have often noticed that…, Bribery: If a man does things for you...
Bribery: If a man does things for you which seem to be…
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/search.aspx?q=bribery   (124 words)

DEVELOPMENT OF THE U.S. Bribery, the purchase of influence or favor from a public official, is a topic of great import to companies that do business outside the United States.
Although some claim even the U.S. bribery laws are too weak and rife with loopholes, the U.S. antibribery policy is one of the world's toughest and has been a model for other countries.
In addition, under the Omnibus Trade Act, some forms of bribery are considered acceptable such as transaction bribes—payments made to speed the completion of a routine, clerical-type function such as the processing of papers or moving goods through customs.
www.referenceforbusiness.com /encyclopedia/Bre-Cap/Bribery.html   (1376 words)

 Bribery   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
It suggests that, while bribery is often mentioned in the codes of conduct, there is considerable diversity in the language and concepts adopted in antibribery commitments.
Bribery and corruption are now a major public concern in many countries, partly as a result of press coverage of corruption involving public officials.
The fight against bribery needs to be conducted on a broad front and to draw on support from a wide variety of actors on a wide variety of issues (public and private governance, public sector management, freeing up other conduits of public accountability and transparency such as the press).
www2.una.edu /kabsher/bribery.htm   (6286 words)

 [No title]
Each Party shall take such measures as may be necessary to provide that the bribe and the proceeds of the bribery of a foreign public official, or property the value of which corresponds to that of such proceeds, are subject to seizure and confiscation or that monetary sanctions of comparable effect are applicable.
Bribery of a foreign public official shall be deemed to be included as an extraditable offence under the laws of the Parties and the extradition treaties between them.
A Party which declines a request to extradite a person for bribery of a foreign public official solely on the ground that the person is its national shall submit the case to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution.
www.fordham.edu /economics/vinod/cie/oecd-con.htm   (1634 words)

 TED Case Study-Transnational Bribery
While bribery is outlawed in most countries, the number of players in international trade and its increasing importance to the world economy, combined with the relative newness of transnational governing organizations such as the World Trade Organization all combine to make combating bribery between counties difficult.
The Convention defines bribery as the offering, promising or giving of something in order to influence a public official in the execution of his or her official duties.
The overall purpose of the Convention is to prevent bribery in international business transactions by requiring countries to establish the bribing of a foreign public official as a criminal offence.
www.american.edu /TED/bribery.htm   (1819 words)

 'Unjust Money Never Lasts': Bribery and the Future of a Changing Lebanon
Almost all the employees told me that bribery is very low in their departments, while very few, who claim to reject bribery, told me (confidentially) that it runs deep in everything their coworkers do.
Bribery is flourishing due to harsh economic conditions amid a large spread of corruption and an incompetent leadership.
Bribery allows illegal structures to be built, unfair contracts to be signed, dishonest governmental bids to be handed out, and incompetent persons to occupy powerful positions.
www.scu.edu /ethics/publications/submitted/Charmsine/bribery.html   (2055 words)

 Working Paper: The Risks of Bribery in Business
Bribery not only poses the risk of legal punishment to the colluding parties, but leads to considerable economic risk for the briber and the bribed agent's principal.
The principal then has the option of either treating the contract based on bribery as void ab initio or, if it is too late for this, of terminating the contract ex nunc or, if he prefers, continuing to affirm it.
In addition, he would have to compensate all damages caused by his bribery, such as the partner's futile expenditures, his lost benefits and further compensation or penalties that the deceived principal is obliged to pay third parties.
www.transparency.org /working_papers/thematic/validitycontracts.html   (804 words)

 BSR » Business for Social Responsibility - Corruption and Bribery
Bribery and corruption have become increasingly unacceptable to a broad range of stakeholders, including ordinary citizens who once viewed such practices as inevitable and without direct effect on their lives.
Bribery is unethical because it undermines the fairness of the market, distorts transaction costs and leads to the destruction of an open, honest and decent society.
Bribery is illegal under the laws of almost all the countries in which BP operates and is also illegal globally under the U.K.'s Anti-Terrorism Act and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
www.bsr.org /CSRResources/IssueBriefDetail.cfm?DocumentID=49621   (8049 words)

In bribery cases, the bribe taker is already an agent for a principal before he accepts the bribe.
Bribery, then, is a payment which creates a bond of precisely the sort made morally wrong by prior contractual relationships.
Bribery occurs frequently on in country/state X; many who engage in it are not exposed and few suffer significant penalties for bribery.
www.wku.edu /~jan.garrett/321/bribery.htm   (1736 words)

 RECOMMENDATION OF THE COUNCIL on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions
Bribery of foreign public officials in order to obtain or retain business is an offence irrespective of the value or the outcome of the bribe, of perceptions of local custom or of the tolerance of bribery by local authorities.
The offence of bribery of foreign public officials should be sanctioned/punishable by effective, proportionate and dissuasive criminal penalties, sufficient to secure effective mutual legal assistance and extradition, comparable to those applicable to the bribers in cases of corruption of domestic public officials.
The bribery of foreign public officials should be made a predicate offence for purposes of money laundering legislation where bribery of a domestic public official is a money laundering predicate offence, without regard to the place where the bribery occurs.
www.osec.doc.gov /ogc/occic/bribery.html   (2316 words)

 Bribery in Criminal Law - Associated Content
Bribery is the defined by The Free Legal Dictionary as “the crime of giving or taking money or some other valuable item in order to influence a public official or person of authority in the performance of his/her duties”.
Bribery can be difficult to prove because professionals who are experienced in the matter have learned how to alter their records and bank receipts to disguise bribery as a legitimate purchase.
Usually, bribery is only brought to trial once someone comes forward with knowledge of the bribe, and even then, if there are no corroborating witnesses, the suspect may never see justice for his or her crimes.
www.associatedcontent.com /article/71923/bribery_in_criminal_law.html   (507 words)

 Regarding Bribery
The word ‘bribery’ refers to ‘a payment made to a person, who holds a certain authority, in consideration of a misuse of that authority to gain a certain benefit for the payer, which the payer is legally and morally not entitled to get’.
Bribery not only gets for the rich that which is not their right, but worse than that, most of the times, it deprives the poor of what is rightfully theirs.
If bribery is allowed to flourish in a society, it shall soon result in the moral degeneration of the society to the extent that even justice shall become a saleable commodity.
www.understanding-islam.com /re/e-032.htm   (967 words)

 Is bribery a regressive tax?
The authors then go on to argue that "bribery is not a regressive tax" presumably because it is mostly the rich who have to pay.
Be that as it may, the authors say "given this, we think it is unlikely that any differential deterrence effect of bribery on use by the poor and non-poor would be large enough to make the tax regressive for the whole population.
The title of the article is a question, "Is bribery a regressive tax?" In many cases, "bribery" is a form of extortion.
in.rediff.com /money/2005/nov/05guest.htm   (749 words)

 Bribery allegedly caught on tape - The Boston Globe
It said he had a history of involvement in numerous bribery schemes and used his family to hide his interest in high-tech business ventures he promoted in Nigeria, Ghana, and Cameroon.
In one instance, at an unnamed District of Columbia restaurant, Jefferson was exchanging cryptic notes with investor Lori Mody and discussing illegal kickbacks for his children in a telecommunications venture in Nigeria in which she had invested, the affidavit said.
The Justice Department is conducting three separate bribery investigations involving members of Congress in both parties.
www.boston.com /news/nation/washington/articles/2006/05/22/bribery_allegedly_caught_on_tape   (855 words)

 Bribery Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
One of the weaknesses of this argument is that it bases the morality of bribery solely on cultural acceptance of the practice.
Bribery, however, doesn't fit within this definition of culturally influenced morality because it is universally condemned in both testaments.
A third negative consequence of bribery is that it involves oppressing the powerless.
www.mmint.org /resources/Bribery_Article.aspx   (3087 words)

 Bribery Laws
We are encouraged by information coming to our attention that some Parties are pursuing allegations of bribery of foreign officials and that some cases may indeed be brought.
When information is received relating to acts of bribery that may fall within the jurisdiction of other Parties to the Convention, the information will be forwarded, as appropriate, to national authorities for action.
These channels of bribery and corruption are covered by the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, but not specifically covered by the Convention.
www.ad-mkt-review.com /public_html/govdocs/wmfs/wmfs03092.html   (1240 words)

 Underwriting Bribery (The Corner House)
This briefing outlines the ongoing problem of bribery and corruption in international business, the role of export credit agencies in perpetuating this corruption, its cost to poorer countries, and what measures governments export credit agencies should be taking to tighten their anti-corruption procedures.
Suspicions of bribery first surfaced in 1994, when the Lesotho government sought to suspend Masupha Sole, the chief executive of the Lesotho Highlands Development Authority, which was responsible for the project, and another Authority official, while it carried out a management audit prompted by irregularities in the Authority's accounts.
How ECAs respond to bribery convictions in Lesotho, in particular, whether they debar any companies convicted, irrespective of whether they were direct recipients of official export credit support or not, will be a crucial test of their willingness to tackle bribery.
www.thecornerhouse.org.uk /item.shtml?x=51986   (15991 words)

 Bribery vs. Reinforcement
Parents learn that bribery does not work; that they cannot buy good behaviour… and the parents are correct.
So the difference between bribery and reinforcement is that with bribery the reward comes before delivery and with reinforcement, the reward come after delivery.
Flip side is, reward given as recognition, attention and appreciation after deliver, goes a long way to improving relationships and increases the likelihood of future delivery… on the same terms.
www.selfgrowth.com /articles/Direnfeld2.html   (505 words)

 NCUA IRPS 87-1 -- Guidelines for Compliance with Federal Bank Bribery Law
NCUA recognizes that the issue of whether conduct is corrupt, within the meaning of the bank bribery statute, does not necessarily depend on the value of something offered or received.
In that Policy, the Department of Justice discussed the basic elements of the prohibited conduct under Section 215, and indicated that cases to be considered for prosecution under the new bribery law entail breaches of fiduciary duty or dishonest efforts to undermine financial institution transactions.
Because the statute was intended to reach acts of corruption in the banking industry, the Department of Justice expressed its intent not to prosecute insignificant gift-giving or entertaining that did not involve a breach of fiduciary duty or dishonesty.
www.ncua.gov /RegulationsOpinionsLaws/IRPS/1987/IRPS87-1.html   (2448 words)

 ASIL Insight--The OECD Convention on Bribery
Under Article 3(1), punishment for bribery need only be "comparable" to the punishment already prescribed for bribery of a state party's own public officials.
Article 5 of the Convention obliges parties to investigate and prosecute bribery of a foreign public official without regard to considerations of national economic interest, relations with other states, or identity of the subjects under investigation.
Article 10(1) deems bribery an extraditable offense for the purposes of any extradition treaties between the parties, and Article 10(2) provides that the Bribery Convention can serve as the legal basis for extradition in the absence of an extradition treaty.
www.asil.org /insights/insigh14.htm   (1997 words)

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