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Topic: British Mediterranean Fleet

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In the News (Tue 16 Jul 19)

  Mediterranean Fleet (Royal Navy) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Fleet was one of the most prestigious commands in the navy for the majority of its history, historically defending the vital sea link between the British Isles and the majority of the British Empire in the Eastern Hemisphere.
A recently-modernised HMS Warspite became the flagship of the Commander-in-Chief and Second-in-Command, Mediterranean Fleet in 1926.
From 1952 until 1967, the post of Commander in Chief Mediterranean Fleet was given a dual hatted role as NATO Commander in Chief Mediterranean in charge of all forces assigned to NATO in the Mediterranean Area.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/British_Mediterranean_Fleet   (468 words)

 Strategic Estimate of the Situation, JULY 11, 1941
(1) The British Empire, at war, is on the defensive; its army, naval and air strength dispersed on exterior lines, with the United Kingdom, a theatre of combat partially encircled by hostile assault positions, absorbing the principal effective military strength.
The Mediterranean Fleet was severely damaged at the Battle of Crete.
Due to the British blockade, she has become dependent on Germany for most of her supplies, food excepted, which is resulting in German control of her industries.
www.ibiblio.org /pha/timeline/410711amie.html   (4093 words)

 Horatio Nelson - MSN Encarta
In the course of a visit to Naples, from which he convoyed troops to help the British at Toulon, Nelson first became acquainted with Lady Hamilton, wife of the British ambassador at Naples; Lady Hamilton subsequently became Nelson's mistress, and his career was considerably influenced by her advice and help.
After the British allies were driven from Toulon by Napoleon Bonaparte, Nelson assisted Hood in the taking of the towns of Bastia and Calvi in Corsica, and in occupying (1794) the island.
In the Battle of Trafalgar, on October 21, 1805, Nelson overwhelmingly defeated the combined French and Spanish fleets, leading the attack himself in his flagship Victory; he was mortally wounded by a French sharpshooter, however, and died as the battle ended.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761553374/Horatio_Nelson.html   (759 words)

Malta is the headquarters of the British Mediterranean fleet, and the principal coaling station in the Mediterranean.
Shortly after his departure the French garrison, cut off by Nelson's fleet from all chance of reinforcements, was shut up in Valetta by the Maltese who were aided, at the last, by English and Neapolitan troops, and was compelled to surrender in September, 1800, after a siege of two years.
The British sovereignty was confirmed at the treaty of Paris (1814).
www.newadvent.org /cathen/09574a.htm   (2305 words)

 Lasting Lessons of Trafalgar
The Channel, or Ushant, Fleet was responsible for the protection of the United Kingdom and Ireland against a French invasion, the protection of British merchantmen in the Channel area, and the suppression of French naval forces and privateers operating out of Cherbourg and Atlantic ports.
The Mediterranean Fleet operated almost continually on that sea and had a wide range of operational responsibilities including suppressing French naval units and privateers operating from Toulon and other Mediterranean ports, protecting British allies, convoying merchant ships, and dealing with diplomatic irritants such as the dey of Algiers.
In addition to the standing fleets, the Royal Navy periodically formed squadrons to cover such strategic areas as the Baltic, the American theater, the West Indies, and the Irish coast.
www.military.com /NewContent/0,13190,NH_0905_Lessons-P1,00.html   (1544 words)

 A Time of War
Under British rule Malta soon became a naval fortress, headquarters of the British Mediterranean fleet, and gateway to Britain's far flung Empire.
Viewed as an internal threat by the British, prominent people with declared sympathy for the Italian cause were placed in North African concentration camps for the duration of hostilities.
In September 1943, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Andrew Browne Cunningham, C-in-C Mediterranean, sent a radio message to the Admiralty in London, England, which read in part, "Please to inform your Lordships that the Italian battle fleet now lies at anchor under the guns of the fortress of Malta".
www.aboutmalta.com /grazio/joe8.html   (974 words)

 Operation Torch situation: North Africa, 1942
The British Eighth Army is regrouping after its June collapse—where it ceded the valuable fortress of Tobruk to Erwin Rommel’s Panzerarmee Afrika after only two days of fighting.
British forces and equipment destined for the beleaguered Soviets must be redirected to bolster British defenses in Africa.
North Africa is divided between the British Eighth Army (area of operations that extend from southeastern Tunisia to British possessions around Transjordan) and the Allied Expeditionary Forces (area of operations extend from the Atlantic coast in Morocco to northern Tunisia).
mason.gmu.edu /~ssledge/situation.htm   (1067 words)

 US Navy, USN, Roosevelt, Naval, Expansion, Act, NDRC, Stark, Admiral, Red Sea, Zone
Malta in the centre was British, and in the east, Britain maintained a hold on Egypt and the Suez Canal, Palestine and Cyprus.
Maritime - The Western Mediterranean was primarily the responsibility of the French Navy and the Eastern end was in the hands of a British Fleet based at Alexandria supported by a small French squadron.
British escort limits were only now pushed out to 19°W, and in a series of wolfpack attacks on two lightly defended convoys sailing between Canada and Britain, 30 merchantmen were sunk, a rate of loss impossible for Britain to sustain.
www.naval-history.net /WW2USN194006.htm   (7427 words)

The British Mediterranean Fleet based its operations in Alexandria, the British Middle East Command maintained its headquarters in Cairo, and the Suez Canal provided an essential Allied line of communications to the CBI and Pacific Theaters of Operations.
In light of the recent British reverses in the Mediterranean, the British Prime Minister was particularly eloquent in his pleas for additional American support, especially in the form of heavy bombers.
British techniques soon proved popular with American fliers, and they became instrumental in liberating both the RAF and the AAF from the direct control of ground commanders.
www.army.mil /cmh-pg/brochures/egypt/egypt.htm   (6123 words)

British naval superiority in the eastern Mediterranean remained uncontested and a seaborne landing in Crete could not be effected until the British fleet had been destroyed or at least driven out of the Aegean.
The British fleet was split into two forces: a light one, consisting of two cruisers and four destroyers, was to intercept a seaborne invader north of Crete and a strong one, composed of two battleships and eight destroyers, was to screen the island against a possible intervention of the Italian fleet northwest of Crete.
During the Crete operation the British had practically no aircraft based on the island and were unable to improvise effective air cover from North Africa because of the long distance between the air bases in Egypt and the fields on Crete.
www.army.mil /cmh-pg/books/wwii/balkan/20_260_4.htm   (7282 words)

 Horatio Nelson
British naval commander Horatio Nelson gained fame and the gratitude of his country when he destroyed a combined French and Spanish fleet led by Napoleon that was prepared to invade England.
Nelson, Horatio, Viscount Nelson (1758-1805), British naval commander, whose victories in the battles of the Nile and Trafalgar made him a British national hero.
In 1849 a monument known as the Nelson Column was erected to Admiral Nelson in Trafalgar Square, London.
www.uhigh.ilstu.edu /soc/nuh/nuh3.htm   (761 words)

 British Home Fleet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The name "Home Fleet" was resurrected in 1932, as the new name for the Atlantic Fleet, following the Invergordon Mutiny.
The Home Fleet was the Royal Navy's main battle force in European waters during World War Two.
With the Cold War, greater emphasis was placed on protecting the North Atlantic from the Soviet Union in concert with other countries as part of NATO.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/British_Home_Fleet   (531 words)

 CDNN :: Shipwrecks - Divers Discover HMS Victoria Standing Vertical
BEIRUT, Lebanon (3 Sep 2004) -- The wreck of HMS Victoria, once the flagship of the British Mediterranean Fleet, has been discovered off the coast of Lebanon, 111 years after she sank with the loss of 358 officers and men when she was rammed by another British battleship during maneuvers.
She became the flagship in the Mediterranean of Vice Admiral Sir George Tryon, regarded as a brilliant yet fearsome naval officer who deliberately cultivated a brusque and intimidating manner.
The fleet was drawn up in two columns of five ships each steaming parallel to each other some 1,200 yards apart.
www.cdnn.info /industry/i040903c/i040903c.html   (1404 words)

 TheHistoryNet | World War II | Battle of Cape Matapan: World War II Italian Naval Massacre
Moreover, the British ships were led by one of the most competent and aggressive sailors in the Royal Navy.
Cunningham had taken over a superb fleet whose training included night combat, which at that time was considered apostasy by most navies around the globe and ruled out as a matter of course.
The British Mediterranean Fleet, however, excelled in night actions during prewar maneuvers and applied the lessons learned during the war years.
www.historynet.com /magazines/world_war_2/3029406.html   (1468 words)

 Axis and Allies in 4/00   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The British sub force in the East Med was swept away and the Axis landing force took Syria.
A new transport fleet was launched in Italy, and new infantry was raised in Germany and Italy.
The British Mediterranean fleet destroyed the new Axis transport.
members.aol.com /TFGrantel/axandal2.html   (898 words)

 Sample text for Library of Congress control number 2003068778
In his view the Mediterranean was a sideshow and an unnecessary drain on manpower and resources that could be better employed by returning immediately to England and then heading via the shortest route to Berlin.
Traditionally a British concern because of the route to India, Churchill was also intent on "setting the Balkans alight"--exploiting the resistance to Nazi occupation that had already tied down vital German divisions and aiming to cut supplies of oil and other products essential to Germany's war machine.
The deep misgivings of the British about the unreadiness of the Allied forces for an attack on the well-defended northern French coast proved justified when in December 1942 the 8th Army was checked by the outnumbered Afrika Korps.
www.loc.gov /catdir/samples/random051/2003068778.html   (2420 words)

 Bells on Ships
In 1676 one Henry Teonage serving as a chaplain in the British Mediterranean Fleet recorded, "so great a fog that we were fain to ring our bells, beat drums, and fire muskets often to keep us from falling foul one upon another".
In the event of a fire, the bell is rung rapidly for at least five seconds, followed by one, two or three rings to indicate the location of a fire - forward, amidships, or aft respectively.
Originating in the British Royal Navy, it is a custom to baptize a child under the ship's bell; sometimes the bell is used as a christening bowl, filled with water for the ceremony.
www.history.navy.mil /faqs/faq83-1.htm   (948 words)

When the three days had expired, Turkey shocked the British by announcing that they had purchased the vessels, as replacement for the two battleships building in British yards, which the Admiralty had taken over for British service.
At this point the British gathered their forces in an attempt to destroy the battlecruiser once and for all.
A reported 270 sortied were flown by British aircraft to bomb the vessel, and the British sub E-14 was dispatched from Corfu to torpedo the stranded giant.
www.bobhenneman.info /turkeyHistory.htm   (1296 words)

 MaltaVista - Library - Decision time nears for European membership
Nestled in the central Mediterranean, about 90km south of Sicily and 290km from the coast of North Africa, it is unsurprising that Malta has a strong maritime and trading tradition, It is made up of three main islands - and two tiny ones - of which the largest - Malta - spans just 27km.
At its peak, the British armed services employed 30,000, creating a pool of skills that laid the foundations for the development of the country's post-independence economy.
The outward signs of British rule - red phone booths, driving on the left and chronically lossmaking ship repair yards - are overshadowed by the intangible benefits of a well-founded legal system, respect for the rule of law, universal command of English, a free healthcare system and a parliamentary democracy.
www.maltavista.net /en/library/art/161.html   (1409 words)

 RAN in WW2
During the first few months of the war in 1939, the British Admiralty requested the ships of the Royal Australian Navy be despatched for war service in the European and Mediterranean waters.
On 19 July 1940 HMAS Sydney was involved in the best known action of the Mediterranean campaign when off the coast of Crete, she came to the rescue of a British destroyer division on anti-submarine patrol that was being engaged by two Italian Cruisers.
On 10 December Japanese aircraft sank the British battleships Repulse and Prince of Wales.
www.diggerhistory.info /pages-navy/ran_ww2.htm   (994 words)

 Churchill the Warrior - The Churchill Centre
I was Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean and also Commander-in-Chief of the NATO Fleet in that area at the time and brought back 20 of my ships from the British Mediterranean Fleet to take part in the Review.
They said that the Fleet had retired and there was no other ship within 500 miles of you, and there was no hope of your being recovered: I was very very sad.
This was a great withdrawal; 225,000 British soldiers and airmen, which represented two thirds of the British forces in France, were taken off the beaches of Dunkirk.
www.winstonchurchill.org /i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=692   (6229 words)

 M/S Thermopylae voyages - Norwegian Merchant Fleet 1939-1945
The British were now facing trouble on all fronts, and had to shift their attention from North Africa to reinforcements for Greece.
The Italian fleet, which had been notified of, and expected a convoy of innocent merchant ships, and was ready for attack, ran straight into the British naval forces instead, and in the battle that followed (Battle of Matapan), the Italians lost several modern cruisers as well as destroyers, while the British losses were minimal.
The captain says these convoys had the strongest escort ever given to a convoy (the entire Mediterranean Fleet) so it was obvious that it was important to get their cargoes through.
www.warsailors.com /singleships/thermopylae.html   (3904 words)

 History of Malta   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Over the years, the power of the Knights declined, however, and their rule of Malta ended with their peaceful surrender to Napoleon in 1798.
In 1814, Malta voluntarily became part of the British Empire.
Under the United Kingdom, the island became a military and naval fortress, the headquarters of the British Mediterranean fleet.
www.historyofnations.net /europe/malta.html   (867 words)

 Travel Plans
Situated on a steep cliff, Antalya is a picturesque city surrounded by mountains, forests, mediterranean sea and many ancient ruins; with one notable archaeological museum.
With its airport it is a gateway for Turkey’s coastal resorts which took the name Turkish riviera because of the natural and historical beauties of it.Combining history and culture it deserves the title of “the capital of Turkish tourism”.
Greece is situated on the Mediterranean Sea and borders in the north on Albania, Macedonia and Bulgaria, in the northeast on Turkey.
travelplan.wordpress.com   (1559 words)

 Biblical allusions
He was later defeated and captured by the British in the West Indies.
On August 1st, Nelson confronted and nearly destroyed the French fleet in what came to be known as the Battle of the Nile.
Control of the Straits by the British Mediterranean fleet was key during the Napoleonic Wars.
xroads.virginia.edu /~HYPER/bb/bb_hibimy.html   (6716 words)

 M/S Talabot - Norwegian Merchant Fleet 1939-1945
The supplies to Malta, which was held by the British but cut off from the rest of the world, continued to be more crucial than ever at the end of 1941 and early '42, and Talabot was just one of several Norwegian ships taking part in the dangerous voyages to this area.
He also got 6 extra British gunners, 4 signalmen and a liaison officer who had in his possession the Navy's secret signalbooks, and the escort consisted of "what was left" of the British Mediterranean fleet, commanded by Admiral Phillip L. Vian (of former Cossack / Altmark / Jøssingfjord fame).
He was also awarded the British "Order of the British Empire" and "Lloyd's War Medal for Bravery at Sea" for his actions at Valetta (see Nyholt for a description of the latter, as well as names of others who received this medal).
www.warsailors.com /singleships/talabot.html   (2743 words)

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