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Topic: Brucella

  Medmicro Chapter 28
Brucellae are facultative intracellular parasites, multiplying mainly in monocyte-macrophage cells.
Brucella melitensis is the most pathogenic; B abortus is associated with less frequent infection and a greater proportion of subclinical cases.
Brucellae frequently invade the mammary gland of infected ruminants.
gsbs.utmb.edu /microbook/ch028.htm   (2949 words)

 Brucella   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Brucella is a Gram-negative pathogen that is distinguished from most other pathogens because it does not have "obvious virulence factors" like "capsules, fimbriae, flagella, exotoxins, exproteases, or other exoenzymes, cytolysins, resistance forms, antigenic variation, plamids, or lysogenic phages" (Moreno and Moriyon 2002).
Brucella is a pathogenic bacterium that has been called "exceedingly well adapted" to the niche of living in compartments within professional and nonprofessional phagocytes (Moreno and Moriyon 2002).
Brucella is generally known for causing infertility, abortions, and other reproductive complications in animals with the disease brucellosis, however, this bacterium is also the cause of a rarer, more severe systemic infection called neurobrucellosis.
biology.kenyon.edu /Microbial_Biorealm/bacteria/proteobacteria/Brucella/Brucella.htm   (1180 words)

 Brucella   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The Brucellae are generally associated with animal infections but most are also pathogenic for humans.
The genus Brucella is composed of Gram negative coccobacilli.
Brucellae possess a typical Gram-negative LPS endotoxin, as well as two major serological determinants; A and M. Of the four species that cause disease in humans, B.
www.cehs.siu.edu /fix/medmicro/bruce.htm   (395 words)

 Potential bioweapon, Brucella suis, is sequenced   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Brucella suis is on the "B" list of organisms considered potential bioweapons by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia.
The sequencing of the Brucella suis genome began in the summer of 2001, before the terrorist attacks and anthrax deaths.
The genome sequence of the facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella melitensis.
www.genomenewsnetwork.org /articles/09_02/weaponized.shtml   (999 words)

 Brucella suis Background
Species in the genus Brucella are the etiological agents of brucellosis, a zoonotic disease endemic in many areas of the world, characterized by chronic infections in animals leading to abortion and infertility, and a systemic, febrile illness in humans.
Brucella suis was the first pathogenic organism weaponized by the U.S. military during the 1950s.
Comparison of the closely related Brucella suis and Brucella melitensis genomes has defined a finite set of differences that could be responsible for the differences in virulence and host preference between these organisms.
www.tigr.org /CMR2/BackGround/gbr.html   (159 words)

 MAF investigating suspected case of Brucella suis
Brucella suis is a bacterial animal disease primarily affecting pigs that may be transmitted to humans.
Brucella suis is a species of the bacterial genus Brucella which also includes, Brucella melitensis, abortus and canis
In humans, Brucella suis can be the cause of chronic and painful illness, with arthritic complications if the organism lodges in the bones and joints.
www.maf.govt.nz /mafnet/press/150302bru.htm   (637 words)

 Molecular Host-Pathogen Interaction in Brucellosis: Current Understanding and Future Approaches to Vaccine Development ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Brucella abortus cyclic beta-1,2-glucan mutants have reduced virulence in mice and are defective in intracellular replication in HeLa cells.
Interruption of the cydB locus in Brucella abortus attenuates intracellular survival and virulence in the mouse model of infection.
Survival of virulent and attenuated strains of Brucella abortus in normal and gamma interferon-activated murine peritoneal macrophages.
cmr.asm.org /cgi/content/full/16/1/65   (7035 words)

 Brucella melitensis
Brucella abortus biovar 1 isolates 223, 240, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 275, 307, 308, 309, 311, 312, 313, and 314 were obtained from cow milk and cheese samples.
Mechanism: Brucella melitensis may be transmitted from sheep or goats to cattle by feedstuff contaminated with infected feces, urine, or uterine or placental fluids as well as by intraspecies transmission mechanisms.
Mechanism: Brucella species may be transmitted in laboratory situations by direct contact of agent to mucous membranes or wounds, inhalation of aerosol organisms, accidental inoculation with infective vaccine strains, or misidentification and subsequent negligence of safety procedures.
pathport.vbi.vt.edu /pathinfo/pathogens/Bmelitensis.html   (6813 words)

 Defra, UK - Disease surveillance and control - Notifiable diseases - Brucellosis (Brucella melitensis)
Brucella melitensis is a bacterial disease which can affect most species of domestic animals, but sheep and goats, particularly milking breeds, are the most susceptible.
Brucella melitensis was originally made notifiable by the Brucella Melitinsis Order of 1940 (as amended).
We are required to carry out testing each year to demonstrate with 95% confidence that fewer than 0.2% of holdings are infected, or to test each year at least 5% of sheep and goats in the country over the age of six months.
www.defra.gov.uk /animalh/diseases/notifiable/disease/brucella_melitensis.htm   (697 words)

 [No title]
SUMMARY AND EXPLANATION OF THE TEST Brucella is a gram negative coccobacilli capable of infecting a wide range of animal and man. Of the three species causing human infection, B. melitensis is the most patogenic followed by B. suis and B. abortus.
Brucellosis is transmitted through contaminated and untreated milk and milk products and by direct contact with infected animals (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, camels, buffaloes, and, very recently, seals), animal carcasses, and abortion materials.
A significant increase in Brucella IgG level is in patients with symptoms of brucellosis is indicative of recent exposure.
www.rapidtest.com /BrucellaM_1502.doc   (1201 words)

 Different Responses of Macrophages to Smooth and Rough Brucella spp.: Relationship to Virulence -- Jiménez de ...
The genus Brucella is a gram-negative, facultative, intracellular
Identification of the A and M antigens of Brucella as the O-polysaccharides of smooth lipopolysaccharides.
Role of the Brucella suis lipopolysaccharide O antigen in phagosomal genesis and in inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion in murine macrophages.
iai.asm.org /cgi/content/full/72/4/2429   (3454 words)

 Brucella Evades Macrophage Killing via VirB-dependent Sustained Interactions with the Endoplasmic Reticulum -- Celli et ...
Identification and characterization of in vivo attenuated mutants of Brucella melitensis.
Brucella abortus transits through the autophagic pathway and replicates in the endoplasmic reticulum of nonprofessional phagocytes.
The Brucella suis virB operon is induced intracellularly in macrophages.
www.jem.org /cgi/content/full/198/4/545   (6333 words)

 Comparative Whole-Genome Hybridization Reveals Genomic Islands in Brucella Species -- Rajashekara et al. 186 (15): 5040 ...
toxins, and virulence plasmids are absent in Brucella (8).
Brucella pathogenesis (41); rough LPS mutants of Brucella are
Characterization of Brucella abortus O-polysaccharide and core lipopolysaccharide mutants and demonstration that a complete core is required for rough vaccines to be efficient against Brucella abortus and Brucella ovis in the mouse model.
jb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/186/15/5040   (5287 words)

 Cellular Prion Protein Promotes Brucella Infection into Macrophages -- Watarai et al. 198 (1): 5 -- The Journal of ...
Role of cholesterol and the ganglioside GM(1) in entry and short-term survival of Brucella suis in murine macrophages.
Identification of Brucella suis genes affecting intracellular survival in an in vitro human macrophage infection model by signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis.
virB-mediated survival of Brucella abortus in mice and macrophages is independent of a functional inducible nitric oxide synthase or NADPH oxidase in macrophages.
www.jem.org /cgi/content/full/198/1/5   (5289 words)

 Disease Listing, Brucellosis, General Information | CDC Bacterial, Mycotic Diseases   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
I am a veterinarian and I recently accidentally jabbed myself with the animal vaccine (RB-51 or strain 19, or REV-1) while I was vaccinating cows (or sheep, goats).
Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria of the genus Brucella.
Inhalation of Brucella organisms is not a common route of infection, but it can be a significant hazard for people in certain occupations, such as those working in laboratories where the organism is cultured.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/brucellosis_g.htm   (1023 words)

There are many nosods coming from germs responsible of human brucellosis which are Brucella melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis and Melitococcinum or Melitine; The most well-known and used are Brucella melitensis (lysis of bacteriums) and Melitococcinum (filtrate of culture medium of Brucella melitensis).
Brucellosis on the physiopathological point of view is a disease that always become chronic, even in case of apparent and clinical recovery, by the persistence of few germs in the reticulo-endothelial system.
They are in simple blind (except for P.S.: I am proving myself twice), with provers "in good health, objective, conscientious, scrupulous and credible"; in the majority the provers lived in rural environment far from cities and had a particularly regular way of life.
www.homeoint.org /books/soukrexp/brbrucel.htm   (3369 words)

 Molecular, Antigenic, and Functional Analyses of Omp2b Porin Size Variants of Brucella spp. -- Paquet et al. 183 (16): ...
The sequences of the oligonucleotide probes used to differentiate omp2a from omp2b (16) are underlined.
Phenotypic and molecular characterization of a Brucella strain isolated from a minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata).
Antigenic properties of Brucella Omp2a and Omp2b porins purified from recombinant Escherichia coli and renatured in vitro.
jb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/183/16/4839   (5122 words)

 eMedicine - CBRNE - Brucellosis : Article by Gerald E Maloney, Jr, DO   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Development of brucellae as a weapon was halted in 1967, and President Nixon later banned development of all biological weapons on November 25, 1969.
Brucellae are transported into the lymphatic system and may replicate there locally; they also may replicate in the kidney, liver, spleen, breast tissue, or joints, causing both localized and systemic infection.
The primary pitfall is failure to consider possible Brucella infection in a patient with history that suggests a possible source of infection (eg, farmer, traveler to an endemic region, veterinarian).
www.emedicine.com /emerg/topic883.htm   (4329 words)

 Diagnostic Usefulness of Antibodies against Ribosome Recycling Factor from Brucella melitensis in Human or Canine ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Brucella species are classified as rough or smooth.
in the cytoplasmic fraction of smooth and rough brucellae (5).
Characterization of an 18-kilodalton Brucella cytoplasmic protein which appears to be a serological marker of active infection of both human and bovine brucellosis.
cdli.asm.org /cgi/content/full/9/2/366   (2744 words)

 eMedicine - Brucellosis : Article by Michelle V Lisgaris, MD
Among the 4 species known to cause disease in humans, Brucella melitensis is the most virulent and causes the most severe and acute cases of brucellosis with disabling complications.
Brucella abortus is associated with mild-to-moderate sporadic disease that rarely is associated with complications.
Brucella canis has a disease course that is indistinguishable from B abortus infection.
www.emedicine.com /med/topic248.htm   (4690 words)

 BRUCELLA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Brucella is another strictly aerobic, Gram-negative coccobacillus which causes Brucellosis.
The cattle and dairy industries seem to be the primary source of infection in the United States.
Brucella can enter the body via the skin, respiratory tract, or digestive tract.
medic.med.uth.tmc.edu /path/00001493.htm   (138 words)

 BISON AND Brucella abortus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The scientific evidence collected to date demonstrates that the risk of Brucella abortus transmission from bison to cattle represents more of a perceived threat than an actual threat.
Despite this, the livestock industry and state and federal agriculture agencies, have utilized a campaign based on fear, speculation, and paranoia to force the unnecessary destruction of Yellowstone bison who emigrate from YNP to protect livestock interests.
In cattle, Brucella abortus is primarily transmitted through susceptible animal contact with an infected aborted fetus, contaminated birthing materials, and/or contaminated forage.
www.wildrockies.org /Talus/Bison/history.html   (1073 words)

 Richard Essenberg   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Richard Essenberg is interested in the relations between parasites and pathogens and their animal hosts, and uses a variety of techniques to study these relations.
Their importance to the infection process will be studied by making Brucella mutants in them and testing the resulting strain's survival and pathogenicity.
Essenberg, R.C. and Sharma, Y.K. (1993) Cloning of Genes for Proline and Leucine Biosynthesis from Brucella abortus by Functional Complementation in Escherichia coli, J. Gen Microbiol.
opbs.okstate.edu /~essenberg/homepage.html   (637 words)

 Brucella: Molecular and Cellular Biology
In this book highly acclaimed Brucella scientists comprehensively review all of the most important advances in the Brucella post-genomic era providing for the first time a coherent picture of Brucella molecular and cellular biology.
Essential reading for everyone with an interest in Brucella and brucellosis and recommended reading for the wider body of scientists with an interest in microbial diagnostics, microbial pathogenesis, cellular microbiology and immunology, and vaccine development.
Invasion, Intracellular Trafficking and Replication of Brucella Organisms in Professional and Non-Professional Phagocytes
www.horizonpress.com /hsp/books/bruc.html   (437 words)

 MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Brucellosis
Brucellosis is a disease caused by contact with animals carrying the Brucella bacteria.
Brucella bacteria infect cattle, goats, camels, dogs, and pigs.
Transmission of the disease to humans occurs by contact with infected meat, placenta of infected animals, or ingestion of unpasteurized milk or cheese.
www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/ency/article/000597.htm   (528 words)

 Virulent Brucella abortus Prevents Lysosome Fusion and Is Distributed within Autophagosome-Like Compartments -- ...
Virulent and attenuated Brucella abortus strains attach to and penetrate nonprofessional phagocytic HeLa cells.
L., Adams, L. G., Tsolis, R. virB-Mediated Survival of Brucella abortus in Mice and Macrophages Is Independent of a Functional Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase or NADPH Oxidase in Macrophages.
Naroeni, A., Porte, F. Role of Cholesterol and the Ganglioside GM1 in Entry and Short-Term Survival of Brucella suis in Murine Macrophages.
iai.asm.org /cgi/content/abstract/66/5/2387   (1482 words)

 Subversion and Utilization of the Host Cell Cyclic Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate/Protein Kinase A Pathway by Brucella ...
The intracellular development of Brucella was analyzed by measuring the number of CFU/well at 48 h p.i.
Early acidification of phagosomes containing Brucella suis is essential for intracellular survival in murine macrophages.
Role of the Brucella suis LPS O-antigen in phagosomal genesis and in inhibition of phago-lysosomal fusion in murine macrophages.
www.jimmunol.org /cgi/content/full/170/11/5607   (6099 words)

 Brucella abortus strain 2308 produces brucebactin, a highly efficient catecholic siderophore -- González ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Brucella abortus strain 2308 produces brucebactin, a highly efficient catecholic siderophore -- González Carreró et al.
Benjamin, W. H.Jr, Turnbough, C. L.Jr, Posey, B. and Briles, D. The ability of Salmonella typhimurium to produce the siderophore enterobactin is not a virulence factor in mouse typhoid.
Lopez-Goñi, I., Moriyón, I. and Neilands, J. Identification of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid as a Brucella abortus siderophore.
mic.sgmjournals.org /cgi/content/full/148/2/353   (3860 words)

 Generation of the Brucella melitensis ORFeome Version 1.1 -- Dricot et al. 14 (10): 2201 -- Genome Research
Brucella sp., the etiological agents of brucellosis, have significant
The Brucella ORFeome is the platform to achieve this objective.
Enright, F.M. The pathogenesis and pathobiology of Brucella infection in domestic animals.
www.genome.org /cgi/content/full/14/10b/2201   (4472 words)

 GTPases of the Rho Subfamily Are Required for Brucella abortus Internalization in Nonprofessional Phagocytes. DIRECT ...
GTPases of the Rho Subfamily Are Required for Brucella abortus Internalization in Nonprofessional Phagocytes.
Brucella indicated that the bacteria were able to penetrate through
Panel c, merged panels a and b demonstrate colocalization of transformed cells with Brucella.
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/276/48/44435   (6104 words)

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