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# Topic: Buffer solution

 Buffer solution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Buffer solutions are solutions which resist change in hydronium ion and the hydroxide ion concentration (and consequent pH) upon addition of small amounts of acid or base, or upon dilution. Buffer solutions consist of a weak acid and its conjugate base (more common) or a weak base and its conjugate acid (less common). Industrially, buffer solutions are used in fermentation processes and in setting the correct conditions for dyes used in colouring fabrics. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Buffer_solution   (742 words)

 [No title] Many buffers are prepared by combining a weak acid and its conjugate (acetic acid and sodium acetate) or a weak base and its conjugate (ammonia and ammonium chloride). This limit is called the buffer capacity and is defined as the moles of acid or base necessary to change the pH of one liter of solution by one unit. Buffer Capacity = (number of moles of OH- or H3O+ added) (pH change)(volume of buffer in L) In this experiment, the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation will be used to determine the amount of acetic acid and sodium acetate required to prepare a series of buffer solutions. services.juniata.edu /ScienceInMotion/chem/labs/ap/buffer.doc   (943 words)

 Buffer Solutions If any acid should be added to a buffer solution, the basic component would react with it; if any base should be added to a buffer solution, the acidic component would react with it. In the buffer solution, the principal contribution to the [A In this form the equation may also be used for buffer solutions containing a weak base and its salt, where the salt is the acidic component. web.centre.edu /shiba/che132L/buffers.htm   (799 words)

 Buffers A buffer solution is one in which the pH of the solution is "resistant" to small additions of either a strong acid or strong base. Buffers usually consist of a weak acid and its conjugate base, in relatively equal and "large" quantities. Example: A buffer solution was made by dissolving 10.0 grams of sodium acetate in 200.0 mL of 1.00 M acetic acid. www.chem.purdue.edu /gchelp/howtosolveit/Equilibrium/Buffers.htm   (1100 words)

 Calibration & Maintenance Solutions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) It is difficult to exaggerate the importance of buffer and maintenance solutions. In many labs, buffer solutions are often prepared from capsules, tablets and chemical powders presuming that they are more accurate and less expensive when "freshly" made. At Hanna, buffers are prepared with analytical grade chemicals under the stringent ISO 9002 regulations in a clean laboratory environment and using high-tech reference material. www.hannainst.com /products/prodline/chemical.cfm   (325 words)

 [No title] Their resistance to changes in pH makes buffer solutions very useful for chemical manufacturing such as fermentation processes, and for setting the correct conditions for the dyes used in coloring fabrics. A buffer of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) is present in blood plasma, to maintain a pH between 7.35 and 7.45. The buffer solution should be 0.2 M total in salts and have a volume of 50 mL. www.umich.edu /~chemstu/content_weeks/F_06_Week13/F_06_S13a_buffer.doc   (1450 words)

 NetLogo Models Library: Buffer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) A buffer is a solution that resists change in pH when either acid or base are added into it, within limits. To accomplish this feat, buffers depend on the presence of both a weak acid and its conjugate base. The pH of a buffer is determined in the same manner that the pH of a weak acid is determined - by counting the number of hydronium and hydroxide ions and calculating their ratio with total number of ions and molecules in the solution. ccl.northwestern.edu /netlogo/models/Buffer   (1159 words)

 pH Buffer Solution pH buffer solutions are designed to resist changes in their pH values when they are contaminated by the additions of acid or basic substances. pH Buffer 6.86 is a mixture of Potassium and Sodium Phosphates. An acidic buffer solution consists of a weak acid and its conjugate (associated) base. www.monashscientific.com.au /pHBufferSolution.htm   (2015 words)

 JCE 1997 (74) 937 [Aug] Buffer Index and Buffer Capacity for a Simple Buffer Solution Many papers that present the buffering effect of the simple buffer solution consider the notion of buffer index and buffer capacity as being equivalent. The buffer capacity is numerically expressed to be equal with the minimum concentration of strong acid or strong base which causes the variation of buffer's pH with one unit. The field of application of both notions is different: the buffer capacity is used in the quantitative chemical analysis and the buffer index in studying biological systems. jchemed.chem.wisc.edu:8000 /hs/Journal/Issues/1997/Aug/abs937.html   (318 words)

 The Buffer in Lemonade A buffer is the combination of a weak acid and a salt of the weak acid. Acetic acid and sodium acetate are an example of this kind of buffer pair. Buffers are incorporated into various consumer products to help control the effects of varying pH. www.sas.upenn.edu /~tloschia/AP/labs/buffer.htm   (772 words)

 Chemistry 104 Study Groups--Buffers and Titrations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) The pH of a buffer after addition of a strong base requires consideration of the stoichiometry of the reaction (conversion of weak acid to weak base) and the equilibrium in the same manner as for the addition of a strong acid. The properties and concentration of one of the solutions are known(titrant) and are used to determine the properties and/or concentration of the other solution. The solutions in a and b of the previous exercise are buffers. www.brynmawr.edu /Acads/Chem/Chem104lc/study/Buffers.html   (835 words)

 Buffer Solutions A buffer is a solution that maintains nearly constant pH when hydroxide or hydronium ions are added to the solution. A buffer solution typically consists of a conjugated acid/base pair. When a small amount of strong acid is added to the buffer solution, it will react with the conjugated base (CH COO-), and the equilibrium will shift to the left, increasing concentration of CH Consequently, the pH of the buffer solution will decrease, but only slightly. wc.pima.edu /~skolchens/C152OL/Ch18/buffer.htm   (1008 words)

 buffer solutions A buffer solution is one which resists changes in pH when small quantities of an acid or an alkali are added to it. Acidic buffer solutions are commonly made from a weak acid and one of its salts - often a sodium salt. Alkaline buffer solutions are commonly made from a weak base and one of its salts. www.chemguide.co.uk /physical/acidbaseeqia/buffers.html   (1034 words)

 Mehlich-Buffer Acidity The Mehlich buffer method for determining exchangeable acidity (Ac) was developed under the premise that an increase or decrease in exchangeable acidity can be quantified by measuring the corresponding increase or decrease in the pH of a buffered reagent. The buffer reagent should also have a capacity that is not influenced by the soil yet is sensitive enough to measure low acidity values common in soils with a low cation exchange capacity (CEC), that is, with values less than 5.0 meq/100 cm Use the standard acid to check the final concentration of the buffer mixture as follows: combine 10 mL of buffer, 10 mL of distilled water and 10 mL of the prepared standard acid. www.agr.state.nc.us /agronomi/buffacid.htm   (1107 words)

 Guide to specification for: General notices; General analytical techniques; Identification tests; Test solutions and ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Combine 11 volumes of Solution A and 389 volumes of Solution B. Formic acid buffer solution (pH 2.5) Combine 21 volumes of Solution A and 4 volumes of Solution B, and adjust the pH to 7.5 with either Solution A or Solution B. Reagent Solutions When the solution becomes faintly pink, boil to expel carbon dioxide, cool, and continue the titration until the faint pink colour is no longer affected by continued boiling. apps3.fao.org /jecfa/additive_specs/docs/t0368e/t0368e14.htm   (724 words)

 [No title] A buffer solution consists of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid at predetermined concentrations or ratios. However, the buffer capacity of the system, the amount of acid or base that can be added without causing a large change in pH, would be decreased. You will need to prove that it is indeed a buffer solution by the addition of a base solution of an unknown molarity. www.rit.edu /~lprsch/266bufferslab20033.doc   (479 words)

 [No title] A phosphate buffer stock solution is a solution containing a phosphate buffer. A buffer is an ionic compound that resists changes to the pH that it might encounter. Phosphate buffers are usually made by making up 2 different solutions, differing in their concentration of phosphate, thus differing in their pH. www.utdallas.edu /~tres/protocols/solutions.buffers.tim.doc   (997 words)

 AP Chemistry: Practice Buffer Problems (c) A portion of the buffer solution is diluted with an equal volume of water. (b) Calculate the pH of a solution made by adding 0.0100 mole of solid methylammonium nitrate to 120.0 milliliters of a 0.225-molar solution of methylamine. milliliters of distilled water is added to the solution in (c). www.smes.org /classes/chemistry/ap/apProblemsBuffers.htm   (257 words)

 Total Dissolved Solids The popular powdered drink mix used in this experiment uses a citric acid–sodium citrate buffer to “control acidity,” according to its label. Position the pH Sensor in the lemonade mixture and adjust its position so that it is not struck by the stirring bar. Each point of the first run (lemonade drink) is plotted with a box, and each point of the second run (unbuffered citric acid solution) is plotted with a dot. www.angelfire.com /ny5/eastchemistry/APLab09BufferLemonade.htm   (1024 words)

 Buffer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Mineral redox buffer, a mineral assemblage which stabilises oxidation state in natural rock systems Buffers can be found in plants and animals. This natural buffer helps to nutrilize the changes of pH which occurs in the blood when food is absorbed In Buff (MMORPG terminology), common title for character classes which primary function is to enhance other character's abilities (most often in some magic way). en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Buffer   (319 words)

 Hypothermic preservation of isolated rat lungs in modified bicarbonate buffer, EuroCollins solution or St Thomas' ... Hypothermic preservation of isolated rat lungs in modified bicarbonate buffer, EuroCollins solution or St Thomas' Hospital cardioplegic solution -- Featherstone et al. Hypothermic preservation of isolated rat lungs in modified bicarbonate buffer, EuroCollins solution or St Thomas' Hospital cardioplegic solution storage of rat lungs for 6 h in modified bicarbonate buffer ejcts.ctsnetjournals.org /cgi/content/abstract/14/5/508   (243 words)

 [No title] What is the pH of the resulting solution when we mix 100 mL of 0.20 M benzoic acid and 100 mL of 0.10 M KOH? The effect is similar if strong base is added to the buffer solution. Let's calculate the change in [H+] when 0.0020 moles of KOH is added to this buffer solution compared to adding the same amount to 200 mL of only water. www.chem.vt.edu /chem-dept/tissue/3114/work/buffers.doc   (426 words)

 Accessories - Buffer Solution Broadley-James now carries buffer solutions from Ricca Chemical. Precision reference buffers of pH values 4, 7 and 10 are available in 500 mL sizes. The pH temperature chart is on the label. www.broadleyjames.com /access-buffSol.html   (41 words)

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