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Topic: Bulk micromachining

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In the News (Wed 21 Aug 19)

  MEMS via micromachining
Two kinds of micromachining are commonly used to produce MEMS: (i) surface micromachining and (ii) bulk micromachining.
In surface micromachined MEMS the layers are patterned and etched to produce electro-mechanical elements or are used as sacrificial layers to allow motion of the mechanical layers.
Bulk micromachining is then commenced from the other side of the wafer to yield mechanical elements such as thin diaphragms, beams or cantilevers on the top side of the wafer.
home.comcast.net /~dwdm2/MEMS_micromachining.html   (570 words)

 Chapter 1: Introduction to MEMS (cont.)
Bulk micromachining was developed between 1970 and 1980, as an extension of IC technology, for fabrication of 3D structures.
Bulk micromachining of Si uses wet- and dry-etching techniques in conjunction with etch masks and etch stops to sculpt micromechanical devices from the Si substrate.
In surface micromachining, the substrate wafer is used primarily as a mechanical support on which multiple, alternating layers of structural and sacrificial material are deposited and patterned to realize micromechanical structures.
www.aero.org /publications/helvajian/helvajian-2.html   (3624 words)

 Surface micromachining - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Surface micromachining is a process used to produce micromachinery or MEMS.
Unlike Bulk micromachining, where a silicon substrate (wafer) is selectively etched to produce structures, surface micromachining is based on the deposition and etching of different structural layers.
As the structures are built on top of the substrate and not inside it, the substrate's properties are not as important as in bulk micromachining, and the expensive silicon wafers can be replaced by cheaper substrates, such as glass or plastic.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Surface_micromachining   (410 words)

 Microfabrica Inc.
A micromachining technology in which the microdevice is formed into the base material (called a substrate) by etching away extraneous material (like a sculptor carving a statue out of a block of stone).
Bulk micromachined MEMS are usually made from silicon and have larger dimensions than surface micromachined MEMS.
A micromachining technology in which the microdevice is formed by adding layers of material on top of a supporting base or substrate (like painting on a canvas).
www.microfabrica.com /resource_center/glossary.htm   (1071 words)

 Parallel Synthesis Technologies: Silicon Microfabrication Techniques
Bulk Micromachining is the process of sculpting features in bulk of materials such as silicon, quartz, etc. by treatment with either orientation dependent (anisotropic) or by orientation independent (isotropic) etchants.
In silicon micromachining, the bulk micromachining starts with a single crystal silicon substrate (usually a (100) oriented wafer) on which a thin film of material that is inert to chemical etchants (etch stop) is deposited.
The bulk material is then etched using either wet chemical etching or dry etching, or both, depending on the requirements.
www.parallel-synthesis.com /SiliconMicrofabrication.htm   (585 words)

 Bulk micromachining - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bulk micromachining is a process used to produce micromachinery or MEMS.
Unlike surface micromachining, which uses a succession of thin film deposition and selective etching, bulk micromachining defines structures by selectively etching inside a substrate.
Bulk micromachining starts with a silicon wafer or other substrates and selectively etches into it, using photolithography to transfer a pattern from a mask to the surface.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Bulk_micromachining   (326 words)

 Medical Equipment Designer - Sept/Oct 99 - MEMS and Micromachining in the New Millennium:
Bulk micromachining designates the technique in which the bulk of the silicon substrate is etched away to leave behind desired micromechanical elements.
In surface micromachining, the substrate is used primarily as a mechanical support on which multiple, alternating layers of structural and sacrificial material are deposited and patterned to realize micromechanical structures.
Surface micromachining is highly compatible with microelectronics manufacturing processes and equipment, and consequently, it enables the fabrication of complex, multi-component, integrated micromechanical structures that would be impossible with traditional bulk micromachining.
www.manufacturingcenter.com /med/archives/0999/999mem.asp   (1937 words)

 MEMS Technology for Optical Networking Applications
Bulk micromachining is the process whereby the pieces for the microstructure are formed in the bulk of the wafer by anisotropic etching, either wet or dry.
In many other micromachining operations such as accelerometers and pressure sensors, the use of surface micromachining has prevailed in those mass applications with the least taxing applications, while the higher-end applications have been taken over by bulk micromachined devices.
In the context of micromachined switches, the cost of the device (and in fact most of the technical manufacturing difficulty) is associated with the packaging.
www.comsoc.org /ci/private/2001/jan/rama.html   (5314 words)

 Analog Devices: iMEMSĀ® Accelerometers: MEMS and Sensors: Innovations in Acceleration Sensing Using Surface ...
Bulk micromachining is the process of choice for building pressure sensors.
Bulk micromachining uses an anisotropic etch to cut through a silicon or quartz wafer to create structures.
To achieve integration, a bulk sensor will typically need to be combined with a separate integrated circuit for signal conditioning and then assembled as a hybrid.
www.analog.com /en/content/0,2886,764_800_7536,00.html   (1368 words)

Micromachines can be a wide variety of different mechanisms, such as fluid channels, gears, engines, tweezers, and mirrors - all smaller than the width of a human hair.
Wet bulk micromachining is very similar to surface micromachining, in that it layers different materials down one at a time, and then selectively etches them to form the desired pattern or device on the substrate.
Wet bulk and surface micromachining techniques both use photoresists which are susceptible to ultraviolet (UV) radiation; this is how the metal layers are patterned to form devices and structures.
www.cs.ualberta.ca /~database/MEMS/sma_mems/mems.html   (1070 words)

 allaboutmems.com - What is MEMS > MEMS Technology
There are three general approaches to the fabrication of MEMS: surface micromachining, bulk micromachining, and LIGA (lithography, plating, molding).
Surface micromachining is a process based on the building up of material layers selectively remaining or removed by continued processing.
In bulk micromachining, large portions of the substrate are removed to form the desired structure.
www.allaboutmems.com /memstechnology.html   (800 words)

 MEMS Technology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Bulk micromachining is a fabrication technique which builds mechanical elements by starting with a silicon wafer, and then etching away unwanted parts, and being left with useful mechanical devices.
A typical Surface Micromachining process is a repetitive sequence of depositing thin films on a wafer, photopatterning the films, and then etching the patterns into the films.
Deep reactive ion etching is a type of Bulk Micromachining which etches mechanical elements into a silicon wafer.
www.memx.com /technology.htm   (745 words)

 MEMS -- Bulk Micromachining -- trimmer.net (TM)
Bulk Micromachining makes extensive use of "wafer bonding," where different silicon wafers are brought together and permanently joined.
When several bulk micromachined wafers are bonded together, a wide range and complexity of mechanical structures can be made.
A combination of bulk micromachining and wafer bonding is shown in the schematic diagram of an accelerometer chip below.
home.earthlink.net /~trimmerw/mems/BM_bulk.html   (394 words)

 bulk micromachining,micromachining,biomedical engineering, biomedical, mems, microfluidic,: applied mems
With Applied MEMS unique combination of bulk micromachining and wafer bonding technologies, we are able to provide high-performance accelerometers and high-quality optical surfaces for our micro-mirror product family.
Most biochips with microfluidic structures are fabricated using either bulk micromachining or high-aspect ratio micromachining either with or without micromolding techniques.
Bulk micromachining using wet and dry etching techniques provides a more enabling fabrication method with higher structure flexibility but lower cost than most high-aspect ratio micromachining.
www.appliedmems.cc /htmlmems/products.html   (409 words)

 dbanks - Surface micromachining - Microengineering Intro   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
This is because the microstructures are formed by etching away the bulk of the silicon wafer to achieve the desired result.
Surface micromachining techniques build up the structure in layers of thin films on the surface of the silicon wafer (or any other suitable substrate).
The anchor pad has been under etched, however the wafer was removed from the etch bath before all the oxide was removed from under the pad leaving the beam attached to the wafer.
www.dbanks.demon.co.uk /ueng/surfum.html   (336 words)

 Micro Fracture Project
Silicon micromachining methodology can be classified into two approaches; bulk micromachining and surface micromachining.
Bulk micromachining, which is the older of the two technologies, relies on etching silicon wafers to construct the desired geometry.
Surface micromachining, on the other hand, uses the silicon wafer as a foundation upon which multiple layers, usually of polysilicon, are deposited and subsequently machined by patterning and etching.
www.case.edu /cse/eciv/research/nsfrac.html   (760 words)

 IMEL - Bulk and Surface Silicon Micromachining   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
This activity focuses on the development of bulk and surface silicon micromachining processes for potential applications in integrated sensors, actuators and microsystems.
he bulk micromachining process has been used for the development of a novel integrated gas flow sensor with revolutionary performance.
A surface micromachining process has been developed and it has been used for the fabrication of pressure sensors.
www.imel.demokritos.gr /resactiv/micromachining.html   (177 words)

Bulk micromachining, which typically uses single crystal material with orientation and dopant-controlled etches, is the oldest micromechanical processing tool.
Surface micromachining is dominated by low-pressure chemical vapor deposited polysilicon and silicon nitride films with variable compositions.
On the positive side in surface micromachining is the increasing confidence in polysilicon as a mechanical construction material.
www.wtec.org /loyola/mems/d_2.htm   (1084 words)

 Chapter 1: Introduction to MEMS (cont.)
First, pressure sensors are presented as an example of a MEMS device fabricated using bulk micromachining, followed by integrated accelerometers that are fabricated by surface micromachining.
The sensor die/chip consists of a thin Si diaphragm fabricated by bulk micromachining.
Prior to the micromachining, piezoresistors are patterned across the edges of the diaphragm region using standard IC processing techniques.
www.aero.org /publications/helvajian/helvajian-3.html   (1579 words)

 MEM:Archive:MEMS:The Future of Medical Microelectromechanical Systems
In bulk micromachining, most of the silicon wafer is etched away to leave the microstructures.
In surface micromachining, which produces features that are 20 times smaller than those made with bulk micromachining, the MEMS are deposited and etched in layers.
Researchers at Stanford, MIT, other universities, and micromachining companies are working on developing microfluidic instruments small enough to fit on a chip, such as machines for electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry (measuring the properties of cell populations or any collection of small particles), and polymerase chain reaction (amplifying DNA).
www.devicelink.com /mem/archive/96/01/003.html   (1838 words)

 Bulk silicon mirrors with hinges underneath page
The bulk element may comprise single-crystal silicon, fabricated by way of bulk micromachining techniques.
A distinct feature of the MEMS apparatus of the present invention is that by disposing the hinges underneath the bulk element, the surface of the bulk element can be maximized and the entire surface becomes usable (e.g., for optical beam manipulation).
Further, by advantageously making use of both bulk and surface micromachining techniques, a MEMS mirror thus produced is equipped with a large and flat mirror along with flexible hinges, hence capable of achieving a substantial rotational range at modest electrostatic drive voltages.
www.patentalert.com /docs/001/z00146668.shtml   (167 words)

 Laboratory Experiment Twelve   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Silicon wafer with a pattered Silicon dioxide mask/structure will be performed to provide test structures for a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the bulk micromachining process.
The design can be built on top of the silicon wafer, referred to as surface micromachining, or the design can be etched into the wafer using a method called bulk micromachining.
A 45% solution of Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) is used to perform the Bulk micromachining.
mitghmr.spd.louisville.edu /course/exp12.html   (723 words)

 microFAB bulk micromachining technologies
Bulk micromachining (BMM) describes the fabrication process of a device taking advantage of all three space dimensions.
In most applications single crystalline silicon is used as bulk material.
The excellent electrical and mechanical properties make it a desirable material in MEMS and have led to a focus on the development of different machining technologies.
www.microfab.de /technologies/bulkmm.htm   (206 words)

 Surface Micromachining of Diamond for Fabrication of MEMS Microstructures
An explanation of the distinction between surface and bulk micromachining is prerequisite to a description of the present diamond-surface-micromachining process.
In bulk micromachining, three-dimensional features are etched into the bulk of a crystalline or noncrystalline material.
In surface micromachining, features are built up, layer by layer, on a substrate of single-crystal silicon or other suitable material.
www.nasatech.com /Briefs/Feb99/NPO20529.html   (646 words)

 MEMS Laboratory | Abstract: Post-CMOS Micromachining of Surface and Bulk Struc... | CMU
Abstract: Post-CMOS Micromachining of Surface and Bulk Struc...
Surface micromachining of the thin-film dielectric material and bulk micromachining of the Si substrate are discussed in detail.
Migrations of post-CMOS micromachining have been demonstrated with advances of CMOS fabrication: from a 0.5 mm process to a 0.18 µm process, from an aluminum (Al) interconnect silicon-dioxide (SiO2) dielectric process to a copper (Cu) interconnect low-K dielectric process.
www.ece.cmu.edu /~mems/pubs/show.php?pub_id=105   (308 words)

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