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Topic: Butadiene


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  Butadiene - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Butadiene can refer to either one of two hydrocarbon chemical compounds which are alkenes that are isomers of each other.
In the United States, western Europe, and Japan, butadiene is produced as a byproduct of the steam cracking process used to produce ethylene.
Butadiene is isolated from the other hydrocarbons produced in steam cracking by extraction into a solvent such as acetonitrile or dimethylformamide, from which it is then stripped by distillation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Butadiene   (685 words)

  
 Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It is a copolymer made by polymerizing styrene and acrylonitrile in the presence of polybutadiene.
The butadiene, a rubbery substance, provides resilience even at low temperatures.
ABS can be used between -25°C and +60°C. Production of 1 kg of ABS requires the equivalent of about 2 kg of oil for raw materials and energy.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Acrylonitrile_butadiene_styrene   (184 words)

  
 Baffling Butadiene Environmental Health Perspectives, v.102, n.3, Mar94   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In those studies, rats were exposed to butadiene by inhalation at 1000 and 8000 ppm, and mice were exposed at 625 and 1250 ppm.
Melnick and his colleagues observed butadiene carcinogenicity in mice at all exposure levels, including early, extensive induction of malignant lymphomas, which again was the major cause of early death for both sexes exposed to 625 ppm.
In Melnick's stop-exposure studies of butadiene in mice, carcinogenesis in multiple organs was induced after only 13 weeks of exposure, and for lymphoma the concentration of butadiene was a greater contributing factor than duration of exposure.
www.mindfully.org /Plastic/Butadiene-EHPMar94.htm   (4281 words)

  
 Butadiene: A Molecular Mechanics Study   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The bond angles between the carbons in the cis butadiene conformers are strained because of steric interactions between the inner hydrogens on the ends of the molecules.
By slightly twisting the structure of s-cis butadiene, the steric interactions between the inner hydrogens on butadiene are lessened.
The rotational barrier for butadiene is a function of the conjugation of butadiene.
chemistry.umeche.maine.edu /Modeling/donmolmech.html   (1036 words)

  
 Shell Chemicals - Butadiene   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Shell's involvement in the butadiene sector expanded in 2004, with the start-up of a joint venture plant, Sabina (in partnership with BASF and Atofina) in Port Arthur, Texas.
Butadiene is used primarily as a monomer in the production of a wide range of polymers and co-polymers.
The new butadiene plant at Port Arthur, Texas, built by Sabina Petrochemicals (a joint venture between Shell, BASF and Atofina) is the largest in the world and meets the growing needs of customers in the area's 'butadiene triangle', including many tyre manufacturers.
www.shellchemicals.com /butadiene/1,1098,1108,00.html   (246 words)

  
 Summary of Review Panel Meeting on 1,3 Butadiene
These reviewers were selected to broadly reflect the range of scientific views of the research community addressing butadiene in critical areas including metabolism, genetic toxicity, epidemiological study and dose-response analyses, the latter particularly for that based on epidemiological data.
The former suggests that characterization of the association between butadiene and leukemia as strong in the study by Delzell et al.
Butadiene is relatively insoluble in water and is relatively slowly metabolized and thus does not meet the assumptions of the dosimetric adjustment.
www.tera.org /peer/butadienefinal.htm   (4571 words)

  
 Texas Petrochemicals LP | Products | Fuel Products | Butadiene | More Information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Butadiene is a versatile reactive building block on which many commercially significant compounds can be based.
Butadiene is available in large quantities in the U.S. Gulf Coast, Western Europe, the Mediterranean, Korea and Southeast Asia.
Butadiene is also available in the U.S. Gulf Coast from TPC through a pipeline system owned and operated by ExxonMobil.
www.txpetrochem.com /p/chemicals/bd.htm   (461 words)

  
 [No title]
The risk evaluation of acrylonitrile and butadiene has two aspects: (1) Assessment of exposure to the impurities from the petitioned use of the additive, and (2) extrapolation of the risk observed in animal bioassays to the conditions of exposure to humans.
As noted, in a long- term inhalation study butadiene has been reported to induce a variety of tumors including in the hematopoietic system, heart, lung, forestomach, liver, Harderian gland, brain, and kidney in male and female mice and tumors of the ovaries and mammary gland in female mice (Ref. 2).
Butadiene also has been reported to induce tumors of the pancreas and testis in male rats and tumors of the uterus, mammary gland, and thyroid in female rats in a long-term inhalation study (Refs.
www.fda.gov /OHRMS/DOCKETS/98fr/111500a.htm   (2489 words)

  
 China Chemical Reporter: Rapid Increase of Butadiene Demand.@ HighBeam Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Butadiene is mainly used to produce synthetic rubbers such as cis-1, 4 polybutadiene rubber, styrene-butadiene rubber, nitrile rubber and SBS elastomer, and also used to produce synthetic resins such as ABS resin.
There are two sources of butadiene in China.
The capacity of butadiene in China was 683 000 t/a in 1998.
www.highbeam.com /library/doc0.asp?DOCID=1G1:60069796&refid=ip_encyclopedia_hf   (185 words)

  
 The Privileged Access Model of 1,3-Butadiene Disposition
Transfer of butadiene between tissue and capillary blood spaces was represented as proportional to the permeability ¼ of the capillary membrane to the specific chemical.
The simulated uptake of butadiene and epoxybutene from closed chambers by mice and rats is compared to experimental data in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.
Oxidation of butadiene monoxide to meso- and (±)-diepoxybutane by cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450s and by mouse, rat, and human liver microsomes: evidence for preferential hydration of meso-diepoxybutane in rat and human liver microsomes.
ehp.niehs.nih.gov /members/2000/suppl-5/911-917kohn/kohn-full.html   (4814 words)

  
 Baffling Butadiene
Today, because butadiene has been shown to cause tumors in laboratory mice and rats and because evidence suggests it is carcinogenic in humans exposed occupationally, EPA and the International Agency for Research on Cancer rank butadiene as a probable human carcinogen.
According to other reports, however, butadiene is carcinogenic to Swiss mice, a strain without MLV and with a near-zero background rate for thymic lymphoma, and to Sprague-Dawley rats, in spite of metabolic and pharmacokinetic differences.
Mice exposed chronically to butadiene, treated with radiation, or bearing "white-spotted" or "steel" mutations show an identical pattern of disease, which includes a high incidence of leukemia and thymic lymphomas.
ehp.niehs.nih.gov /docs/1994/102-3/focus1.html   (4402 words)

  
 HEI Benzene/1,3-Butadiene Program   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Common goals of these studies include understanding species differences; developing more sensitive methods for measuring dose; and understanding the relations among levels of the parent compounds, levels of several of their metabolites in blood and tissues, and the levels of genetic markers such as DNA adducts, mutations, and chromosomal alterations in target tissues.
The goal of the study is to determine the role of DNA adducts derived from different butadiene metabolites in the carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene by comparing the types of adducts and their persistence in these two species.
The goal of this study is to define the relative mutagenicity of the two major butadiene metabolites, the monoepoxide (1,2-epoxy-3-butene) and diepoxide (1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane) metabolites, by determining the frequency and types of mutations at several "reporter" genes in transgenic mice, transgenic rats, and in human lymphoblast cells.
www.healtheffects.org /Pubs/benbutps.htm   (2588 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Assuming generously that butadiene contributes 10% of the particulate pollution problem on average, and that property values are suppressed by $3000 relative to what they might otherwise be on average, then the unit impact is on the order of $300 per household.
At 1990 levels, the NJ butadiene level would be expected to cause 53 cases of cancer per million persons.
EPA estimates indicate that butadiene levels in NJ fell from 0.19 micrograms per cubic meter in 1990 to 0.0663 micrograms in 1996.Potential for catastrophic impacts (H,M,L) and brief descriptionL. It should be noted, however, that 1,3-Butadiene is highly explosive, so fires and explosions are a possibility, especially around refineries.
radburn.rutgers.edu /andrews/projects/njcrp/sewriteups/se-butadiene-writeup.doc   (2667 words)

  
 Environmental Genome Project Research Activities - Human Sensitivity to Genotoxic Effects of Butadiene
It is carcinogenic in laboratory animals and evidence of its carcinogenic effects in man have been greatly strengthened by a recent update of the ongoing evaluation of workers in the rubber industry which showed a significant association between butadiene exposure and leukemia.
The investigators earlier documented that workers exposed to about 1 ppm of butadiene had a significant elevation in the frequency of mutations at the hprt gene in their lymphocytes.
The purpose of this project is to evaluate current conditions of occupational exposure to butadiene using biological markers of exposure, effect and susceptibility.
www.niehs.nih.gov /envgenom/abstract/r01-6015.htm   (336 words)

  
 1,3-BUTADIENE: HUMAN HEALTH ASPECTS
The partition coefficient of butadiene concentration in roots (mg/kg, fresh mass) to concentration in soil solids (mg/kg) was estimated to range from 0.32 to 15 (dimensionless).
Butadiene was a multi-site carcinogen in all identified long-term experiments, inducing common and rare tumours in mice and rats, although there appear to be marked species and strain differences in sensitivity.
Butadiene dissolved in ethanol induced sister chromatid exchanges in cultured mammalian cells (hamsters and humans) (Sasiadek et al., 1991a, 1991b), while in vitro exposure to gaseous butadiene did not induce this effect in preparations from rats, mice, and humans (Arce et al., 1990; Walles et al., 1995).
www.inchem.org /documents/cicads/cicads/cicad30.htm   (13885 words)

  
 Butadiene rubber
Polymerization of butadiene using sodium, from which the name Buna (1926) was derived, has led to the development of numbered Buna grades.
From the free radical polymerization of butadiene in emulsion, a less uniform BR is obtained.
BR is composed of butadiene units which may have joined linearly by 1,4 (preferred in cis-1,4, but also in certain measure, trans-1,4 conformation), as well as by 1,2-addition (vinyl structure of butadiene).
www.tut.fi /plastics/tyreschool/moduulit/moduuli_6/hypertext/2/2_3.html   (627 words)

  
 Environmental Health Perspectives: Combustion products of 1,3-butadiene are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human bronchial ...
Butadiene soot particles also had strong, solid-state free-radical character in electron spin resonance analysis.
Cardiovascular disease and lung cancer are among the leading causes of death both in Louisiana and throughout the rest of the United States.
We prepared BSDE for cell culture studies by dissolving the butadiene soot in DMSO and then membrane-filtered it (0.45 [micro]m) to yield a stock solution (25 mg soot/mL DMSO) that was stored at 4 [degrees] C. Next
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0CYP/is_9_109/ai_80486963   (1216 words)

  
 Butadiene   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
About half of all butadiene consumption in the United States is for styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and polybutadiene (BR) which are primarily used in the manufacture of tires.
Another important use for butadiene is the production of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic which is used for pipe, automotive components and housings for electronic equipment such as telephones and computers.
Butadiene is also shipped in the industry by barge, tank car and tank truck.
www.huntsman.com /petrochemicals/index.cfm?PageID=585   (188 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Butadiene is a flammable material and is a primary ingredient in rubber.
Approximately 1,000,000 lbs of butadiene is stored or processed on site in six reactor units, two recovery units and a tank farm.
The explosion resulted in the rupture of another butadiene line causing in turn a butadiene release of approximately 3500 lbs and a fire.
www.rtk.net /rmp/sum7/TX/fac100000111871   (290 words)

  
 CMAI Forecasts Big Changes in the Global Butadiene Market   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Currently, the most significant butadiene consuming regions of the world are North America, West Europe, and Northeast Asia with 27, 22, and 36 percent of global demand, respectively.
In Northeast Asia, expansion of existing butadiene extraction capacity beyond what has currently been announced is needed to maintain reasonable extraction operating rates and secure the supply chain of the rapidly expanding butadiene derivative markets.
Butadiene has been trading at over $750 per ton in the U.S. and Europe and over $1100 per ton in Asia, the highest level in two decades.
www.prnewswire.com /cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=109&STORY=/www/story/11-08-2004/0002397136&EDATE=   (859 words)

  
 butadiene on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
There are two structural isomers of butadiene; they differ in the location of the two carbon-carbon double bonds in the butadiene molecule.
One (1,2-butadiene) has the formula CH The other (1,3-butadiene), often called simply butadiene, has the formula CH ; it is used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, latex paints, and nylon and is obtained chiefly by dehydrogenation of butane and butene obtained by cracking petroleum.
Butadiene market tightens on demand and declining feedstocks.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/b1/butadien.asp   (251 words)

  
 JAWMA Paper: Treatment of 1,3-Butadiene in an Air Stream by a Biotrickling Filter and a Biofilter   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The average butadiene re-moval efficiency was 75-84% for superficial gas velocities of 53-142 m/hr and a loading range of 10-120 g/m 3 /hr.
The elimination rates of butadiene in both the biotrickling filter and biofilter were mass-transfer controlled for influent butadiene con-centrations below about 600 ppm for superficial gas ve-locities of 29-142 m/hr.
This discrepancy may be attributed to the higher mass-transfer coefficient and gas-solid interfacial area of-fered for transferring the gaseous butadiene in the biofilter.
www.awma.org /Journal/ShowAbstract.asp?Year=1998&PaperID=756   (385 words)

  
 China Chemical Reporter: Status Quo and Development Tendency of Butadiene and Its Derivatives in China.@ HighBeam ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Status Quo and Development Tendency of Butadiene and Its Derivatives in China.
In the butadiene production, China has also experienced the three processes of alcohol contact decomposition, butene oxidation and dehydrogenation, and [C.sub.4] extraction and separation in ethylene production by steam cracking.
Most of the 18 butadiene units in operating now in China...
www.highbeam.com /library/doc0.asp?DOCID=1G1:53341748&refid=ip_encyclopedia_hf   (178 words)

  
 Shell, BASF and TOTALFINA Plan Joint Venture
Butadiene is used in the production of rubber and plastic products.
The development of a butadiene distribution system in the area is planned so the venture can better serve consumers.
Current plans are for BASF to operate the butadiene extraction facility, which will provide economies of scale based on its unprecedented size.
www.basf.com /corporate/news1999/news1999shell-basf-fina.html   (354 words)

  
 Shell Chemicals - Product overview   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Butadiene, also known as 1,3-butadiene, is a colourless gas that condenses to a liquid at minus 4.5 degrees centigrade.
Butadiene is derived, using an extractive distillation process, from the crude C4 stream, one of the cracker by-products of ethylene and propylene production.  
Other polymers made from butadiene include styrene-butadiene latex, used for example in carpet backings and adhesives; nitrile rubber, used in hoses, fuel lines, gasket seals, gloves and footwear; and styrene-butadiene block copolymers which are used in many end-uses ranging from asphalt modifiers (road and roofing construction applications), to adhesives, footwear and toys. 
www.shellchemicals.com /butadiene/1,1098,1494,00.html   (379 words)

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