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Topic: Byte orderings


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In the News (Mon 24 Jun 19)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
US patent number 4,956,809 covers using a single standard byte ordering for transfer of data between machines whose normal byte ordering is different, if the machines are using a portable operating system.
This four-byte number might be held in bytes 72, 73, 74 and 75--four consecutive bytes.
If the big-endian ordering convention is chosen, then little-endian computers must reverse the byte order when they read and write network messages.
lpf.ai.mit.edu /Links/prep.ai.mit.edu/byte-order.patent   (679 words)

  
 Finding Files - File Name Databases
Each database entry begins with an offset-differential count byte, which is the additional number of characters of prefix of the preceding entry to use beyond the number that the preceding entry is using of its predecessor.
Bytes in the database that have the high bit set are indexes (with the high bit cleared) into the bigram table.
Any byte in a file name that is in the ranges used for the special codes is replaced in the database by a question mark, which not coincidentally is the shell wildcard to match a single character.
www.rtr.com /winpak/Documentation/find_5.htm   (762 words)

  
 rfc1014 - XDR: External Data Representation standard
If the n bytes needed to contain the data are not a multiple of four, then the n bytes are followed by enough (0 to 3) residual zero bytes, r, to make the total byte count a multiple of 4.
Byte m of the sequence always precedes byte m+1 of the sequence, and byte 0 of the sequence always follows the sequence's length (count).
Byte m of the string always precedes byte m+1 of the string, and byte 0 of the string always follows the string's length.
www.cis.rit.edu /class/simg726/notes/XDR-rfc1014.html   (3875 words)

  
 Alignment and Ordering Issues
The address of a word is the address of the first byte in the word, so the word at address 4 is really made up of two bytes: byte 4 and byte 5 (the darkened box in the picture).
Require data files to indicate which byte ordering is used in that file, and require all software to be able to handle both byte orderings.
To summarize, the byte ordering problem is another issue that arises from multi-byte data, and is most important when dealing with data that must be shared between various types of machines.
www.cs.unt.edu /~srt/2010.s99/alignorder.html   (1670 words)

  
 Big Endian / Little Endian   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
One-byte integer data tends to be the most stable image format.
These formats are known as the byte order, and refer to the order in which the individual bytes for a multi-byte integer are stored.
The terms big-endian and little-endian are often used to describe the two types of byte ordering.
www.sector13.org /code/csv2xls/biglittleendian.html   (429 words)

  
 [No title]
When the pixels are arranged this way, the byte order of the underlying hardware is transparent for memory operations that only address the entire 32-bit word.
In order to be able to read images written by any machine, conventions must be set relating the byte order in the file stream to the byte order in the image.
Because the internal hardwired shift order is different from the image data order, a left shift on image pixels requires a right shift, and, additionally, all 32-bit masks used with the other ordering must be bit-inverted.
www.leptonica.com /byte-addressing.html   (1591 words)

  
 Byte Order of MIPS and SPIM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Within a byte, for all processors, bit 7 is the most signficant bit.
Note: except when discussing byte ordering, the "big end" byte is called the "high-order byte" or the "most significant byte".
The SPIM simulator uses the byte ordering of the computer it is running on.
www.shsu.edu /~csc_tjm/fall2005/cs333/MIPS/Chapter-15/ass15_4.html   (167 words)

  
 XDR: External Data Representation
S Just as the most and least significant bytes of a number are 0 and 3, the most and least significant bits of a double-precision floating- point number are 0 and 63.
The standard defines a string of n (numbered 0 through n-1) ASCII bytes to be the number n encoded as an unsigned integer (as described above), and followed by the n bytes of the string.
The components of the structure are encoded in the order of their declaration in the structure.
ei.cs.vt.edu /~cs5204/fall99/Summaries/RPC/rfc1014.html   (3655 words)

  
 Roxen Community: RFC 1832 XDR: External Data Representation Standard (Standards Track)
Just as the most and least significant bytes of a number are 0 and 3, the most and least significant bits of a single-precision floating- point number are 0 and 31.
+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+ byte 0byte 1byte 2byte 3byte 4byte 5byte 6byte 7
+------+------+------+------+------+------+-...--+------+ byte 0byte 1byte 2byte 3byte 4byte 5
www.citi.umich.edu /projects/nfsv4/rfc/rfc1832.html   (4470 words)

  
 Problem 1: Memory Modeling   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
This means that aligned accesses occur at byte boundaries, and that byte, half-word, word, and double-word loads and stores must occur at predefined locations, as shown in the table below.
So, in Little-Endian organization, the LSB is the byte at address 0 mod 4 of a word, and at address 0 mod 8 of a double word.
In Big-Endian organization, the MSB is the byte at address 0 mod 4 of a word, and at 0 mod 8 of a double word.
www.cs.umd.edu /class/fall2002/cmsc411/work/work5-ans/node1.html   (889 words)

  
 htons(), htonl(), ntohs(), ntohl()   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Just to make you really unhappy, different computers use different byte orderings internally for their multibyte integers (i.e.
The way to get around this problem is for everyone to put aside their differences and agree that Motorola and IBM had it right, and Intel did it the weird way, and so we all convert our byte orderings to "big-endian" before sending them out.
So these functions convert from your native byte order to network byte order and back again.
beej.us /guide/bgnet/output/html/htonsman.html   (331 words)

  
 Endianism Considerations
Byte order should be considered carefully when reading or writing data.
The macro to swap the byte order of 64-bit data is shown in Example 12-8.
If the most-significant byte is accessed by means of a character array or by casting and dereferencing a pointer, then the code will not be portable and slightly different versions will be needed on big-endian and little-endian machines.
h30097.www3.hp.com /docs/porting/tru64-to-hpux/CHPNDNXX.HTM   (2233 words)

  
 RFC1014
RFC 1014 External Data Representation June 1987 residual zero bytes, r, to make the total byte count a multiple of 4.
RFC 1014 External Data Representation June 1987 It is declared as follows: double identifier; +------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+ byte 0byte 1byte 2byte 3byte 4byte 5byte 6byte 7
RFC 1014 External Data Representation June 1987 defined as a sequence of n (numbered 0 through n-1) arbitrary bytes to be the number n encoded as an unsigned integer (as described below), and followed by the n bytes of the sequence.
www.unix.org.ua /rfc/rfc1014.html   (3942 words)

  
 MEMORY ORGANIZATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
In little endian notation the lower order byte is stored in lower address and higher order byte is stored in higher order byte.
Double words are stored with high order byte at highest byte and low order byte at lowest address.
Selector and offset together give 64 tera bytes of logical address which is seen as virtual address space by the programmer.
cs.gmu.edu /cne/modules/vm/red/intel.html   (303 words)

  
 T3 Machine Model
Given a byte index into a string, it's always possible to determine if the byte is on a charater boundary: if ((byte & 0xC0) == 0x80), the byte is in the middle of a multi-byte character sequence, otherwise it is the first byte of a character.
Given a byte index into a string, it's simple to increment or decrement the index to find the next or previous character: simply increment or decrement the index until it points to the first byte of a character.
The compiler is expected to construct the exception table in the course of generating byte code for the function; when the compiler has finished geneating byte code for the function, it sets the method header's exception table offset field to the offset of the next available byte, then writes out the exception table.
www.tads.org /t3spec/model.htm   (17310 words)

  
 OpenBSD man pages: backspace, basename, baudrate, bcmp, bcopy, bcrypt, bcrypt_gensalt, beep,...
The bcmp() function compares byte string b1 against byte string b2, returning zero if they are identical, non-zero otherwise.
Both strings are assumed to be len bytes long.
The ``swap'' functions reverse the byte ordering of the given quantity, the others converts either from/to the n...
nixdoc.net /man-pages/OpenBSD/page-58   (515 words)

  
 UNC Image Processing Software   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The first one indicates that images created are to be written with the byte order of the machine on which they were written.
Given this numbering, the other byte orders have the representations: NORMAL 1 2 3 4 BYTEREV 2 1 4 3 PAIRREV 3 4 1 2 REVERSE 4 3 2 1 This parameter is only used by the PHI format, at present.
Most other formats do on of three things: they only use the native byte order, they silently encode the byte order used and use it during input, or they limit the user to eight-bit pixels and other data values.
www.cs.unc.edu /~fritsch/html/environ.5I.html   (2796 words)

  
 [No title]
Word lengths, byte ordering, and floating point representations appear to be the same to all nodes in the network.
When RPC was first designed, the makers realized that different vendor's computers couldn't easily talk to each other over a network because of byte ordering and precision differences.
For example, binary data written on a Sun can't be directly read on a DEC because the byte ordering is opposite on the two; and Cray floating point binary data can't easily be read on anything else because Cray uses their own format, not IEEE (as most everyone else uses).
www.cs.brown.edu /research/vis/docs/txt/Acevedo-2002-PNO.txt   (4207 words)

  
 Finding Files - File Name Databases
version 4.0 to allow machines with diffent byte orderings to share the databases.
The database lines have no termination byte; the start of the next line is indicated by its first byte having a value <= 30.
In addition, instead of starting with a dummy entry, the old database format starts with a 256 byte table containing the 128 most common bigrams in the file list.
web.mit.edu /gnu/doc/html/find_5.html   (754 words)

  
 ! Aware to man pages: byteorder(3)
The ``swap'' functions reverse the byte ordering of the given quantity, the others converts either from/to the native byte order used by the host to/from either little- or big-endian (a.k.a network) order.
One of the specified orderings must be `h'.
BUGS On the vax, alpha, i386, and so far mips, bytes are handled backwards from most everyone else in the world.
www.rocketaware.com /man/man3/byteorder.3.htm   (429 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
First, the ANSI standard does not say what size a `byte' is anyway - only that `char' must be able to hold signed values in the range -127 to +127 or unsigned values in the range 0 to 255.
The 'byte' has been around since before the IBM 360 and was and is eight bits wide.
Byte has never had this meaning [ == 8 bits], although it has often been misunderstood to mean only this.
gd.tuwien.ac.at /softeng/lambs-archive/archive/portableC   (6582 words)

  
 Safari | Linux Socket Programming by Example -> Forming Internet (IPv4) Socket Addresses
It can be seen that you can either place the most significant byte first (big-endian) or you can place the least significant byte value first (little-endian.) The choice is rather arbitrary and it boils down to the design of the CPU.
For agreement to exist over the network, it was decided that big-endian byte order would be the order used on a network.
By "host order" what is meant is the byte ordering that your CPU uses.
alas.matf.bg.ac.yu /manuals/lspe/snode=27.html   (1368 words)

  
 Socket Programming (I) - Introduction
If you output 2 items into the socket in the order "1,2", they will arrive in the same order "1,2" at the opposite end.
There are two byte orderings: most significant byte (sometimes called an "octet") first, or least significant byte first.
Some machines store their numbers internally in Network Byte Order, some don't.
pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca /~adewale/ta/cpsc441/socket.html   (843 words)

  
 A first look at reading Windows PE files using .NET managed code - Finding out when a File was Compiled - The Group 'W' ...
The first 64 bytes in a PE file is the MS-DOS header.
I had to write a quick function to switch the byte order and make an int since Intel machines are big endian.
Here is a great summary of byte orderings and the corresponding religious debate.
blog.signaleleven.com /index.php?itemid=10   (627 words)

  
 ByteComparator (Primitive Collections for Java API v1.2)
The comparator interface is used for defining new orderings for byte values.
Further information on the development and latest release of PCJ can be found at the project homepage.
Primitive Collections for Java is released under the GNU Lesser General Public License.
pcj.sourceforge.net /docs/api/bak/pcj/ByteComparator.html   (58 words)

  
 [No title]
The.Dq swap functions reverse the byte ordering of the given quantity, the others converts either from/to the native byte order used by the host to/from either little- or big-endian (a.k.a network) order.
On machines which have a byte order which is the same as the network order, routines are defined as null macros.
.Sh BUGS On the vax, alpha, i386, and some mips architectures, bytes are handled backwards from most everyone else in the world.
ftp.sunet.se /pub/OpenBSD/src/lib/libc/net/byteorder.3   (531 words)

  
 Squeak Documentation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The range of possible fill values is [0..255] for byte arrays and [0..(2^32 - 1)] for word arrays.
Note that this is a byte address and it is one-order.
A leading byte of 16r80 identifies this as compressed by compressToByteArray (qv).
www.prism.gatech.edu /~gtg590q/squeak/Graphics-Primitives-Bitmap.html   (731 words)

  
 structs and Data Handling   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Therefore, the term 'Host Byte Order' will be used to describe the bytes ordered used in the specific computer your program runs on.
This ordering may differ from one machine to another.
You would be right, BUT if you try to port to a machine that has reverse network byte order, your program will not work.
www2.mta.ac.il /~daled/Material/Articles/beej/structs.html   (1193 words)

  
 [No title]
UTF-8 is a way of writing // Unicode characters with variable numbers of bytes per character, // optimized for the lower 127 ASCII characters.
The byte order mark is // used mostly to distinguish UTF-8 text from other encodings, and doesn't // switch the byte orderings.
// The 4 byte code sequence can hold up to 21 bits, and the maximum valid code point ragne // that Unicode (with surrogate) could represent are from U+000000 ~ U+10FFFF.
www.123aspx.com /Rotor/src/utf8encoding.cs.txt   (1952 words)

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