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Topic: Byzantine Emperors

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In the News (Fri 24 May 19)

  Byzantine warfare
The Byzantine science of military tactics rested on the basic assumption that there was a repetitiveness in warfare and that therefore, by mastery of various alternative patterns, one could avoid being surprised and overcome by the unexpected knowledge of military discipline and order in battle would help to overcome any surprises and unexpected enemy tactics.
Various Byzantine emperors encouraged the writing or actually wrote manuals themselves of tactics and strategy, some of the great families influenced the tone and content of such manuals, which therefore must be read with appropriate caution and discounting of biases and self-interest and self-glorification.
Byzantine commanders and emperors were usually mindful of the difficulty of replacing losses among the soldiers, who were relatively expensive and difficult to recruit and train in that era of relatively small armies.
www.geocities.com /TimesSquare/Labyrinth/2398/bginfo/social/war.html   (2595 words)

 Byzantine Empire
The greatest of these emperors was Justinian I (reigned 527-565), who with his able wife Theodora prepared for the reconquest by defeating the Persians on the eastern frontier and extirpating various heresies that had alienated the Roman Catholic church.
Byzantine art is generally taken to include the arts of the Byzantine Empire from the foundation of the new capital of Constantinople (now Istanbul) in AD 330 in ancient BYZANTIUM to the capture of the city by the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
Byzantine art could play this role because, throughout its long history, it maintained a connection with the artistic heritage of Greek and Roman art and architecture; it preserved and transmitted much of this heritage to the West until Western artists were able to approach antiquity directly.
www.crystalinks.com /byzantine.html   (4092 words)

The decline of the Byzantine Empire is strikingly exhibited in the depreciation of currency during the reigns of the Comneni.
Byzantine civilization produced a succession of typical women of middle class who are a proof, first, of the high esteem in which women were held in social life and, secondly, of the sacredness of family life, which even now distinguishes the Greek people.
Upon this motive, the Emperor Zeno closed the Nestorian school at Edessa, in 489 and it was a part of the same policy that induced the successors of Constantine the Great to support the leaders of the Christian clerical party, the Mamikonians, in opposition to the Mazdeistic nobility.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/03096a.htm   (16935 words)

 The Byzantines
In the latter decades of the fifth century, the Byzantine Emperor declared himself to be a Monophysite—this estranged the Byzantines from the Roman Pope.
The Latin church had battled emperors for control of the church and with the disintegration of centralized authority in Europe and the proliferation of European kingdoms, the primacy of the Pope in matters of faith was relatively solidified.
The greatest of Byzantine writers, in fact, was the historian Anna Comnena, the daughter of the emperor Alexius.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~dee/MA/BYZ.HTM   (2634 words)

 Byzantine Empire. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
In 800, during the reign of Irene, the Frank Charlemagne was crowned emperor of the West at Rome.
In 1261 the Nicaean emperor Michael VIII conquered most of the tottering Latin empire and reestablished the Byzantine Empire under the Palaeologus family (1261–1453).
The reconstructed empire was soon attacked from all sides, notably by Charles I of Naples, by Venice, by the Ottoman Turks, by the new kingdoms of Serbia and Bulgaria, and by Catalonian adventurers under Roger de Flor.
www.bartleby.com /65/by/ByzantinEmp.html   (1302 words)

 Byzantine Empire - All About Turkey
The Byzantine Empire is also known as the Eastern Roman Empire, for it was in fact a continuation of the Roman Empire into its eastern part.
Almost all that survives of the Byzantine architecture are its churches, with their glorious frescoes and mosaics.
For 1100 years, the Byzantine's were able to maintain control of their empire, although somewhat tenuously at times; the Empire's expansion and prosperity were balanced by internal religious schisms (such as Nika Riot) and recurring wars with enemies from the outside.
www.allaboutturkey.com /bizans.htm   (423 words)

 Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc.
Emperors are commonly known by particular parts of their names, or by nicknames, e.g.
Decius and Herennius were killed in battle by the Goths in 251 -- the only Roman Emperors to die in battle (against external enemies) besides Julian (against the Persians, 363), Valens (against the Goths again, 378), Nicephorus I (against the Bulgars, 811), and Constantine XI (with the fall of Constantinople to the Turks, 1453).
Also noteworthy as a benchmark for the beginning of Byzantine history in the time of the Leonines is the apparent disappearance of the traditional Roman tria nomina, the three names of praenômen, nômen, and cognômen, which have been given with previous Emperors.
www.friesian.com /romania.htm   (14475 words)

The Byzantine Empire made great contributions to civilization: Greek language and learning were preserved for posterity; the Roman imperial system was continued and Roman law codified; the Greek Orthodox church converted some Slavic peoples and fostered the development of a splendid new art dedicated to the glorification of the Christian religion.
The emperor was concerned that icons played too prominent a role in Byzantine life and that their common use as godparents, witnesses at weddings, and objects of adoration violated the Old Testament prohibition of the worship of graven images.
The emperor Theophilus (829-842), for example, was a student of Muslim art and culture, and Constantinople's painting, architecture, and universities benefited from the vigor of Islamic culture.
www.yasou.org /byzantium/byz.htm   (10267 words)

 Byzantium: Timeline   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The pro-Christian Roman emperor Constantine I dedicates the city of Constantinople (in Greek "the city of Constantine"), established on the site of the Greek city Byzantium, as the new capital of the Roman Empire.
Workshops of Byzantine mosaicists from Constantinople are invited to decorate churches in the Norman kingdom of Sicily (Palace Chapel and the church of Saint Mary of the Admiral in Palermo; the cathedral in Cefal).
The Fourth Crusade leads to a Latin occupation of Constantinople, with the Byzantine Empire reduced to several contending states in outlying regions of its territories; as a result, for much of the next fifty years, vast amounts of artistic booty are sent to western Europe from the city and the lands of Frankish Greece.
www.metmuseum.org /explore/Byzantium/time.html   (866 words)

 Coins of the Byzantine Empire
It is a period of longevity almost unrivalled in history; and yet, until recently it is a period written off by historians as merely the extended decline and fall of the Roman Empire.
The legendary wealth of Constantinople, with its sublime craftsmanship and awesome golden mosaics, (the "Sages standing in God's Holy fire," of Yeats' much quoted poem,) was coupled with a spirituality that dictated penance and abstinence even for a soldier who had killed in battle.
The Istanbul Archaeological Museum holds one of the great collections of Byzantine artifacts, all uncovered during excavations and construction projects in the city and its environs.
www.wegm.com /coins/byindex.htm   (326 words)

 List of Byzantine Emperors Information - TextSheet.com
Note: It is difficult to determine when exactly the Roman Empire ends and the Byzantine Empire begins; the Roman Empire was actually split into eastern and western halves for administrative purposes by Diocletian in 284.
Others date the beginning of the Empire even as late as Heraclius (who made Greek the official language), and numismatists note the monetary reforms of Anastasius I in 498, which used the Greek numbering system.
Of course, the Byzantines themselves continued to think of their empire as Roman for over a millennium.
www.medbuster.com /encyclopedia/l/li/list_of_byzantine_emperors.html   (702 words)

 Why the Byzantine Empire was not a "Greek Empire"?
Along with distorting the ethnicity of the ancient Macedonians, the labeling of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire into "Greek" is one of the greatest fabrications of the western and modern Greek writers.
In 395 AD when the Roman Empire split into western and eastern (Byzantine), Latin continued to be used as the official language but in time it was replaced by Greek as that language was already widely spoken among the Eastern Mediterranean nations as the main trade language.
Thus it is inaccurate to call the Byzantine Empire a "Greek Empire" and falsely ascribe its greatness to the Greeks, when in fact it is the non-Greeks who gave the greatest contribution in its progress.
www.historyofmacedonia.org /RomanMacedonia/ByzantineEmpire.html   (495 words)

 ACM Presents DOUG SMITH: Lettered Byzantine Bronzes"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The East came to be known for the city of Byzantium converted to Constantinople as capitol of the Roman East.
Roman Emperors of the East who ruled before the fall of the West are Roman or Byzantine depending on just how one chooses to force the categories.
Byzantine bronzes can be considered a bit crude and ugly but they are plentiful, low priced and well deserving of study by collectors.
www.ancientcoinmarket.com /ds/byz   (1039 words)

 Behind the Name: Roman and Byzantine Emperors   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Augustus was the first Roman Emperor, emerging from the civil wars that followed the death of his adoptive father Julius Caesar in 44 BC to become the ruler of a realm that stretched from Spain to Syria, Northern Africa to France.
The Byzantine Empire, as the Eastern Roman Empire was known, was one of the important cultural centers of the Middle Ages.
The language spoken was Greek and most of the names of the emperors were Greek, or else Greek forms of Christian biblical names, and the title Basileus (meaning "king" in Greek) was used for the emperor.
wwwame.behindthename.com /namesakes/lists/roman.php   (206 words)

One of the great difference between Byzantine and Latinos was that Byzantine considered the emperor as the representative of God in the Earth, and the church was represented by the patriarch; the Latinos, however, considered the Pope as the representative of God and the governors were submitted to the church purpose.
For that reason the History of Byzantium refers to the competition between Byzantine emperors and the Pope in Rome, until the definitive rupture in 1054.
At the same time the power of the Byzantine church grew up the emperors were loosing theirs, and in 1453 the tradition of the Empire, its ideas and their culture maintained alive until today due to the orthodox church.
www.imperiobizantino.com /byzantium.htm   (654 words)

 Byzantine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A citizen of the Byzantine Empire, or a native Greek during the middle ages.
List of Byzantine emperors, of the late Roman Empire, called Byzantine.
This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Byzantine   (110 words)

 Egyptian Mythology and Egyptian Christianity - Christianity Under the Byzantine Emperors
The civil wars between rival emperors, the licence of the soldiers, the inroads of the barbarians, and the progress of despotism, had crushed free thought and genius everywhere.
The Emperor sided with the Egyptians, which may be explained by what we have before seen, because Greece and Rome had been used to look up to Egypt as their teacher in religion; and he had lately, on building Constantinople, received from Alexandria fifty copies of Church Lessons, for the use of his new churches.
On the death of the Emperor Valens in A.D. 379, Theodosius, a general who hail been born in Spain, and brought up in Western Christianity, was made Emperor of Constantinople and the East.
www.touregypt.net /emac9.htm   (2776 words)

 Roman and Byzantine Emperors   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
However, after much intrigue, Irene deposed her son in 797, and Constantine, blinded on the orders of his mother, was kept in under guard at the palace where "he survived many years, oppressed by the court and forgotten by the world: [and] the Isaurian dynasty was silently extinguished".
They also had planned to murder the true Emperor, Constantine, but their plans were discovered and they were sent to join their father in his exile.
Alexius was deposed and a Latin emperor BALDWIN was enthroned by election among the victorious Venetians and Franks.
users.tibus.com /decline-and-fall/emperors.htm   (7735 words)

 Byzantium: History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The emperors patronized the arts as policy, restoring and rebuilding Constantinople's palaces and churches; some promoted the study and preservation of ancient Greek literature.
eremonials, held by both the male court of the emperor and the female court of the empress, sumptuously punctuated all state occasions, including imperial coronations, marriages, births, and birthdays; the promotion of officials; the reception of ambassadors; and the celebration of triumphs.
An emperor's portrayal might also link him to the virtuous prototypes of Christ, such as the Hebrew rulers David and Solomon, while in art the emperor's halo and the gold of his background associated him with the sun.
www.metmuseum.org /explore/byzantium/byz_4.html   (952 words)

 AllRefer.com - Angelus, Byzantine emperors (Ancient History, Late Roman And Byzantine, Biography) - Encyclopedia
AllRefer.com - Angelus, Byzantine emperors (Ancient History, Late Roman And Byzantine, Biography) - Encyclopedia
Angelus, Byzantine emperors, Ancient History, Late Roman And Byzantine, Biographies
Angelus[an´julus] Pronunciation Key, family name and dynasty of three Byzantine emperors (1185–1204): see Isaac II; Alexius III; Alexius IV.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/A/AngelusByz.html   (161 words)

 Byzantium: The Byzantine Studies Page
As a result Byzantine culture was subjected to centuries of abuse as a time of barbarism and superstition.
The counterpart to the dismissal of Byzantine culture was its exaltation by 19th-century Romanticism, and by a substrate of Christian, especially Anglican, intellectuals.
Marxist historians are often derided, especially in the United States, for fitting facts to theory [as if they alone were guilty of this!] In Byzantium, especially in the agricultural laws of the tenth century, which were presented at the time as addressing a struggle of the "poor" and the "powerful".
www.fordham.edu /halsall/byzantium   (1791 words)

 Roman Emperors - DIR--De Imperatoribus Romanis Roman History Roman Roman Empire Imperator Basileus De Imperatoribus ...
Imperial Index There, the emperors are listed in a chronological table in order of their dates of rule.
The name of each emperor for whom a biographical essay is complete offers a live link to the essay.
Alphabetical Imperial Index There, the emperors are listed in the alphabetical order of their names, with dates of rule appended.
www.roman-emperors.org   (597 words)

Political Development : Byzantine and Persian Empires attacked by the Arabs spurred on by the new Muslim faith.
By defeating Byzantine garrisons in the Nile Valley, Persia marched across the Libyan desert.
Failure to change the old universal Byzantine Empire into a national state in the Peloponnese.
www.yasou.org /byzantium/byz3.htm   (1394 words)

 Mr. Dowling's Moor Page
The Turks had recently become Muslims, and the Byzantine emperor feared they would soon overpower his Christian empire.
In 1095, Pope Urban II launched the first of many Crusades, or “wars of the cross.” Urban hoped that in addition to expelling the Turks from the Byzantine Empire, he would also be able to reclaim the holy city of Jerusalem from Muslim control.
Soldiers from western Europe left their homes to free the Byzantine Empire of the “unbelievers.” This was the first time many Europeans left their homes.
www.mrdowling.com /703-byzantine.html   (282 words)

 Joey & Toby Tanenbaum Gallery of Byzantine Art - ROM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Strategically positioned between Europe and Asia, Constantinople (now Istanbul), the capital of the Byzantine empire, flourished for over a thousand years from AD 324 to 1453.
The objects on display in The Joey and Toby Tanenbaum Gallery of Byzantine Art are arranged thematically, covering such topics as religion, gold jewelry, aspects of daily life and trade and commerce.
Drop by the ROM during the first Saturday of July and enjoy hands-on activities and demonstrations that bring the arts of Byzantium to life.
www.rom.on.ca /galleries/byzantine/byzantine.html   (479 words)

 [No title]
The Code of Napoleon, based on the Corpus, transmitted Byzantine legal principles to Latin America and beyond.¡JZaSFókEŸ¨Justinian the Conquerorª Ÿ¨ÌIn 533, he defeated the Vandals and recovered North Africa.
While the West went through the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Enlightenment, the Byzantines viewed all change as heresy and treason.¡jtãtãóuOŸ¨Byzantine CultureŸ¨Byzantine architecture and the mosaic form of art were the only major cultural contributions made by the Byzantines.
The fact that they were usually concerned simply with surviving may have made the Eastern emperors wary of innovations.
www.cccb.edu /notes/ghs342/byzantine.ppt   (1087 words)

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