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Topic: C language

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  C programming language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
C is a relatively minimalist programming language that operates close to the hardware, and is more similar to assembly language than to most high-level languages.
Indeed, C is sometimes referred to as "portable assembly", reflecting its important difference from low-level languages such as assembly languages: C code can be compiled to run on almost any computer, more than any other language in existence, while any given assembly language runs on at most a few very specific models of computers.
C was created with one important goal in mind: to make it easier to write large programs with fewer errors in the procedural programming paradigm, but without encumbering the writer of the C compiler by complex language features.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/C_programming_language   (4971 words)

 C Sharp - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
C# was designed as a language that would provide a balance of C++ with rapid development, Visual Basic, Delphi, and Java.
C# is, in some sense, the programming language which most directly reflects the underlying.NET Framework on which all.NET programs run, and it depends strongly on this framework; there is no such thing as an unmanaged C# program.
The "sharp" suffix has been emulated by a number of other.NET languages that are variants of existing languages, including J# (Microsoft's implementation of Java), A# (from Ada), F# (presumably from System F, the type system used by the ML family), and Gtk# (a.NET wrapper for GTK+).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/C_Sharp_programming_language   (1544 words)

 History of C++
C was originally developed for and implemented on the UNIX operating system, on a PDP-11 computer by Dennis Ritchie.
C combines the elements of high-level languages with the functionality of assembly language and has occasionally been referred to as a middle-level computer language.
C was a direct descendant of the language B. The language B was developed by Ken Thompson in 1970 for the new UNIX OS.
www.hitmill.com /programming/cpp/cppHistory.asp   (457 words)

C is often called a middle-level computer language as it combines the elements of high-level languages with the functionalism of assembly language.
C++ is actually an extendible language since we can define new types in such a way that they act just like the predefined types which are part of the standard language.
There is a very interesting paper called `A development of the C language' by Dennis Ritchie that traces the origin of the language we know and love today.
www.cyberdiem.com /vin/learn.html   (4388 words)

 The C Programming Language
C was developed at Bell Laboratories in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie.
During the rest of the 1970's, C spread throughout many colleges and universities because of it's close ties to Unix and the availability of C compilers.
C is a powerful, flexible language that provides fast program execution and imposes few constraints on the programmer.
www.engin.umd.umich.edu /CIS/course.des/cis400/c/c.html   (586 words)

 C# (C-Sharp) Language - CSharp, C-Sharp, C Sharp
Language Extensions in C# 2.0 by Anand Kumar Rao.
Structures in C# are similar to structures in C and C++ but with several prominent differences.
Pointers in C# by Rajesh V.S. Oct 25, 2001.
www.c-sharpcorner.com /language.asp   (3038 words)

 Howstuffworks "How C Programming Works"
The C programming language is a popular and widely used programming language for creating computer programs.
You will be able to read and write code for a large number of platforms -- everything from microcontrollers to the most advanced scientific systems can be written in C, and many modern operating systems are written in C. The jump to the object oriented C++ language becomes much easier.
C++ is an extension of C, and it is nearly impossible to learn C++ without learning C first.
www.howstuffworks.com /c.htm   (224 words)

 C-- Home
C-- has a machine-level type system, so you don't have to shoehorn your favorite high-level language into a high-level data model that doesn't fit.
C-- provides a run-time interface, so you can implement garbage collection and exception handling using the techniques that are best suited to your language.
Research on C-- and Quick C-- is supported by a generous gift from Microsoft Research and by the National Science Foundation under grant number 0325460.
www.cminusminus.org   (494 words)

 Cetus Links: 16604 Links on Objects and Components / C++
C++ Annotations (Frank B. Brokken and Karel Kubat)
C++ Draft - Hypertext Summary of the Syntax (Dick Botting)
Reengineering Legacy C and C++ Applications (Peter L. Bird and F. Andy Seidl)
www.cetus-links.org /oo_c_plus_plus.html   (881 words)

 Chistory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
C came into being in the years 1969-1973, in parallel with the early development of the Unix operating system; the most creative period occurred during 1972.
Within procedures, the language's interpretation of the pointers was identical to that of the array variables: a pointer declaration created a cell differing from an array declaration only in that the programmer was expected to assign a referent, instead of letting the compiler allocate the space and initialize the cell.
The language changes during this period, especially around 1977, were largely focused on considerations of portability and type safety, in an effort to cope with the problems we foresaw and observed in moving a considerable body of code to the new Interdata platform.
cm.bell-labs.com /cm/cs/who/dmr/chist.html   (8388 words)

 C Tutorial
The C language was based on two (now defunct) languages: BCPL, written by Martin Richards, and B, written by Ken Thompson in 1970 for the first UNIX system on a PDP-7.
C allows us to perform arithmetic operations using pointers, but beware that the ``unit'' in pointer arithmetic is the size (in bytes) of the object to which the pointer points.
C treats the name of the array as if it were a pointer to the first element--this is important in understanding how to do arithmetic with arrays.
www.physics.drexel.edu /courses/Comp_Phys/General/C_basics/c_tutorial.html   (3794 words)

 The C++ Programming Language
The C++ programming languages is an extension of C that was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in the early 1980s at Bell Laboratories.
C++ provides a number of features that "spruce up" the C language, but more importantly, it provides capabilities for object-oriented programming.
C++ is a hybrid language-it is possible to program in either a C-like style, an object-oriented style, or both.
www.engin.umd.umich.edu /CIS/course.des/cis400/cpp/cpp.html   (276 words)

 Amazon.com: Books: The C++ Programming Language (Special 3rd Edition)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The C++ Primer is long though, so if you want to learn C++ the right way, skills like this take time and effort, there is no free lunches here, but this is regarded as the best C++ book regardless of level: starter, intermediate, or very advanced master.
After all, most of the features in C++ interact heavily with other functions, so it's not really possible to explain some things without explaining their relationships (even if they are relating to things that the text has not yet brought up).
As the inventor of the C++ language itself, Stroustrup is the closest person to the actual syntax, and short of reading the ISO spec, you simply won't find a more comprehensive tome on the subject.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0201700735?v=glance   (3174 words)

 C++ Language Notes
It does, however, describe the features of the language that are most useful to engineers and scientists.
Many commonly used features of C and C++ are defined in the standard libraries.
An expression involving operators of equal precedence is evaluated according to the associativity of the operators.
people.msoe.edu /~tritt/cpplang.html   (1205 words)

 C--   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
This is my unofficial page about SPHINX C--, a (nearly) freeware medium-level language compiler written by Peter Cellik.
C-- is a medium- to low-level language for 80x86 machines.
I find it especially impressive that the language is flexible enough to allow for many things for which it was not designed, like protected-mode execution.
www.cs.utexas.edu /users/tbone/c--   (178 words)

 Stroustrup: C++
You can find the language, the techniques for using it, and the techniques for implementing it described in my books, my papers, in hundreds of books by others, and thousands of papers by others.
C++ has been standardized by ANSI (The American National Standards Institute), BSI (The British Standards Institute), DIN (The German national standards organization), several other national standards bodies, and ISO (The International Standards Organization).
Hans-J. Boehm's site for C and C++ garbage collection and a couple of sites offering collectors based on his work (University of Tokyo, geodesic.com).
www.research.att.com /~bs/C++.html   (974 words)

 Amazon.com: Books: The C Programming Language (2nd Edition)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The book focuses on the language itself - this is no hands-on book (no explanations on how to use this compiler or that debugger, though it is a little biased toward Unix) in a clear, concise, and thorough way covering all of the language and it's standard libraries.
I especially liked the excercises (the solutions come in a seperate volume) and the C source code examples of how some of the library routines are (or may be) implemented.
This book is *not* for people who study C as their first programming language (those would be better served with a pair of books - a first course in programming and compiler guide).
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0131103628?v=glance   (1464 words)

 Stroustrup: The C++ Programming Language (Third Edition)
The result is complete, authoritative coverage of the C++ language, its standard library, and key design techniques.
Bjarne Stroustrup is the designer and original implementor of C++ and the author of The C++ Programming Language (first edition 1985, second edition 1991), The Annotated C++ Reference Manual, and The Design and Evolution of C++.
A graduate of the University of Aarhus, Denmark, and Cambridge University, England, Dr. Stroustrup is currently the head of AT&T Labs' Large-scale Programming Research Department, an AT&T Fellow, an AT&T Bell Laboratories Fellow, and an ACM Fellow.
www.research.att.com /~bs/3rd.html   (736 words)

 Programming in C   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
The first chain of abbreviations is the committee responsible for maintaining and updating the C language definition; the second, N843, designates the Final Committee Draft of what will one day be the next C standard.
Four years after the adoption of the ANSI C standard as an International Standard in 1990, answers to the first batch of defect reports have been formally accepted: the C standard has changed.
P.J. Plauger, author of many books on C and software engineering and until recently convener of the ISO/IEC workgroup in charge of C as an international standard, is licensing HTML versions of some of his books, among them the Standard C library reference.
www.lysator.liu.se /c   (1401 words)

 C# Station - Tutorial, Links, Info - C Sharp
C# Station offers several avenues of education and the ability to communicate with people who have the same interests as you.
For example, I was a C programmer for a number of years, switching from KandR to ANSI C was bothersome, but it still worked because compilers provided backward compatibility.
In version 3.0 of the C# language, you'll be able to use a capability called Language Integrated Query (LINQ).
www.csharp-station.com   (1810 words)

 Essential C   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Stanford CS Education Library: A 45 page summary of the C language.
Explains all the common features and techniques for the C language.
Pointers and Memory -- basic concepts of pointers and memory -- (*, and, malloc, void*, etc.) is actually the trickiest part of C and C++ once you understand the basics.
cslibrary.stanford.edu /101   (141 words)

 C Programming
The notes on these pages are for the courses in C Programming I used to teach in the Experimental College at the University of Washington in Seattle, WA.
I originally designed the first, Introductory course around The C Programming Language (2nd Edition) by Kernighan and Ritchie, and the notes were designed to complement that text, highlighting important points and explaining subtleties which might be lost on the general reader.
Of course, just reading a book or these notes won't really teach you C; you will also want to write and run your own programs, for practice and so that the language concepts will make some kind of practical sense.
www.eskimo.com /~scs/cclass/cclass.html   (615 words)

 C# Programming
C# Friends See whitepapers, a class- "browser" reference, and more...
HISTORY: C#, a Java-like programming language, was submitted by Microsoft to the ECMA standards group in mid-2000.
This C# Directory began as the first C# Web site on the Internet, and has evolved as more information and references for developers has become available.
www.hitmill.com /programming/dotNET/csharp.html   (350 words)

 comp.lang.c Frequently Asked Questions
Content from the book ``C Programming FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions'' (Addison-Wesley, 1995, ISBN 0-201-84519-9) is made available here by permission of the author and the publisher as a service to the community.
It is intended to complement the use of the published text and is protected by international copyright laws.
Since they distill knowledge gleaned from many sources and answer questions which are demonstrably Frequent, FAQ lists serve as useful references outside of their originating Usenet newsgroups.
www.eskimo.com /~scs/C-faq/top.html   (401 words)

 Cprogramming.com - Programming Tutorials: C++ Made Easy and C Made Easy
A C++ tutorial and a C tutorial, OpenGL with C++ tutorials, C++ Standard Template Library (STL) tutorials, articles on both the C and C++ programming languages and computer science, as well as Denthor of Asphyxia's graphics tutorials converted to C++ (mainly C code).
Using Namespaces in C++ Namespaces are a useful way of maintaining logical divisions in your code and encapsulating functionality
C++ style strings C++ strings can save you a lot of time and frustration when used correctly
www.cprogramming.com /tutorial.html   (1717 words)

 The C Programming Language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-07)
Here is a list of errata in the published version; many of these are corrected in recent printings.
The history of the language is traced in ``The Development of the C Language'', from HOPL II, 1993: browsable, or printable PostScript or PDF.
This and other historical material, including early manuals and compilers, is available at Dennis Ritchie's home page, while Brian Kernighan's home page collects pointers to his work on C and diverse other languages and systems.
cm.bell-labs.com /cm/cs/cbook   (621 words)

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